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diffused throughout the world which are in subjection to the
Roman Pontiff, preserving with him and each other the Com-
munion of Faith and Charity, no such surrender of Catholicism
is involved.

" Proflect, Theol. Tract., de loc. theol., p. I, cap. 3, § 283. Ed. Romae, 1841.



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** CATHOLIC AND '^ ROMAN CATHOLlCr 249

The intention of the Fathers of the Vatican Council in insisting
as they did upon the appellation " Roman" is very well illustrated
by a discussion which took place later upon the Introduction to
the " Constitutio prima de Ecclesia/' in which the definition of
Papal Infallibility is contained.^* The institution of the Primacy
of St. Peter by our Blessed Lord is thus set forth : " Ut vero epis-
copatus ipse unus et indivisus esset, et per cohaerentes sibi invi-
cem sacerdotes credentium multitudo universa in fidei et commu-
nionis unitate conservaretur, Beatum Petrum caeteris Apostolis
praeponens, in ipso instituit (Christus) perpetuum utriusque unitatis
principium ac visibile fundamentum, super cujus fortitudinem aeter-
num extrueretur templum," etc. Exception was taken by some
of the Fathers to the passage which I have italicized, and, in
particular, the word principium ; nor were their scruples set at
rest till the Deputation de Fide had gone at some length into the
reasons which make the phrase not only justifiable but necessary,
as a clear exposition of the relation of the Holy See to the rest
of Christendom." It was pointed out that both authority and
theological reason were on the side of the Deputation in urging
the adoption of the word *' principium'' : authority, because the
Fathers, both Latin and Greek, speak of the Holy See as " uni-
tatis matrix, et radix, et nutrix," and declare that in Peter is
found the very principle from which unity proceeds ; reason, be-
cause all ecclesiastical authority was invested by the Divine
Founder of the Church first and foremost in the person of one
(Peter), and extended to others to be exercised by them not other-
wise than in reference to and in subordination to that one}^ The
word " prindpium " was to be recommended because " the author-
ity of Peter is not simply the passive, inactive foundation of God's
Church, but a living, active, and, so to speak, dynamic foundation,
by the ever-active force and energy of which all parts of the Church
stand together and coalesce in union." *^ It is evident, then, that
the appellation " Roman " is, according to the mind of the Council,

" Scss. IV.

*' Vide Granderath, 1. c. 2, cap. 2, Comment, i.

'* ''Adctoritatem ecclesiasticam primum in unius persona constitutam in alios
propogatam non fuisse nisi ea lege, ut semper ad prindpium suae unitatis reducatur.'*
Relatio Rmi P. Granderath, loc» cU.

" Ibid,



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250 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW,

of the highest importance and necessity, and not by any means
to be rejected or disowned by Catholics. The reason of this
necessity and importance is to be found in nothing else than the
very error which was brought forward as one of the reasons for
its exclusion. The fact that there is a " Branch " theory, that
there are sects outside the unity of Peter which at least claim the
title of " Catholic " (though they are, it must be admitted, diffi-
dent in actually using it without a qualification), makes it impera-
tive that the essential necessity of union with the Holy See in
order to the possession of the note of Catholicism, should be
brought out in the name by which the Church calls herself.

This is but another instance of that development exhibited in all
the dogmatic decrees which heresy has, in the course of the cen-
turies, forced the Church to put forth. In the beginning no other
name than " Christian " was needed to distinguish the true believer.
Very early, however, in the Church's history, the rise of schisms
and heresies made it necessary to distinguish between the disunion
of error — which claimed the Christian name— and the perfect
unity of the true Church, one over all the earth, by the adoption
of the name Catholic, found apparently for the first time in the
expression of St. Ignatius in his Epistle to the Christians of
Smyrna : " Ubi fuerit Christus, ibi Catholica est Ecclesia." Every-
one is familiar with the test given by St. Cyril of Jerusalem to
his catechumens, and the argument from Catholicism with which
St. Pacian refuted the Novatian Sympronian, and that of St
Augustine, who proved that the Donatists were not of the true
Church from the simple fact that their communion was restricted
to a comer in Africa. Very frequently the test of St. Cyril is as
amply sufficient to-day as it was in his time, and his words may
with perfect propriety be applied to the case of a foreign Catholic
visiting, say, some large city of America or England : " If ever
thou art sojourning in any city," he says, *' inquire not simply
where the Lord's House is (for the sects of the profane also make
an attempt to call their own dens houses of the Lord), nor merely
where the Church is, but where is the Catholic Church. For
this is the peculiar name of this Holy Body, the Mother of us all,
which is the Spouse of our Lord Jesus Christ." ^*

'* S. Cyril. Hier. Catech. xviii, 26. Card. Newnian's translation of the passage
apud Development of Christian Doctrine^ ch. IV, Sec. II.



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" CA THOLIC AND " ROMAN CA THOLICr 25 1

To-day also the familiar words of St. Augustine would be,
probably oftener than not, literally true : " Whereas all heretics
wish to be called Catholics, nevertheless not one of them would
dare to point out his own Church to any stranger who asked how
to find the Catholic Church." Still it has happened that the
unwary Catholic, wandering into the neighborhood of an Advanced
Ritualistic church, has been directed to it as the " nearest Catho-
lic church," in the same way as the writer knows from personal
experience, " Anglican Catholic Priests " have offered their minis-
trations — though doubtless the case is extremely rare — to unsus-
pecting " Romans." Under such circumstances, the only security
is in the adoption of the test of St. Cyril and St Augustine, and
inquiring for the Roman Catholic church, and the Roman Cath-
olic priest.

The development from the simple style of" Christian " to that of
" Catholic," and thence also to " Roman Catholic," has been beauti-
fully drawn out by Cardinal Newman in his Essay on Development^
and he shows that already in the fourth, fifth, and sixth centu-
ries Catholics were also known by the distinctive title of " Roman,"
of which he gives several instances. He records his opinion that
" the word [Roman] certainly contains an allusion to the faith and
communion of the Roman See." ^^ Speaking of St. Augustine, the
illustrious author says : " St. Augustine, then, who so often appeals
to the orbis terrarum, sometimes adopts a more prompt criterion.
He tells certain Donatists to whom he writes, that the Catholic
Bishop of Carthage ' was able to make light of the thronging
multitude of his enemies, when he found himself by letters of cre-
dence joined both to the Roman Church, in which ever had
flourished the principality of the Apostolical See, and to the other
lands whence the Gospel had come to Africa itself.' " ^ From the
various passages he has adduced, the Cardinal concludes : " There
are good reasons for not explaining the Gothic and Arian use of
the word * Roman ' when applied to the Catholic Church and faith,

^ <* Unde non mediocris utiqae auctoritatis habebat episcopam, qui posset non
cttrare conspiiantem multitudinem, cam se videret et Romanae Ecclesiae, in qua sem-
per apostolicae cathedrae viguit principatus, et caeteris terris, unde Evangelium ad
ipsam Africam venit, per communicatorias litteras esse conjunctum.^' — S. Aug. Epp.
XLII, Cap. Ill, No. 7.



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252 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW.

of something beyond its mere connection with the Empire, which
the barbarians were assaulting ; nor would ' Roman * surely be the
most obvious word to denote the orthodox faith, in the mouths of
a people who had learned their heresy (the Arian) from a Roman
Emperor and Court, and who professed to direct their belief by
the great Latin Council of Ariminium." '• One of the instances
given by Cardinal Newman is brought forward also by Bellarmine.*
Speaking of the persecution of Catholics by the vandal Theodoric
who was dissuaded from putting a Catholic to death by the con-
sideration that if he did so, " the Romans would proclaim him a
martyr," Bellarmine says that " the African Catholics are here
designated by the name * Roman,' which could not have been
used of them by the Arians for any other reason than that they
held the Roman faith, and not the Arian perfidy."

It is true that the name " Roman," unlike that of Catholic,
appears at first as having been applied to the Church by her
enemies, much as " Papistical," " Romish," and " Roman " (in a
wrong sense) are applied to her now ; but the Catholics did not
repudiate it, and, like the epithet " Homousians " given by the
Arians to the orthodox, it is in truth an unwitting indication of
the real whereabouts of the truth. The propagators of error,
blinded by their own passionate hatred of the Bride of Christ, fix
upon that point of her teaching which is directly opposed to their
heresy, and endeavor to turn it into a reproach, with the inevita-
ble result that the truth stands out the more clearly for the
attacks made upon it No more than " Catholic " can the honor-
able title " Roman " be in any sense a mere party designation,
such as Mardonite or Arian or Donatist, Protestant Anglican or
Greek " Orthodox " — so-called.

" If anywhere you hear," says St. Jerome, concluding his Dia-
logue against the Luciferans, " that those who are spoken of as
Christians, take their name, not from our Lord Jesus Christ, but
from some other, — know that they are not the Church of Christ,
but the synagogue of anti-Christ ; " ^* and in his Apology against

*• Essay on Development^ loc. cit.

** De Controversiis (De Romano Pontifice), Lib. Ill, Cap. XI.

'^ Sicubi audieris eos qui dicuntur Christi, non a Domino Jesu Christo, sed a
quoque alio nuncupari, ut puta Mardonitas, Valentinianos — sdto non ecclesiam
Christi, sed an ti- Christi synagogam." — Adv» Lucif,



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'^CATHOIIC' AND *^ROMAN CATHOLICr 253

Rufinus he asks, '* What does he call his faith ? That which the
Roman Catholic Church has, or that which is contained in the
books of Origen ? If he says the Roman, then we are Cath-
olics."" Thus just as the name "Catholic" originated in the
universal and early recognition of an essential note of the only
religion which possessed true Christianity, so, too, the name
" Roman " has been adopted by the Church herself and recog-
nized by the world at large as the proper appellation of the only
religion which has any claim to true Catholicism,

It is a fact to-day that no one, with the exception of a com-
paratively small section who have a special theory to maintain,
will find any ambiguity in the name " Roman Catholic," or mis-
take the Catholic Church for anything else than the Church
which is in communion with Rome.^

To come now to the practical difficulty in which Catholics
sometimes find themselves placed when they come into contact
with our friends the ** Anglo-Catholics," what is the course to be
pursued ? In the first place, while the name Catholic must be
claimed by us as an amply sufficient designation, the equally
honorable title of Roman Catholic must in nowise be repudiated.
If it is used by the other side for the insinuation of the " Branch "
theory, an antidote is at hand, first in the imperturbed assumption
of the title Catholic by itself as exclusively the proper possession
of those Churches which are in union with the Holy See; then
in the distinction between " Roman " used of the Church in the
Roman Diocese, and the same name used of the Church Catholic

" " Fidem suam quaxn vocal ? Eamne qua Romana pollet Ecclesia ; an illam
quae in Origenis voluminibus continetur ? Si Romanam respondent, ergo Catholid
somus," etc. — Adv, Rufinunty L. I, N. 4.

" (7/. Billot, De Ecclesia, Vol. II, p. 202, noU i.— "Nota quod additum Ro-
mana usu consecratum, minime obstat evidentiae hujus signi," (t. ^., the Catholic
name). *' Primo quia additum, quo omisso, Ecclesia nostra nondum est suffidenter
designata ; suffidt enim nominare Ecclesiam Catholicam, et statim sine ambiguitate
ant aequivocatione possibili per totum mundum indigitatur," (f. ^., to anyone but an
Anglican holding the Branch theory ; and even he knows what is meant though he
has to pretend that there is ambiguity). <' Secundo quia nihil aliud signifkat nisi
dtterminatum centrum unwersalis illius unitatis a qua sumptum est Catholicae
nomen. [Italics mine.] Tertio quia nullam novitatem prae se fert ; nam centrum
Catholidtatis in Ecdesia Romana a primis initiis indubitanter agnitum fuisse, testi-
mooia hactenus redtata manifestissime demonstrant.*'



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254 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW,

throughout the world. The contention of Anglicans that " Roman"
implies particularity and contradicts Catholicity, is based purely
upon the studied neglect of this obvious distinction, and is nothing
more nor less than controversial dust-throwing. If proof is
demanded of the identity of the Catholic Church with the Church
which is, throughout the world, also called " Roman," the appeal
is to a known, palpable, and well-recognized fact — ^the fact that
no other than the Church which is known as the Roman Catholic
Church, and that Church alone, has the least claim to Catholicity,
that is to world-wide diffusion and world-wide unity, and there-
fore to the assumption of the simple title " Catholic." In virtue
of her Catholicity, promised to her in the beginning, realized from
the first by the conversion of multitudes from every part of the
civilized world ; existing at all times ; superabundantly evident
now in the actual inclusion within her fold of some two hundred
millions " of every nation and kindred and people and tongue,"
and by force of Divine promises, never to cease or stop till the
whole earth shall have been conquered — ^in virtue of such Catho-
licity the Roman Catholic Church alone deserves the Catholic
name. She alone may truly look upon the whole world as the
theatre of her action, or, with any justice, proclaim herself free
from all limitations of nationality. She alone carries out now,
and has always carried out the Divine command to go into the
whole world and teach all nations. As to our everyday manner
of speaking of ourselves, the name Catholic, being of itself amply
sufficient to indicate our faith, is also for several reasons prefer-
able to any other, and it has the advantage of particularly insist-
ing upon the point at issue with Anglicans, that is, upon the claim
to the sole right to that title.

At the same time, if any one please to call us " Roman
Catholics," we need not be at pains to correct him, unless it be
clearly his intention to imply thereby that he, too, is a " Cathob'c,"
though not a " Roman." In that case a gentle insistence upon the
fact that a Catholic and a Roman Catholic are one and the same,
and a firm refusal to admit of any difference between the two,
together with a just exhibition of pride in all that is included in
and signified by the name " Roman" in its proper sense, will be
the best and indeed the only means of defence against pertinacious



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QUESTION OF A VOCATION TO RELIGIOUS STATE. 255

refusal or invincible inability — whichever it may be — to look at
the matter from the true point of view. " Roman Catholic " we
are neither able nor desirous to repudiate ; *' Catholic " we must
exclusively claim. The former may, indeed, be sometimes of
necessity to prevent misconception, but the common verdict of all
mankind (except a particular class of persons with their own
peculiar theory) will bear us out when we say that "Roman"
takes nothing away from " Catholic," adds to it no limiting note of
particularity, but simply determines it as the exclusive prerogative
of that great communion whose Catholicity is one of those marks
by which she is known, being already evident to all but those
who will not see it. We can justly make our own and apply to
both these honorable and venerated titles the words of an unknown
writer of antiquity : " The Simonians are named from Simon, the
Marcionites from Marcion, the Arians from Arius, and the Euno-
mians from Eunomius. All these and other faiths which bear the
names of men, and are called after them, are not of God, nor is
God in those faiths. . . . The most glorious of all our glories
is the Catholic Church [and, we may add, the Roman Catholic
Church], as also that we are called and named Christians, as not
being named of men, but enlightened of God." ^

H. G. Hughes, B.D.
Sheffordy England.



THE QUESTION OF A VOCATION TO THE BEUGIOUS STATK

THE question of vocations to the Religious State is sufficiently
important to engage the most careful study of confessors.
Whilst I do not entirely endorse the opinion that the " settling of
religious vocations " is a matter which should not be attempted by
the young priest " with the oil of consecration scarce dry upon his
hands," but which is to be left to the experienced pastor of souls
who possesses a caution, breadth, insight into human nature not
ordinarily given to youth, yet I believe that where there is ques-
tion of determining a course of action which affects a person's
future life, we should proceed with the utmost care.

«♦ Apad Hurter, Comp. ThtoL Dogm., Tom. i, p. 319.



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256 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW,

When I speak here of vocation, I exclude the question of vo-
cation to the priesthood. I know that a special calling from God
is required before a young man may present himself for entrance
into the sanctuary. *' Neither doth any man take the honor to
himself, but he that is called by God as Aaron was. Christ Him-
self did not assume the election and character of High Priest, but
was called thereto by Him who said : * Thou art my son ; this day
I have begotten thee.' * St. Paul warns us against presuming to
aspire to the priesthood without first receiving, as Aaron did, a Divine
call : for even Jesus Christ, the Man-God, would not, of Himself,
assume the honor of the priesthood, but waited till His Father
called Him to it. To decide a priestly vocation, to ascertain
whether a man be " called by God as Aaron was," to have a sure
guarantee that he is " chosen *' and ** appointed " to go and bring
forth fruit, is a matter not only of the highest importance, but one
which requires special skill and grace.

The same sort of a vocation is not required for entering the
religious state, and the question whether a person has such a
vocation is less difficult of answer. It certainly does not de-
mand any preternatural gifts of prudence and science, together
with the experience of many years in the direction of souls. I
maintain that any priest who has received the faculties of his
Bishop to hear confessions has the right, and in certain circum-
stances the duty, to counsel a penitent who applies to him for
advice, either for or against embracing the religious state. I go
further, and disclaim the necessity of a special vocation to the
religious state, believing that a general vocation suffices. I dis-
tinguish between a general and a special vocation to the religious
life. By general vocation I understand the invitation of our Lord
extended to all Christians to follow Him in the practice of the
evangelical counsels. The special vocation is an act of Divine
Providence by which God calls certain individuals, prompting
them " fortiter et constanter " to embrace the religious state. In
both vocations God gives the necessary, even superabundant
graces, to fulfil the obligations of the religious state, and to secure
eternal salvation. The general vocation, however, does not of
itself furnish the means to practise the evangelical counsels, nor

iHcb. 5:4-5.



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QUESTION OF A VOCATION TO RELIGIOUS STATE. 257

does it impose the obligation to enter the religious state ; but the
necessary graces are to be obtained by prayer. And it assures an
easier way to be saved than in the world. A special vocation
gives us the necessary graces for the performance of certain duties,
and at the same time imposes a strict obligation to obey the divine
summons, a neglect of which would endanger our eternal salva-
tion. Speaking of this special vocation, St. Alphonsus remarks :
" He who neglecting a divine vocation to the religious state, re-
mains in the world, will hardly be saved, because God will refuse
to give him, in the world, those abundant helps which He had
prepared for him in religion ; and although (absolutely speaking)
he could be saved without these helps, yet without them he will
not in fact be saved." ^

Could a person, having good motives and barred by no serious
obstacles, enter the religious state, without any special vocation,
but merely following the general invitation of Christ' which says :
" If thou wilt be perfect, go sell what thou hast . . . and
come, and follow Me ? " Most certainly ; for our Lord places no
restrictions; His invitations as well as His promise of eternal
reward to those who heed His invitation are universal.

Modem authors who insist on the necessity of a special voca-
tion to the religious life maintain that as Divine Providence directs
all things in the natural order in a manner proper and suitable to
each, so in the supernatural order God has some particular state
of life in view for each individual, leading him to his supernatural
destiny. But is not this begging the question ? Many theologi-
ans declare that man is entirely free in the choice of his state of
life, with the exception of a vocation to the priesthood, and that
God gives to each, after He has chosen his state, all the proper
graces to attain the end.

Christ invited all to the practice of the Counsels; He specifies
a good will as the only condition : " If thou wilt be perfect."
But did He not likewise say : " All men take not this word, but
they to whom it is given . . . He that can take, let him take
it?"* Our Lord here refers to the vow of chastity, which requires
self-denial ; yet this, like the practice of mortification, is possible for

^ Homo Apost.y 15, n. 28. * Matt. 19 : 11, 12.

•Matt. 19 : 21.



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25 8 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW.

all. The Fathers of the Church, commenting on the Qui capere
potest, capiat, give to it this meaning, — he that is willing to take
this counsel, let him take it courageously, and God will give him
sufficient strength to keep it. Cornelius a Lapide sums up the
Patristic explanation when he writes : *' Here the evangelical
counsel of celibacy is promulgated by Christ, and proposed to
all, nay even counselled, but not commanded ; for St. Jerome and
St. Chrysostom maintain that the words : ' he that can take let
him take it," are the words of one exhorting and animating to
celibacy. Moreover, it is signified that, as Christ gives this coun-
sel, it is in our power to fulfil it, if we invoke the grace of Grod,
and earnestly cooperate with it Nor does the expression * he
that can take,' do away with the force of this ; for all that this
means is, that continence is a difficult thing ; and he who is willing
to put restraint on himself, let such a one embrace continence, let
him take it. It must be assumed, therefore, that all the faithful
have power of continence, not proximately, but remotely.*'

Christ invited all to the practice of the evangelical counsels, as
the Fathers and Doctors of the Church explain, by imposing
upon themselves the obligation of a vow {per modum voti) ; for he
asks a complete renunciation of self and earthly goods of those
who wish to follow Him closely. One who retains the faculty
{right) to marry, to possess property and personal independence,
can not be said to have left all things and to follow Christ. To
the practice of the Counsels a person is bound only by vow, that
is, by embracing the religious state. It is this religious state, and
no other, to which our Lord invites all. " If any man will come
after Me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross and follow
Me."* " Si quis vult," St. John Chrysostom explains, ** sive mulier



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