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*^ Sion Id Jerusalem, was es war, und wo es lag . . . Georg Gatt, Mission-
arias Apostolicus T.S. . . . Brixen, Kathol.-polit. Pressyerein, 1900, pp. 142.

" Biblische Studien, Band III, Heft I, Die Lage des Berges Sion. Freiburg :
Herder. 1898.



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SACRED SCRIPTURE, 433

of the author's " ways " quite impassable, and some of his
side-issues quite untenable ; but Gatt's main thesis that tradition
is right in locating Sion on the southwestern hill of Jerusalem
deserves the careful consideration of all Bible students. — We
may mention here Dalman's Palastinischer Diwan^ though the
work belongs rather to Biblical archaeology than geography-
According to the author, European customs and manners
will soon be prevalent throughout Palestine, so that a careful
description of the present Palestinian life and customs is of the
highest importance for the future student of sacred antiquities.
Accordingly, he has collected a number of popular Arabic songs
which have been in use in Jerusalem and its vicinity, near the
sources of the Jordan, on the eastern bank of the Jordan, and
finally in Aleppo and its vicinity. Though the collection is in
many respects defective, it presents a most interesting and, as far
as it goes, accurate picture of Palestinian life. — ^John Taylor gives
in The Expository Times ^ some idea of Dalman's Palastinischer
Diwan to the English reader. The songs have been collected
among all classes of people, the professional singers, the shep-
herds, the plowmen, the housewives, and the peasants generally.
They are supposed to have been handed down from generations
and centuries, and to shed no little light on several portions of
the Old Testament, especially the Canticle of Canticles.

3. Critioism. — It has become the fad of certain writers to extol
the importance of our Babylonian and Assyrian literature at the
expense of the Old Testament. Ross G. Murison, e.g.^ has pre-
pared a sketch of Babylonian and Assyrian history in order to
help even the general Bible reader to study Hebrew history as an
integral part of the larger Semitic world.^* John M. P. Smith
takes exception to the foregoing writer's method of representing
only one side of questions that are still unsettled, and of laying
too little stress on our indebtedness to ancient Egypt" — But the
chief worshiper at the shrine of ancient Babylonia is Friedrich

" Palistinischer Diwan. AIs Beitrag zur Volkskunde Pal&stinas gesammelt
and mit Uebersetzung und Melodien herausgegeben vod G. H. Dalman. Leipzig :
Hinrichs, 1901, pp. zxxt — 369.

" April, 1902, p.p 314-3^6-

" Babylonia and Assyria. A Sketch of their History. New York : Imported by
Charles Scribner*s Sons. Pp.115.

" The Biblical World, Sept., 1902, p. 229 f.



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434 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW.

Delitzsch, who has been one of the foremost Assyriologists for
more than a quarter of a century.^* We can mention only two
of the many opponents of Delitzsch who rose in defence of
the preeminence of our Biblical literature. Prof. Ed. Konig
has promptly answered Delitzsch's Babel und Bibel in a pamphlet
Bibel und Babel}"^ in which he ably discusses the relative weight that
must be assigned to the Old Testament and the profane records
considered as sources of history. He points out, e.g., that the
Assyrian inscriptions are in a great many cases not the originals
but copies often long removed from their archetypes ; again, that
the narrative of the inscriptions is not un warped by prejudices
and partialities, leading now to invention, and at other times to
suppression of the truth. The author discusses also the ethno-
logical relation between Babylonia and Palestine, and compares
the religious and ethical ideas of the respective records. Another
opponent of Delitzsch is Prof. C. H. Comill, of Breslau, who
reviews the great specialist's pamphlet in the Deutsche Literatur-
zeitung for July 5, 1902. The author first recalls Th. Noldeke's
observation that not all of Delitzsch's translations must be regarded
as final, seeing that other Assyriologists differ from him, and that
Delitzsch has put forth most questionable views concerning topics
that do not belong to his specialty.** Dr. Cornill then shows the
difference between the Babylonian and the Hebrew Sabbath,
between the profane and the inspired record of creation, between
the Babylonian narrative of Paradise and sin and its Hebrew par-
allel, between Babylonian and Hebrew angelology and demonology.
If Babylonia possesses parallels of our fifth, sixth and seventh
com mandments, the same must be said of Egypt ; if the Amra-
phel of Gen. 14 is identical with Chammurabi, king of Babylon,
the Babylonian records leave it uncertain at what precise period
between B. C. 2394 and B. C. 1868 this great monarch exercised
his power, so that Professor Hommel is quite justified in determining
Chammurabi's age from the data of Biblical chronology. More-
over, Professor Comill points out that Delitzsch is the first and only
Assyriologist who has found the name Jahveh in the Babylonian

>* Babel und Bibel. Bin Vortrag. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs. 1902. Pp. 52.
8vo.

" Berlin, M. Weraeck.

>• Zeitsckr. d. Deutsch. MorgenL GeseHsck,, 1 886, p. 718 flf.



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THEOLOGY. 435

records ; that Delitzsch quotes the Book of Job according to his
own conjectural emendation of its text, and that he describes
Mohammed's paradise according to E. W. Lane's Customs and
Manners, but not according to the text of the Koran.

Our readers are aware that the literature called forth by Har-
nack's Wesen des Christentums has become quite extensive. The
Hamack Controversy in Muss-Amolt's Theological and Semitic
Literature fills almost a page of two columns.'* We wish here to
draw attention only to an article in iht Jewish Quarterly Review^
contributed by Felix Perles. The writer maintains that Hamack
has unintentionally given the most brilliant defence of Judaism
which could possibly be desired. The Berlin professor, the
reviewer says, strips Christianity of all those elements which the
Jews too find objectionable, so that he has succeeded against his
will in justifying Judaism and in confirming Jews in their loyalty
and attachment to their religion. We need not add that Mr.
Perles's Judaism is not quite identical with the religion of Moses
and the prophets.



THEOLOGY.



THE Nouvelle Revue for August opens with a strong arraignment
of what the writer styles the attempt of the "Americanists to
find a means by which they may reconcile the discipline of the
Church with the maxims and tastes of the world." ' M. de Bid-
der, the author, reviews the elements with which we are already
familiar and pays his compliments to the admirers of Pere Hecker.
The method of Father Talbot Smith, advocated in his volume on
The Training of a Priest, also receives critical attention. Whilst
there can be no question as to the correctness of the principles
which the writer in the Revue advocates, one cannot prevent the
impression that he lacks a sufficient perspective or familiarity
with the inner sense and habits of thought prevailing in American
society both ecclesiastical and lay. This makes him unwittingly
overestimate the importance of certain expressions on the part of

*» P. I02.

» April, 1902, pp. 517-543-

^ Le Neo-Cbristianisme. Ses Tendinces et its Doeirines, L'erreur fondamen-
tale (adapution de la disdpline), III.



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436 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW.

those whom he charges with " liberal ** tendencies in the objec-
tionable sense of the word. To be sure the author does not
attack persons ; but what he supposes to be censurable doctrines
held by those who have taken an active part in public aflairs
involving the regulation of church discipline, are perhaps rather
experimental utterances partly caused and justified by the mo-
mentary situation, than deep-seated convictions. They do less
harm in fact to those to whom they were addressed, than they do
in theory to those for whom they were not intended. However,
correctness of doctrine and loyalty to authorized discipline are
things which we need at all times to safeguard. Dr. Fr. Schmid
in an article on Eucharistic Miracles in the Light of Dogmatic
Theology writes a discriminating paper in which he argues against
the exaggerated views of medieval and later writers who were
too ready to credit and promulgate assumed miraculous inter-
ventions in respect to the adorable Sacrament of the altar. The
writer is not by any means disposed to deny the true character
of accredited miracles, but he justly requires that the test which
shows a disproportion between cause and effect in such cases be
duly applied, and that the true miracle be stripped of those
improbabilities which the popular mind has added for the purpose
of exciting the image of wonder, but frequently with the effect of
entirely discrediting God*s operation in the mind of the intelligent
hearer who makes no allowance for the legendary element — The
Pastor Bonus of Treves introduces an excellent discussion by
Prof. Disteldorf on the duty of the Catholic scientist (Gelehrte)
with regard to the doctrinal function of the Church.* He insists
tipon a more outspoken profession of faith, and upon the principle
that Catholic doctrines be maintained with greater vigor against
the assumptions, however plausible, of scientific men. Even the
traditions of the Schools should be maintained until there is
certain evidence begetting a better conviction arising from more
definite and certain information on the part of science.

Dr. Allan Hoben, in the American /oumal of Theology^ brings
together a considerable amount of well analyzed patristic testimony
for what he calls the " Virgin birth " of Christ He confines him-
self to the ante-Nicene Christian literature, so that we obtain a
.fair view of the status of the doctrine in the time of Irenaeus.

• Der- kathoHschc Gelehrte und das kirckUche Lehramt, XIV, 2.



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THEOLOGY. 437

Whatever position the -author personally takes in regard to the
divine personality of the historical Christ, he furnishes good
material for the traditional Christian doctrine. In connection with
the Journal of Theology we cannot avoid noting the extensive work
done by the University of Chicago in Biblical and scientific theol-
ogy. It is well worth a Study, if only as to the methods pursued
in the organization of the literary channels, in order that Catholic
students might be aroused to emulation and learn to use their
hidden resources.

The German theological Reviews have been for some time
past engaged in a sort of contest as to how far there exists a
necessity of a reform in the methods of teaching Moral Theolog^r
in our seminaries. Americans have in this case demonstrated
their practical superiority over the learned professors of the
Fatherland by the publication of up-to-date editions and new text-
books, such as those of P. Barrett and Tanquerey, whilst Father
Putzer, the able representative of the Liguorian school of moral
theology, not only supplies by his Conmientarium the necessary
gaps in the application of practical pastoralia, but has in hand, we
understand, a new edition of Koning*s Compendium which has
been much in use heretofore in the United States.

The Revue Benedictine (Quarterly) brings in its last issue an
historic account of the Spanish Congregation of St Benedict of
Valladolid. The author therein outlmes a plan of studies for the
members of the Order, under the direction of the Academia Bene-
dictino-espagnola, composed of eminent men in the Congregation
who would represent Exegesis, Theology, Law, History and the
Oriental Languages. This proposal had been actually put in
operation in the Convent at Valladolid, when the state govern-
ment, actuated by Masonic intrigues, caused the dissolution of the
Community.

We are glad to find that Gihr*s excellent explanation of the
Holy Sacrifice of the Mass has been translated into English. It is
a standard work on the subject, and should become as popular as
O'Brien's now antiquated volume on this topic. The same firm
(B. Herder, St. Louis, Mo.) issues First Lessons in the Science of
the Saints, by the Jesuit Father R. J. Meyer. This work must not
be confounded with Pagani's four volumes, TJie Science oftlu Saints ,
recently republished for America by the Benziger Brothers.



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Cnticisme and ]Sote9.



DE OOHSUMMATIOirE SAHOTOBUM. Qnaestio iinioa. Anotoie P.
LndoTioo Qiganotto a Motta ad Liqnentia Flnmina, O.F.M., Philo-
Bophiae et 8. Theologiae Leotore General!. (Pro Mamuoripto.) Yene-
tiis : Sorteni et Yidottd. 1902. Pp. 179 .

How will the creature, man, be ultimately reunited to his Creator?
This is the question which the author proposes. He answers it by
assuming an altogether new theological position, which he defends with
the modest tentativeness of a scholar who respects the ancient scho-
lastic tradition whilst he advances plausible and, to our mind, con-
vincing reasons for his departure from the accepted doctrine. What
has led him to the novel view of an old subject is the liturgical expres-
sion contained in the Secreta of the first Mass of Christmas, which
suggests that the divine economy displayed in the Incarnation fur-
nishes the type or model of man's return to, union with, and ultimate
transfiguration in glory through the will and operation of the Eternal
Father. For as Christ is the principle and beginning by whom the
rational creature attains life, with its progressive tendency toward a
more perfect state, ^ so He serves, it is assumed, also as the prototype
of man's spiritual regeneration, becoming the mainspring and cause
of his sanctification, and the final term in the consummation of the
Saints, which makes us conformable to the image of Christ, our Brother.
The two-fold pledge of this assimilation to, and union with, the Divine
Substance, is the present action in man of the Holy Ghost, and the
participation of the Body and Blood of Christ. In other words, man's
position in heaven will be the result of an hypostatic association with
the Incarnate Word, thus establishing a perfect union with the Divinity;
for as in Christ is joined the Divine nature with the human, so our
nature will combine with Christ's as God-man, yet not so as to for-
feit that individuality which is the essential prerogative of the person.
But lest we perchance fail in accurately representing the author's view,
let us state in his own words the answer (conclusio) which he makes
with due caution, to the question : Whether it be possible and in har-
mony with the Divine plan of creation (conveniens) that the rational
creature, in its glorified state, after the final judgment, will be united
hypostatically to the Incarnate Word. His reply is, that such a union

» St. John I : 1-4 ; 8 : 25 ; lo : lo.



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CRITICISMS AND NOTES. 439

is both possible and in perfect accord with the universal economy of
creation. This accord, or "convenientia," he demonstrates from the
Sacred Scripture and the expressions of the Christian Fathers, as well
as from reason. Numerous Biblical passages, such as St. Paul to the
Romans 8 : 16, 17, 29, where he speaks of the sons and the heirs of
God, " co-heirs of Christ,'* to whose image we are made *' conforma-
ble " as to the " firstborn of many brothers," lend themselves readily,
it will be admitted, to this interpretation ; and there is abundant tes-
timony which makes a like interpretation on the part of the Christian
Fathers not only agreeable but probable, when we keep in mind that the
scholastic terms which might be cited against such an interpretation,
like vox, natura, essentia^ existentia, substitentia, numerus, personay
hypostasis, etc. , did not have, previous to the Coimcil of Chalcedon,
that well-defined meaning which the necessity of refiiting misuse of
them by heretics laid upon the definers of dogmatic propositions,
and subsequently upon the schoolmen who disputed concerning the
distinctions thus introduced. The contention of the author that the
proposed transformation into imity with God will not take place until
after the General Judgment, is based upon the statement of St. Luke
in The Acts 10 : 42, where Christ is expressly styled the ** judge of
the living and the dead. ' ' This expression precludes the admission of
a union, since "is qui judicat et qui judicatur non potest esse una
persona."

The difficulties which might be adduced against the author's
hypothesis from Scripture or the Fathers are very slight, and they are
refiited in the third article of his work, without forcing the defender
to any unwarranted distinctions. The volume deserves the quite
serious attention of theologians, for it opens, as it seems to us, not
only a new view of the state of the Blessed in heaven, but of the
operations of the soul on earth, and it suggests the transforming power
of the Sacraments, particularly the Holy Eucharist, during the term of
our earthly mortality.

OOMFMDnTM TEEOLOGIAE M0BALI8 a Joanne Petro Goiyp S.J.,
oonacriptnm et ab Antonio Balleiini ^nsdem societatiBf adnotatiomboi
anotnm. Deinde yero ad bieTioiem fonnam exaiatnm atqne ad nsom
seminariomm hi^ns regionis accominodatnm ab Aloysio Sabetti, 8.J.
Editio deoima sezta reoognita a Timotheo Barrett, 8 J. Heo Eboiad
et Oinoinnati : Fr. Pnstet and Go. 1902. Pp. 904.

Simultaneously with the first volume of Father Tanquerey's Moral
Theology y upon which we commented in the last issue of the Review,



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440 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW.

appears the sixteenth edition of Sabetti's well-tried handbook. Apart
from the &ct that the first-mentioned work embraces, as &r as pub-
lished, only the tracts De Poenitentia^ De MatrimoniOy and De Ordine^
there are many who will prefer to adhere to the traditional method
of text presentation, inaugurated by P. Busenbaum, whom also St.
Alphonsus took for his model, and which was revised for the use of
later students by Gury, Ballerini, and Sabetti. P. Barrett well accom-
plishes his task of continuing this important work by reference to more
recent decrees and literary sources, and by adding here and there
expository notes which reflect the conservative spirit of his careful
and gifted master in moral theology. In general, we can only repeat
the &vorable criticism made in these pages on an early edition of this
excellent Compendium.

The typographical errors of former editions, especially in the Index,
where they are most difficult to avoid, have been removed, only the
paragraph number at the end of Titulus in the Index, page 903, should
read 773 instead of 763.

OOVTEVTIO TEBITATIS : Essays in Oonstraotire Theology. By Six
Oxford Tutors. London: John Murray. Pp. 326. Frioe, 12 sh.
Bet.

The sub- title is a misnomer. *' Essays in Destructive Theology "
would more appropriately designate a book that, in spite of very
excellent matter, casts to the wolves more than one saving dogma of
Christianity.

The writers, who do not claim << to speak in the name of any party
of the (Anglican) Church,'* say that they ''represent tendencies far
more common among the clergy than is commonly supposed." They
are the modem representatives of a school of thought, best known in
the past by " Essays and Reviews * ' and '* Lux Mundi,* ' which attempts,
by a process of scientific elimination, so to separate the essential from
the non-essential features of the Christian religion, as to satisfy the
demands of hostile criticism by abandoning positions once deemed
the strongholds of orthodoxy. Thus the six tutors declare in their
preface that **a very considerable restatement and reconstruction of
parts of religious teaching is inevitable," while at the same time ''they
are agreed that other foundation can no man lay than that which is
laid, even Jesus Christ."

When we discover the precise term of this "restatement" and
" reconstruction," on such points as the doctrine of the Trinity and



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CRITICISMS AND NOTES. 44 1

the Incarnation, the authority of the Bible, and the apologetic value
of miracles, it does not surprise us to find that writers who start with
the postulate that '' criticism must be wholly free," and its conclusions
accepted quite irrespective of their conformity with the tenets of the
Christian Church (of which, by the way, the six Oxford tutors are the
accredited representatives), end leaving a very scanty residuum of
dogma as the result of their scientific investigations.

One of the best articles in the book is that by Dr. Rashdall on
"The Ultimate Basis of Theism. ' * Here, if anywhere, we would
expect an uncomprombing defence of the Christian doctrine of God.
But the writer expends his energy in a singularly able exposition of
Idealism. Indeed we have seldom seen Bishop Berkeley's argument
put in a clearer and more attractive form, which he apparently con-
siders the true foundation of belief in God as revealed in the Incarna-
tion of His Son. His notions of Deity will hardly satisfy Catholic
orthodoxy. God is represented as "finite in the sense in which
everything that is real is limited. ... He is infinite because He
is the ground of all that is.'' Nor can Dr. Rashdall's view of the
doctrine of the Trinity be accepted as "a metaphysical doctrine, and
not the actual explicit teaching of Christ," involving, " in the fully
developed scholastic teaching of St. Thomas Aquinas," the identifica-
tion of the fres personae with tres proprietates, " three essential and
eternally distinct attributes. ' ' For, according to Catholic theology, the
Trinity of Persons with imity of nature was plainly taught by Christ,
e.g,^ in the Baptismal formula; and the " proprietates " are not
qualities such as " Power, Wisdom, and Goodness " (the illustrations
of Dr. Rashdall), but idioms or "notions" — Innascibility, Filiation,
Active and Passive Spiration.

The defence of Christ's Divinity is on similar lines. Dr. Rashdall
will have nothing of the hypostatic union. In its place he advocates
Ritschlianism, or the theory of worth-judgment. According to this
view, God so reveals Himself in Christ that subjectively to the religious
consciousness "the Person of Christ has the value of God, and we
make a worth-judgment to that effect." ^ But Ritschlianism warns us
expressly from assuming that the objects of our religious consciousness
have any necessary connection with our scientific knowledge.

Still less satisfactory is his treatment of miracles. In common
with his fellow-writers, he denies their evidential value for a spiritual

1 Current TendencUs in Religious Thought. 11. Ritschlianism. By the Rer.
Fiancis J. Hall, D.D., of the (Protestant) Western Theological Seminary, U. S. A.



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442 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW.

explanation of the universe, oblivious to the plain teaching of Christ,
who says : ** The works which I do give testimony of Me." * To our
author Paley's ^lacy lay in making miracles the signum stantis vel
cadentis eccUsiae. The true argument for a spiritual Providence lies
in the witness of the individual conscience. '' The kingdom of God
is within."

We should be the last to deny the importance of the personal &ctor
in religious belief," and we gladly welcome a statement by the Rev. W.
R. Inge, in his contribution to the volume under the heading "The
Person of Christ. " Rewrites: ** Christians are Christians . . .
because they have found Christ, or rather because Christ has found
them . . Christ was nothing when He was on earth that He is

not now ' ' ; but surely there is no need to depreciate on that account
the significance of miracles worked for a definite end — to manifest
God's supreme power and the truth of the claims of His Only Begotten
Son. The tendency of such depreciation is shown by such a passage
as this : *' Criticism will leave us in a modified form the beliefs about
Christ's Person which are most cherished among ordin^uy Christians^ —
notably, (i) the general &ct that much of His time was spent in the
healing of physical disease . . • ; (2) that after His death there
occurred to His disciples visions of Himself which were not mere sub-
jective delusions."

The other essays on '*The Person of Christ," "The Teaching of
Christ," "Modern Criticism and the New Testament," "The Per-
manent Religious Value of the Old Testament," "The Church,"
"The Sacraments," are on similar lines. Old formulae are retained,
eviscerated of their traditional meaning. Defence after defence is



Online LibraryCatholic University of AmericaAmerican ecclesiastical review, Volume 27 → online text (page 48 of 78)