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mediate days between death and burial, and
the day on which intelligence is received of
the death of a person at a distance ;
c. — ^The third, seventh, and thirtieth days after death

or burial ;
d. — ^The anniversary of death or burial.
They are called privileged Masses {Missae privilegiatae) \

a. — Because they arc allowed to be celebrated on
days of a higher rite than those on which an
ordinary (quotidiand) Requiem is allowed ;
b. — Because they have the privilege of being trans-
ferred, in case the rite of the day prohibits
them;
c. — Because only one oration is recited in them.
Tht fourth Mass (guotidiana) is considered to be ritus simplicis?
8. — T\it first Mass found in the Missal is celebrated:
a. — On All Souls' Day, November 2 ;
b. — On the dies obitus seu depositionis^ dies III,
VII, XXX, et anniversarius of a Roman Pon-
tiff, Cardinal, or Bishop. The oration must
correspond to the dignity of the deceased per-
son, and is taken from the Orationes diversae
pro Defunctis ;
c. — It may be celebrated on the same days for a
priest, with the corresponding oration.*

' In which case the andphoos of the Office of the Dead are repeated in full
before and after the Psalms.

* Rubricae GeturaUs MissaUs RefomuUae, Tit. v, n. 3.

* If the Office of the Dead is recited, only the beginnings of the antiphons are
said before the PSalms.

* S.R.C., January 29, 1752, ad. VIII, n. 2417.



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47« THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW.

The second Mass is said :

a. — On the dies obitus sen depositioms, et dies I 11^
Vllf et XXX of clerics inferior to a priest, and
of lay persons ;
b. — It may be said on the same days for a priest*
The third Mass is said :

a. — On the dies anniversarius of clerics inferior to a

priest, and of lay persons ;
b. — It may be said on the same day for a priest
The fourth Mass is said on all days other than those
enumerated above, even when it is celebrated for a Roman
Pontiff, Cardinal, Bishop, or Priest.

II. — Epistles and Gospels.

4. — In these four Masses the Introit, Gradual, Tract, Sequence,
Offertory, and Communion are identical. They differ only in regard
to the Epistle and Gospel and the Orations. With regard to the
Epistles and Gospels a special rubric after the fourth Mass says :
" Epistolae et Evangelia superius posita in una Missa pro Defunc-
tis, did possunt etiam in alia Missa similiter pro Defunctis." This
rubric, apparently so general, must, we think, be limited in its
application.

a. — On the dies depositionis and anniversarius of a
Roman Pontiff the Epistle and Gospel of the
first Mass must be recited ; •
b. — On the dies depositionis and anniversarius of a
Bishop the same Epistle and Gospel must be
read;^
c. — Authors conclude that the same rule must be
applied to the dies III, VII, and XXX of a
Roman Pontiff or of a Bishop,
d. — Authors generally hold that the Epistle and
Gospel proper of the first three Masses should

* Ibidem.

*Rabr. I, before the Oratumts dwersae ; S.R.C., May 31, 1817, ad XII, n.

2578.

^ Ruhr. 2, before the OratUnes divfrsae ; S.R.C., March 5, 1870, ad. V, n.

3^13.



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REQUIEM MASSES. 479

be recited as often as these Masses are cele-
brated, for they are assigned to them on account
of their suitableness.
The rubric given above may, however, be applied in the fol-
lowing cases :

a. — In a Missa de Requie for a priest, on whatever
day it may be celebrated, the Epistle and Gos-
pel of ih^ first Mass may be read ;

b. — In a Missa quotidiana for a member of a Con-
fhitemity or Society the Epistle and Gospel of
the second Mass may be selected ;

c. — In a Missa de Requie celebrated annually, not
on the dies anniversarius proprie dictus, for the
members of a Confraternity, Sodality, etc., the
Epistle and Gospel of the third Mass may be
recited ;

d. — In the Missa quotidiana in place of the Epistle
and Gospel of the fourth Mass, those of any of
the preceding three Masses may be selected.^

III. — ^The Prayers.

5, — By a General Decree of the S.R.C.,* the following order
with regard to the number of orations in the Missae de Requie is
to be observed, " contrariis non obstantibus quibuscumque : *' *•

a. — On All Souls' Day in all Masses, whether
solemnes^ cantatae^ or lectae^ only one oration
is to be recited ;
b. — In die obitus seu depositionis defuncti^ by which
is meant Masses celebrated at any time be-
tween the death and the burial, wherever cele-
brated for this deceased person whether solem-
nes, cantataey or lectae, the rite permitting, only
one oration is to be said ;

' Van der Stappen, De Rubricis Mtssalis Romania Qu. 315.

• June 30, 1896, n. 3920.

'* Titulns ▼, nn. 3 and 4» of the Rubricae Generaies Mtssalis Romani was cor-
rected according to the tenor of this decree by a Decree Uriis tt Orhis^ Dec 7,
1S97, and confirmed by Leo XIII, Dec. 11, 1897.



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48o THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW.

c. — In all Masses celebrated pro die obitus sen
depositiotds defuncti, ex. gr., occasione exsequia-
rum which take place within two days after
private interment on account of contagious
diseases or by order of the dvil authorities, or
some other reasonable cause, only one oration
is to be recited ;

d.—In diebus III, VII, et XXX; et in die anniver-
sario ab obitu sen depositione^ etiam in anniver-
sariis late sumptis in Missis solemnibus et cantatis
only one oration is recited ; "

e. — In the Missa de Requie^ solemni or cantata,
which is celebrated for a deceased person on
the first day after receiving notice of his death,
only one oration is recited ; "

f — In the Missis quotidianis Defunctorum, which
are celebrated on days other than those enu-
merated above (a, b, c, d, e), if they are solemnes
or cantatae, three orations must be sung, and
not more than three are allowed ; if they are
lectae^ three orations must be recited, but if the
celebrant desires it, more than three can be read,
but these two things must be observed :
{a) the number of orations must be uneven,

/>., five or seven ;
{b) the oration Fidelium must always be the
last one.
6. — Which orations must be recited in these Masses ?

1. On All Souls* Day the oration proper of the Mass,

Fidelium.

2. In de obitus seu depositionis defuncti^ as well as in the

Mass which is celebrated pro die obitus seu deposi-
tionis defuncti :
a. — For a Roman Pontiff, Cardinal, Bishop, or

" If Uie rite of the current ofHce allows Missas Uctas on these dajrs for snch de-
ceased persons, only one oration is recited.

'* This same Mass is allowed to be Ucta on days when the rite of the current
office will admit the quotidiana, and in that case also only one oration is to be red ted.



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REQ UIEM MASSES. 48 1

Priest the oration which corresponds to the
dignity of the deceased, found among the
Orationes diversae, and the Mass will be the
first of the Missal ;
b. — For clerics inferior to a priest, and for lay
persons, the second Mass is taken with its
proper oration, Deus cut proprium.

3. In diebus III, VII et XXX:

a. — For a Roman Pontiff, Cardinal, Bishop, or

Priest, as above, 6, 2, a ;
b. — For the inferior Clergy and lay persons the

secondMdLSs is taken with the oration,Quaesumus,

Dontine, found after this Mass.

4. In die anmversario ab obitu sen deposidone and in

anmversariis :

a. — For a Roman Pontiff, Cardinal, Bishop, or

Priest, as above, 6, 2, a ;
b. — For the inferior clergy and laypersons the third

Mass is taken with the oration, Deus indulgen-

tiarum, making the necessary changes as to

number and gender.

5. When a Missa de Requie is celebrated solemniter

after having received notice of the death of a per-
son,
a. — For a Roman Pontiff, Cardinal, Bishop, or

Priest, as above, 6, 2, a ;
b. — For the inferior clergy and lay persons:

{d) If the notice is received before the funeral
has taken place, the second Mass is cele-
brated, as above, 6, 2, b ;
(^) if the Mass is celebrated in die Illy VII or
XXXy the second Mass is taken as above,
6, 3.b;
{c) if the Mass is celebrated on any other day
the second Mass is taken, but the oration
is selected from the Orationes diversae,
either pro defuncto or pro defuncta,

6. In Missis quotidianis, when they are solemnes or

cantatae :



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482 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW.

a. — If it is celebrated pro defuncto or defuncta, or
defuncHs certo designatis, the first oration must
be pro defuncto^ or defuncta^ or defunctis taken
from the Orationes diversae, according to the
dignity or quality of the deceased ; the second
oration is ad libitum, e. g., pro patre et matre
celebrantis, etc.; and the third must be Fide-
Hum;

b. — If it is celebrated pro drfunctis in genere or pro
defunctis nan certo designatis, whose number,
dignity, quality are unknown, or if it is cele-
brated ad intentionem dantis, the orations of
the fourth Mass must be recited in the order
given in the Missal.

7. In Missis quotidianis, when they are lectae :

a. — If three orations are read, the order above
(6, a, b) must be followed ;

b. — If the celebrant desires to recite more than
three orations the first and second orations will
be according to circumstances as above (6, a,
b), and the third and fourth will be cui libitum,
\{ five orations are recited; so will also the
fifth and sixth orations be ad libitum, if seven
orations are recited, but the fifth in the first
case, and the seventh in the second case must
be Fidelium, In both cases the orations ad
libitum must be taken from the Orationes di-
versae according to the order in which they are
found in the Missal.

8. If an oratio imperata pro defuncto or drfunctis is

prescribed :

a. — The imperata cannot be recited in Masses
which admit only one oration ;

b. — In Masses in which three orations must be
recited, the imperata is put in the third place
and the Fidelium will be the fourth, and in
this case the orations need not be uneven in
number.



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REQ UIEM MASSES. 483

c. — If, in the Missis quotidianis^ more than three
orations are recited, the itnperata must be put
in the third place, after it are added the ora-
tions ad libitum, the last will be Fidelium, and
the number of the orations must be uneven."

IV. — The Sequence "Dies Irae."

7. — By the Decretum Generale of the S. R. C, June 30, 1896,
n. 3920, according to which Titulus v, n. 5, of the Rubricae Gene-
rales Missalis Romani was corrected, the following decisions were
made with regard to the **Dies Irae : "

a. — In all Missis de Requie celebrated solemniter,
i. e., with Deacon and Subdeacon, or at least
in cantu, in which one or three orations are
recited,'* the ''Dies Irae " must be recited ;
b. — If Missae de Requie lectae are celebrated ;

(/) On days, which for the dead are prvuile-
giati}^ on which in the Missae lectae only
one oration is recited, the ^^Dies Irae**
must be read:
{2) In Masses quotidianae lectae in which at
least three orations are recited, the *^Dies
Irae " may be read or omitted.

V. — All Souls* Day — November 2.

8. — Regarding the Masses celebrated on this day note that :
a. — ^AU the Masses celebrated on All Souls' Day,
except the Conventual Mass in Cathedral and
Collegiate Churches, must be de Requie}^ and
^^ first Mass in the Missal is said,
b. — This Mass may be celebrated for all the Poor
Souls, or for special Poor Souls ; *^ but in every

^ Van der Stappen, De Rubricis Missalis Romania Quaest 323 et scqq.

^* Vide su^a, ft, a, b, c, d, e, f.

» Vide supra, 8, a, b, c, d.

" S.R.C, Sept 27, 1698, n. 2014.

" S.R.C, August 4, 1663, ad IX, n. 1275.



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484 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW.

case only one oration is to be said, and that
oration must be Fidelium,

c. — Every Mass de Requie on this day enjoys the
same privilege as if it were celebrated on a
privileged altar."

d. — Masses de Requie, celebrated on this day in
churches in which the Blessed Sacrament is
exposed for Forty Hours* Devotion, are said
in violet vestments.**

e. — If a funeral takes place on this day, the Missa
Exsequialis, i. e., /// die obitus seti depositiams,
the second in the Missal, is sung ; but all the
other Masses must be de Commetnaratione
Omnium Fidelium Defunctorum?^

f. — If November 2 falls on a Sunday, or on a Holy-
day of obligation, or on a duplex I classis, the
celebration of All Souls* Day is transferred to
November 3. If for similar reasons its cele-
bration should be impeded on November 3, it
is transferred to November 4.'*

g. — During the octave of All Souls, by a special
favor of the S.R.C.," on duplicia minora, a Missa
anniversaria "quae a Religiosis Communitati-
bus, a Canonicorum CoUegiis, a Confratemi-
tatibus aut ab aliis quibuscumque piis Sodali-
tatibus, pro Confratribus defunctis semel in anno
fieri Solent; nee non ilia, quae pro fidelium
pietate infra octavam Omnium Fidelium De-
functorum locum habent,** which is classed
among the anniversaria late sumpta^ may be
celebrated. It must, however, be celebrated

w Decree of Clement XIII, May 19, 1761.

»» S.R.C., Deer. Gen., July 9, 1895, ad IV, n. 3864.

^ Ibidem, ad. V. In Gtthedral and Collegiate Churches in which the Con-
ventual Mass is of obligation, another Mass de Requie proper of thb day must be
5ung.

-'» Ibidem, ad II.

" Dec. 2, 1891, n. 3753.

» Ephemerides Liturgicae, Vol. XIII, 1898, p. 221.



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REQ UIEM MASSES, 485

solemniter or in caniu, and only one oration is
to be said.



VI. — Mass on the Day of Death or Burial.

9. — By Dies obittis is meant the day of the death of a person ;
by dies depositionis^ the day on which the corpse is consigned to
the grave. This Mass may be celebrated not only on the dies
obitus and on the dies depositionis, but also on any of the inter-
vening days, because the whole interval between the death and
the burial of a person is considered, in favor of the dead, one day.
It must, however, not be inferred from this that on each day of
the interval this privilege can be made use of, but only on one of
the days.**

The Mass celebrated on this occasion is the second^ in the
Missal, and is usually called the Missa Exsequialis^ which has
only one oration.

A. — IN PRESENCE OF THE CORPSE.

10. — ^Thc Roman Ritual says : " Si quis die festo sit sepeli-
endus, Missa propria pro defunctis praesente corpore celebrari
poterit; dum tamen (i) Conventualis Missa, et (2) Offida divina
non impediantur, (3) magnaque did celebritas non obstet.*'
Hence this Mass is prohibited :

(i) On account of the Conventualis Missa:

a. — In Cathedral, Collegiate, and Conventual
Churches a Mass of the current ofBce must be
daily celebrated, called the Conventual Mass, at
which the canons and the dei^ of these
churches must assist This Mass cannot be
omitted, and the Missa Exsequialis celebrated
in its stead.^

** Van der Stappen, De Rubricis MusaHs Romania Qnaest 332.

^ Except in cases noted above, 8, b, c.

** Exsiqtdae in Liturgy means not only the Mass, but also the processional
transfer of the corpse from the house to the church, the Office of the Dead, the
Absolution, and the Burial.

" S.R.C., Dec 3, 1891, ad I, n. 3755.



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486 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW.

b. — Likewise on Sundays in parish churches, in
which only one Mass is celebrated, which parish
priests are obliged " to celebrate for the people*

(2) On account of Officia divina. On the feast of St
Mark, April 25, and on the Rogation days, if the
procession takes place, and on the Vigil of Pen-
tecost, on account of the blessing of the Baptismal
Font, if only one Mass is celebrated in the church *

(3) On account of the Magna diet celebritas :

a. — On Maundy Thursday, Good Friday and Holy

Saturday ;
b. — On Festa primaria duplicia I classis ;

(a) Christmas, Epiphany, Easter, Ascension,

Pentecost, Corpus Christi.*^
{b) Immaculate Conception, Annunciation,

and Assumption, B.V.M. ;
{c) Nativity of St John the Baptist, St
Joseph, SS. Peter and Paul,* All Saints,
Titularis Ecclesiae propriae, Patronus prin-
cipalis Regionis^ vel Dioecesis out loci;
{d) Anniversary of the consecration of the
church,
c. — On the Sundays within the octaves of the feasts
of Corpus Christ! and SS. Peter and Paiul,
on which by special Indults " these feasts are
solemnized.® The same rule holds with
regard to the Sunday on which the Titidaris

^ With OS it is not of obligation, but << decere ex ckaritate,** C de P. F.,
March 33, 1863.

» S.R.C., Dec. 2, 1891, ad I, n. 3755.

^Ibidem,

*^ With us the Missa Exsequiaiis can be celebrated on the feasts of Corpus
Christi and SS. Peter and Paul. S.R.C., March 6, 1896, Dub, I, n. 3890 ; Dec
4, 1896, n. 3933. The same rule holds with regard to the Titular feast of a diardi,
if its solemnization is transferred to the following Sunday. Epkemerides LUurgUat^
Vol. X, 1896, p. 201.

* See footnote 31.

" S. C de P. F., Dec 19, 1840, and Nov. 25, 1885, resp,

» S.R.C., Nov. 16, 1898, ad I, n. 4003.



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REQ UIEM MASSES. 487

Ecclesiae propriae in minoribus loci^ is sol-
emnized,
d. — On days on which the Most Blessed Sacra-
ment is solenmly exposed ob publicam causanty
e.g., Forty Hours* Devotion, but only during
the time of the Exposition.**

On all other days of the year the Missa Ex-
sequialis corpore praesente can be celebrated.

B. — WHEN THE CORPSE IS ABSENT.

11, — Circumstances may prohibit the presence of the corpse
in the church. They are :

a. — the prohibition of the civil authorities ;

b. — contagious diseases ;

c. — any other grave cause.

In such cases the corpse is said to be morally present and the
Missa Exsequialis can be celebrated on the same days,^ and in
the same manner as if the corpse were physically present in the
church, if it is still unburied. If the corpse has already been con-
signed to the grave, this same privilege may be made use of on
one of the two days immediately following the day of burial.*'
In these cases the Absolution at the catafalque should take place,
and all the prayers should be recited which arc said in die depo-
sitionis, corpore praesente?^ In the Decrees this Mass is said to
be celebrated ''pro die obitus seu depositionis."

12, — If the corpse is buried on the day on which the Missa
Exsequialis corpore praesente is prohibited, and the two following
days are also dies impediti, then this Mass may be transferred to
^^ first day following not prohibiting it, — ^"in primo die sequenti
non impedito." The days on which this transferred Mass is pro-
hibited are :

a. — all Sundays ;

b. — Festa duplicia 1 et II classis :

c. — Festa de praecepto!^

»♦ Cone. Plcn. Bait, II, n. 384. » S.R.C., Dec 2, 1891, ad I, 3755.

" Videsupra^ n. 10.

" Ihidem, ad II, and S.R.C., Feb. 13, 1892. Dub, XXVI, n. 3767.

»• S.R.C., March 22, 1862, ad I, n. 3112.

"•S.R.C., Dec. 2, 1 891, ad III, n. 3755, and Ephemerides Liturguae^ Vol.

XIV, 1899, p. 166.



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488 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW.

If it is not celebrated prima die sequenti non impedito^ the
privilege of transfer ceases ; and after that day it can be celebrated
only on such days as admit the Missa quotidiana, either ratiane
ritus or ratione specialis indulti,

13. — The Missa Exsequialis^ whether corpore praesente or
absente must be solemnis or cantata^ so that a Missa Exseqmalis
lecta cannot be celebrated instead of it, even corpore praesente^ on
days which exclude the Missa quotidiana, or the lecta by special
indult

N,B, — By a Decretum SJR.C, May 9, 1899, n. 4024, con-
firmed by Leo XIII, June 12, 1899, the privilege of celebrating a
Missa Exsequialis lecta instead of the solemnis or cantata is granted
in favor of the poor, on the same days on which the latter can be
celebrated,** provided on Sundays and holydays of obligation a
Mass of the current office is not omitted on these days.

C. — REGARDING THE NUMBER OF FUNERAL MASSES CELEBRATED

ON THE DAY OF DEATH OR BURIAL.

Missa ExseqwaHs,

14. — Only one Missa Exsequialis can be celebrated solemniter
or cum cantu,^ when the corpse is physically or morally present
If, however, the rite of the current office on the day of death or
burial, or on the days during the interval between the death and
burial will allow the Missa quotidiana, or if by Indult Missae de
Requie can be celebrated, then all the Masses, lectae or cantatae,
may be de Requie ; and if they are offered for the deceased, the
second Mass in the Missal may be taken, mutatis mutandis with
regard to the orations, in its entirety.**

Low Masses.

16. — By the Decree Aucto of the S.R.C., May 19, 1896, con-
firmed by Leo XIII, June 8, 1896, n. 3903, special privileges were

*• Ibidem^ ad I.

^ Vide supra, n. 10. The Decrees of May 22, 1841, and of Sept 2, 1871,
restricted this pririlege to the days on which a Missa anniversaria is allowed.
♦« Vide supra, n. 18, N. B.
♦» Ephemerides Liturgitae, Vol. XIV, 1899, p. 292, III.



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REQUIEM MASSES. 489

granted with regard to Low Masses {Missae Lectae deRequie occa-
siane Exseqtdaruni) : **

a. — ^These Missae lectae deRequie can be celebrated
simul vel successive in churcJies and public ora-
tories on festa duplicia with some exceptions
given below, on the following conditions :
(/) Only on the day on which the Exsequiae

take place ;
{2) As long as the corpse is physically and mor-
ally present ; **
(j) On condition that Missae Exsequialis is so-

lemnis or cantata ; ^
(^) On condition that these low Masses be cele-
brated for the deceased person, whose ob-
sequies are being performed.*^
b. — These low Masses cannot be celebrated on the
following days, even if the Missa Exsequialis
solemnis vel cantata be allowed and is cele-
brated :
(/) M\ festa duplicia I classis,yf\itXh^t\io\y6sLys

of obligation or not ;
{2) All Sundays and holydays of obligation ;
(j) Days which exclude the celebration of /?j/^a;
duplicia I classis, i. e.,
(a) Ash Wednesday and Holy Week ;
{6) Vigils of Christmas and Pentecost ;
(^r) During the octaves of Easter and Pente-
cost;
{d) Dies octava of Epiphany, i. e,^ Jan. 1 3.**

« nidem, ad V.

^ An aathentic interpretation of this Decree was issued Jan. 12, 1897, n. 3944.

^ Hence, if, according to the custom of some localities, the corpse is carried to the
church on the CTening before the day during the morning of which the obsequies will
take place, then Missae lectae de Requie can be celebrated on the morning of the
obsequies, as long as the corpse is present.

^ Hence, if the privilege granted in favor of the poor ( Vide supra, n. 18, N.B.)
to celebrate a lew Mass de Requie at the burial is made use of^ we cannot avail our-
elves of the privileges granted by this decree.

♦' S.R.C., Jan. 12, 1S97, ad IV, n. 3944.



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490 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW.

Titulus V, n. 2, of the Rubricae Generales Missalis Ramam
was corrected according to the tenor of these decrees.

c. — In the second part of the Decree *'Aucto " per-
mission is granted to celebrate low Masses " in
Oratoriis privatis et in Sacellis ad Seminaria,
Collegia et Religiosas vel pias utriusque sexus
Communitates spectantibus/' In an answer to
the question, " Missae privatae de Requie, quae
sub expressis conditionibus celebrari possunt
praesente cadavere, lidtaene erunt in quibus-
libet Ecclesiis vel Oratoriis sive publicissive
privatis," says ** Affirmative, dummodo cadaver
sit physice vel moraliter praesens : sed si agatur
de Ecclesiis et Oratoriis publicis, fieri debet
etiam funus cum Missa exsequiali." ^

This moral presence {moraliter praesens) of
the corpse is verified —
(/) As long as the corpse is in the house

{praesente cadavere in domd) f^
{2) When on account of the prohibition of
the civil authorities, or of contagious
disease, or of some other grave cause, the
corpse cannot be present in the church,
whether it is still unburied, or, if buried,
not more than two days."

Since, therefore, the Decree " Aucto " restricts in churches and
public oratories the permission to celebrate low Masses to the day
on which the Missa Exsequialis takes place and during the time
in which the corpse is physically or morcUly present on that day,
but does not make the same restriction with regard to private
or quasi-public oratories (chapels of seminaries, colleges, and reli-



Online LibraryCatholic University of AmericaAmerican ecclesiastical review, Volume 27 → online text (page 54 of 78)