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gious conmiunities), we think,** that in private and quasi-public

*• Ibidtm, ad III.

WS.R.C., Aprils, 1900.

*>S.R.C., Dec 2, 1891, ad U, n. 3755.

^* There is no authoritative decision on this point. The Epkimeridet Litur-
gicae. Vol. XIV, 1899, p. 519 ff, and the Pastor Bonus, Trier, Vol. XIV, 1901, p.
41 ff, are of the same opinion.



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REQ UIEM MASSES, 49 1

oratories low Masses de Requie can be celebrated simul vel sue-
cessive^ as long as the corpse is physically or morally present, ex-
cept, of course, on those days on which low Masses are prohibited
in churches and public oratories corpore physice vel moraliter
praesente^

N. B. — ^We may here remark that the privilege with regard to
law Masses cannot be extended beyond the second day after the
burial** as is the case with the Missa Exsequialis, which can be
transferred to the first day not prohibiting it, when the corpse is
buried on a day on which this Missa Exsequialis is forbidden
corpore praesente^ for the decrees in reference to the Missae lecta^
make no mention of this privilege, as is the case with the decree
in regard to the Missa Exsequialis pro die obitusF^

VII. — Funeral Mass on Receiving the First News of

Death.
16, — Formerly some Religious Orders and Congregations had
the privilege of celebrating in cantu a missa de Requie in de obitus
in their churches as soon as authentic notice had been received of
the demise of any of their members in loco dissito?* At present
this is no longer a privilege of Religious Orders and Congrega-
tions, but it has been extended to individuals in general. Hence
as soon as any person has received notice of the death of a friend
or relative, and requests a Missa de Requie for the repose of the soul
of such person, any priest can comply with the request It may
be celebrated in many churches, but only one Mass is allowed in
each church. This Mass is classed among the privilegiatae^ and
is subject to their rules.** It can be celebrated on any day of the
year except the following :

a. — ^AU Sundays;

b. — Festa duplica I et II classis;

c. — Festa de praecepto,^

» Vufe svpra^ n. 1», b.

** Epfumeridei LUurgUae^ Vol. XI, 1897, p. 166.

»* Vide supra, n. 12.

««S.R.C, May 19, 1896, n. 3903, and Jan. 12, 1897, n. 3944.

WS.R.C., Dec 2, 1891, n. 3755.

•• S.R.C., March 3, 1761, ad VI, n. 2461.

w Vide supra, n. 2. «• S.R.C., Dec. 2, 1891, ad III, n. 3755.



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492 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW.

17. — ^The Mass must be solemnis or cantata. The ntissae lee-
tae are allowed only on days which admit the quotidiana. The
second Mass of the Missal, i.e., in die obitus seu depositionis, must
be celebrated.** and whether solemnis, cantata, or lecta, it will
have only one oration,*" which is proper of this Mass.** If the
day after receiving the notice is one of the prohibited days** the
Mass must be celebrated on the first free day following and can-
not be transferred to a later day.**

VIII. — Masses for the Dead on the Third, Seventh, and
Thirtieth Day.

18. — The third, seventh, and thirtieth days may be reckoned
from the day of death or of burial,** though the rubric, found in
the missal after the second Mass seems to indicate that the day
of burial {depositionis) should be taken, lest the day of burial and
the third day after death coincide. In the calculation of these
days, the days of death or of burial may be included or ex-
cluded.

19t — This Mass may be celebrated on any day except the
following :

a. — All Sundays;

b. — Festa duplicia I et II classis;

c. — Festa de praecepto ;

d. — Within the octaves of Christmas, Epiphany,

Easter, Pentecost, and Corpus Christi ;
e. — Ash Wednesday, and during Holy Week ;
f — Vigils of Christmas and Pentecost ;
g. — During the solemn exposition of the Blessed

Sacrament f
h. — Rogation Days, if the procession takes place,
in churches in which only one Mass is cele-
brated.**

•» Ibidem,

" S.R.C., June 30, 1896, I, n. 3920.

" S.R.C., Feb. 6, 1892, ad IV, n. 3764.

•* Vide supra, n. 16.

•* S.R.C., Dec 2, 1891, ad III, n. 3755.

•• S.R.C., Dec. 2, 1891, ad IV, n. 3753.

« Ibidem, ad III.

^ Ephemerides LUurgicae, Vol. XI, 1897, p. 1 23.



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REQ UIEM MASSES. 493

20. — ^This Mass must be solemnis or cantata, Missae lectae
are allowed only on days which admit the quotidiana. If the
third, seventh, or thirtieth day falls on a day which prohibits this
Mass • its celebration may either be transferred to the first free
day following them, or may be anticipated on the first free day
preceding them.^ If the first free day before or after them is
disregarded, they cannot be celebrated, except on days which
admit the quotidiana. Free days are those which are not in-
cluded in n. 19 above. In all cases, whether solemnis, cantata, or
lecta, transferred or anticipated, it must be the second Mass of the
Missal, with only one oration, which is found after this Mass,^*
except in Masses for a Roman Pontiff, Cardinal, Bishop, or
priest^

IX. — Anniversary Mass for the Dead.

21. — In the Liturgy of the Dead an Anniversarium is a stated
day on which annually a remembrance is made of one or more
deceased persons by celebrating the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass.
The Annvversaria are either stride sumpta or late sumpta,

A. — anniversaria stricte sumpta.

An anniversarium stricte sumptum is a Missa de Requie which is
yearly celebrated, either —

a. — Ex titulo fundatundSy on the anniversary of the
death or burial of the deceased, or on some
other determined day, which is called an anni-
versarium fundatum ; or,
b. — Ex petitione vivorum, on the anniversary of the
death or burial of a person,^ which is called an
anmversarium privatum,
22. — The following conditions are necessary for the anniver-
sarium fundatum :

I. It must be a Missa de Requie ; a Mass of the current
office or a votive Mass will not suffice ;

• Vide tupray n. 19. " S.R.C., June 30, 1896, I, n. 3920.

w S.R.C., Dec 21, 1891, III, n. 3753. " Vide supra, n. S.
" S.R.C, Dec. 2, 1 891, ad IV, n. 3753.



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494 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW.

2. This Mass must be either soletnnis or cantata to
enjoy the privileges ; a low Mass cannot be celebrated
for an anniversary Mass unless the day be one that
admits the quotidiana;

3. A foundation is necessary by the testator, or his heirs,
or his friends ;

4. This foundation must be either perpetual, or at least
for many successive years, not only for one or two
years, or at the will of other persons each year ;

5. On the anniversary of the death or burial of the
deceased ^* or on some other determined day, assigned
in the memorial of the foundation.

38. — With regard to an anniversarium privatum the S.R.C.^
declares :

1 . That there need be no foundation, but that the request
of any individual to have a Missa de Requie cele-
brated for a deceased person suffices ;

2. That it need not be celebrated annually ; it is suffi-
cient that it be requested once, or if it be requested
oftener an interruption of one or even mx)re years is
allowed ;

3. That it must be celebrated on the anniversary of the
death or burial.

24. — The anniversaria stride sumpta, "wYit^^tx fundcUa or pri-
vata are allowed on any day, except those on which the Missa de
Requie diebus III, VII, and XXX are prohibited.^* Like them it
may be transferred or anticipated.'^ If it is celebrated on a duplex
majus or minus or on the vigil of the Epiphany, only one Mass can
be celebrated for one and the same deceased person, and it must
be solemnis or cantata. Missae lectae in anniversaria are per-
mitted on those days which admit the quotidiana, and on those
days several Masses in anniversario whether solemnes, cantata or
lectae can be celebrated for one and the same person in the same
church, with only one oration.^®

^^ Ibidem, If the foundation is for more than one person, it most be the annin
versary of the death or burial of at least one of them.

" Dec. 2, 1 891, ad I, n. 3753. '« Vide supra, n. 19.

" Vide supra, a. 20.

^ Van der Stappen, De Rubricis Miss. Rom., Quaest 361.



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REQ UIEM MASSES. 495

25. — Which of the four Missae de Requie is to be celebrated ?

a. — On the anniversary of the death of a Roman
Pontiff, Cardinal or Bishop Xh^ first Mass must
be celebrated, with the oration corresponding
to his dignity.^

b. — Of a priest, the first or second Mass may be
celebrated with the corresponding oration ''Deus
qui inter Apostolicosr ^

c. — Of a cleric inferior to a priest and of lay per-
sons, the third Mass with the oration **Deus
indtdgentiarum Dotnine'' even when on account
of a liturgical impediment it is transferred or
anticipated.^*

d. — If the Anniversary is transferred to or antici-
pated on a day which is not the first free day,
the third or fourth Mass may be selected, but
whether solemnis, cantata or lecta it is cele-
brated like a Missa quotidiana^ i. e., three ora-
tions must be recited and the oration ^'Deus,
indulgentiarum cannot be said.^

B. — ANNIVERSARIA LATE SUMPTA.

26. — An anniversarium late sumptum is a Missa de Requie
which religious communities, colleges of Canons, confraternities
and pious sodalities are wont to celebrate or have celebrated for
their members once a year, on a stated day, or a day movable ad
libitum, although it be not the anniversary of their death.® To
these may be added the. Masses de Requie which the faithful in
their tender devotion for the Poor Souls are wont to have cele-
brated during the octave of All Souls.^

27. — The anniversaria late sumpta are forbidden not only on
those days on which the Missae de Requie diebus III, VII, and
XXX are prohibited,^ but also on all Festa duplicia majora,^

^ Rubric I, Orationes Diversae pro Defunctis. •* Ibidem.

» S.R.C., Jan. 29, 1752, ad 8, n. 2417. «* Vide supra, n. 19.

n Vide supra, n. 24. w S.R.C., Dec. 2, 1891,
•• Van der Stappen, Ibidem, Quaest 362. ad V, n. 3753.

» S.R.C., Dec. 2, 1891, ad V, n. 3753.



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496 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW,

Since the day for the anniversaria late sumpta maybe selected
ad libitum there seems to be no reason to give them the privilege
of translation or anticipation. Should, however, there be a dies
fixus for such an anniversary every year, then in case of a liturgi-
cal impediment, e, g,, if this day falls on a Sunday — ^there appar-
ently would be no mistake if it were transferred or anticipated
like the anniversaria stricte sumpta?

28. — That this Mass may be celebrated on Festa duplicia
minora it must be solemnis or cantata. Missae lectae are allowed
only on such days as admit the quotidiana. The third Mass of
the Missal may be taken, and it is a Missa privUegiata and conse-
quently has only one oration,* which, however, cannot be taken
from the third Mass, but must be taken from the Orationes
Diversae pro Defuftctis,

C. — MISSA QUAE ALIQUANDO ANNIVERSARIA VOCANTUR, SED TAUA

NON SUNT.

29, — ^Sometimes anniversaries are founded to be celebrated
during a certain month, or near a certain feast, or once a year,
without determining the day. Sometimes relatives and friends of
a deceased person request a Mass de Requie, not on the day of
death or burial, but near the anniversary of the death or burial.
These Masses cannot be called anniversaria stricte or late sumpta,
and therefore cannot enjoy the privileges granted to the latter.
They are merely quotidianae and follow their rules, and conse-
quently can be celebrated only on days which admit the quotidi-
ana? The third Mass of the Missal may be taken, and three
orations must be recited, of which the first must be taken from the
Orationes Diversae pro Defunctis, and can never be the oration of
the Missa in Anniversario,

X. — Ordinary (Quotidianae) Masses for the Dead.

30, — Missae quotidianae are those which are celebrated on
days other than those which are considered privilegiati for the
dead,** whether they be solemnes, cantatae^ or lectae. They are

" Van dcr SUppen, De Rubricis Missalis Romania Qoaest. 365.
» S.R.C., June 30, 1896, I, n. 3920.
•• S.R.C., Aug. 23, 1766, ad I, n. 2482.
» Vide supra, n. 2.



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REQ UIEM MASSES, 497

also c^WtA privatae. They are considered to be ritus simplicis^ and
consequently, if the Office of the Dead is recited before such
Masses, only the first few words of the antiphons are recited before
the Psalms.

31, — The missae quotidianae are prohibited :
a. — On all Sundays ; ^^
b. — On all Festa duplicia;

c. — During the octaves of Epiphany, Easter, Pente-
cost, and Corpus Christi ;
d. — On Ash Wednesday and during Holy Week ;
e. — On the vigils of Christmas, Pentecost," and

Epiphany ; ^
f. — On the Rogation Days in churches in which the
procession takes place, when only one Mass is
celebrated ;
g. — During the exposition of the Blessed Sacra-
ment at the altar of Exposition,** and during
the solemn exposition ob publicam causam at
all the altars of the Church.**
32. — The Mass to be celebrated is ^t fourth of the Missal, but
the Epistle and Gospel may be taken from any of the preceding
three Masses.*^ The number and quality and order of the orations
have been noted above.*'

XL — Missae de Requie Quae Celebrantur in Sepulcre-

TORUM SaCELLIS.

33. — Frequently in cemeteries small chapels are built with
portable altars over the grave of one or more deceased persons.
They are considered private oratories, and by special indult Masses
may be celebrated in them.

By a decree of the S.R.C., of May 19, 1896, confirmed by
Leo XIII, June 8, 1896, n. 3903, in such chapels already erected,
or to be erected, Missae de Requie may be celebrated on all days
except:

«S.R.C.,Feb. 15, 1659, n. mo. •* S.R.C., May 7, 1746, ad IV,

" S.R.C., Sept. 28, 1675, n. 1549. n. 2390.

•• S.R.C., April 27, 1697, ad V, n. 1973. •• Vide Ruhr, afttr this MaM.

»• S.R.C., June 14, 1873, ad II, n. 3302. ^ Vide supra, », f. and 6, •, 7, S.



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498 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW.

a. — On Festa duplicia I et II classis ;

b. — On all Sundays ;

c. — On Festa de praecepto ;

d. — On Ash Wednesday and during Holy Week.

e. — On the vigils of Christmas, Epiphany and
Pentecost ;

f. — During the octaves of Christmas, Epiphany,
Easter, Pentecost and Corpus Christi.
34, — Concerning this privilege the following must be noted :

a. — It can be made use of in those chapels of a
cemetery only in which by special Indult
Missae de Requie may be celebrated.

b. — Only Missae lectae can be celebrated in them ;

c. — On privileged days the corresponding Missae
privUcgiatae^ are celebrated; on other days the
fourth Mass is read; both subject to the rules
with regard t^ the number, quality, and order
of the orations ; **

d. — By a decree of the S.R.C., Jan. 12, 1897, this
privilege is also granted to the public or princi-
pal Oratory of a cemetery ; ^^

e. — It cannot be extended to churches or chapels
extra coemeterium, even if a corpse is buried in
them:^*^»

f. — Nor is it granted to parochial churches erected
in cemeteries.**"

XII. — The Monday Privilege. (Indultum Celebrandi Mis-
SAM DE Requie Singulis Feriis Secundis.)

35. — In the United States there is a faculty ordinarily com-
municated to priests through the bishops, which grants permission
to celebrate a Missa de Requie on Mondays non impeditis officio
novem lectionum}^ The phrase offi4do novem lectionutn gave rise
to the doubt whether semiduplicia only were referred to, or if
duplicia were also understood. The S.R.C. answered*^ that this

w Vide supra, n. 2. ^^ Coilationes Brugenses, IV, 1 899, p. 11 3.

» Vide supra. III, The Prayers. ^^ FacuUaUs Ordinariae, Fonn I, 20.

w Ad I. »*>* Sept. 4, 1875. ad I, n. 3370.
wi Ibidem.



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REQ UIEM MASSES. 499

Mass was allowed on all Mondays during the year, except on :

a. — ^The vigils of Christmas and Epiphany ;

b.— In Holy Week;

c. — During the octaves of Christmas, Epiphany,
Easter, Pentecost, and Corpus Christi ;

d. — Holydays of Obligations ;

e. — Duplicia majora^ and duplicia I et II classis.
If the enumerated cases hinder the Missae de Requie on Mon-
day, the privilege is transferred to Tuesday under the same condi-
tions ; but it lapses after that day.^^

XIII. — Masses for the Dead before the Blessed Sacra-
ment Exposed.

36. — Masses for the dead before the Blessed Sacrament
exposed :

a. — At the altar on which the Most Blessed
Sacrament is exposed, whether publicly in
OstensoriOy or privately in Pyxide velata, Masses
de Requie are forbidden during the exposition.*^

b. — When the Most Blessed Sacrament is exposed
ob gravem causam et publicum Ecclesiae bonum^
Masses de Requie are forbidden at every altar
of the church, whether the exposition is public
in Ostensorio, or private in Pyxide velata}^

c. — When the Most Blessed Sacrament is exposed
ex causa privata et modo tantunt private in
Pyxide velata Masses de Requie can be cele-
brated on all altars except that on which the
Blessed Sacrament is exposed.**

d. — During the Forty Hours' Devotion Masses de
Requie are forbidden at every altar of the
church.*^ Masses de Requie on November

^^ Ibidem y ad II. For a fuller explanation of this faculty, cf, American
Ecclesiastical Review, Vol. I, 1889, p. loi, and ff.
»<» S.R.C., June 14, 1873, ad II, n. 3302.

>0T Gardellini, Comnuntaria in Instructionem CUmentis AY, { 17, n. 4.
>« S.R.C., May 7, 1746, ad IV, n. 2390.
>«• S.R.C., Dec. 2, 1684, ad V, n. 1743.



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500 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW.

2, in churches in which the Forty Hours'
Devotion takes place, must be celebrated in
violet vestments."^



XIV. — De Obligatione Dicendi Missas de Requie.

37. — ^There is question here only of the Missae privatae sen
quoHdianae, for all the privileged Masses "* on the more solemn
occasions must be de Requie.

a. — On Festa DupliciadSid other days on which the
Missa Quotidiana is forbidden/" if a Mass for
the benefit of the dead is to be celebrated,
the celebrant satisfies his obligation by cele-
brating a Mass officio conformis^^ with the in-
tention of applying the sacrifice to the poor
souls. The same rule may be applied when
a priest receives a large number of intentions
for Masses for the dead to be celebrated within
a specified time.

b. — On days which admit the quotidiana the cele-
brant may satisfy his obligation of saying Mass
for the dead by celebrating it officio conformis^
unless the person giving the stipend expressly
asks for a Mass de Requie.

c. — If a Mass is celebrated on a privileged altar it
must necessarily be de Requie on days which
admit the quotidiana}^*^ if the indulgentia
altaris privilegiati is to be gained. Likewise
the priest who has obtained the Indultum per-
sonale altaris privilegiati^^^ must in order to
gain this indulgence celebrate a Mass de Requie

»" S.R.C., July 9, 1895, ad IV, n. 3864.

»" Vide supra, n. 2.

"* Vide supra, n. 81.

»» S.R.C., Aug. 5, 1662, n 1238.

"^ The indulgentia aUaris privilegiati is gained on days which do not admit the
quotidiana, by celebrating the Mass officio conformis,

>^ Those who make what is called the *< heroic act of charity for the Souls in
Purgatory" have the same privilege ipso f ado for every day of the year.



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THE CONTEMPLATIVE LIFE. 501

on days which admit the quotidiana}^ If, how-
ever, on Festa semiduplicia or on feasts of a
lower rite a Mass officio conformis is celebrated
ratione expositionis SS. Sacramenti, sive Stationis
ecclesiae, vel alterius solemnitatis the indtdgentia
cUtaris privilegiati may be gained equally as
well as by a Mass de Requie}^'^
Note I. — Although the celebrant by saying the Mass officio
conformis satisfies his obligation, nevertheless according to St.
Thomas the Mass de Requie is of greater benefit for the dead,
" Ex parte sacrificii Missa aequaliter prodest defuncto, de quo-
cumque dicatur ; ex parte tamen Orationum magis prodest ilia,
in qua sunt Orationes ad hoc determinatae." ^^

Note 2, — Frequently stipends are offered to celebrate Mass cul
intentionem dantis^ and at times it is impossible to find out whether
they are for the living or for the dead. The question arises, can
in such cases a Mass de Requie be celebrated ? In most authors,
moral theologians and liturgists, a decree of the S. R. C. is
quoted ^^ which says " Affirmative ; " but it is not found in the
CoUectio Authentica Decretum S, R, C.

S. L. E.



THE CONTEMPLATIVE LIPE.
I. — The Contemplative Vocation.

IT happened once, thousands of years ago, that while a tribe of
escaped slaves, untrained in war, poorly armed, and encum-
bered with women, children, and flocks, was marching through a
granite-walled valley toward the region selected as its future home,
the vanguard was suddenly set upon by a fierce band of natives.
During the bloody battle which ensued, the leader of the wander-
ing tribe went aside from the field, to the summit of a neighboring
hill. To look for the approach of reinforcements ? Or to fore-

>w S. C. Indulg., July 24, 1885.

"' S. C. Indulg., Feb. 29, and April ii, 1864.

1" Ub. IV, Dist. XLV, QuaesL II, art. Ill, Quaest. Ill, ad V.

"• In una Hierosolymitana^ Nov. 29, 1856.



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502 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW.

cast the issue of the conflict ? Or, in order better to direct the
movements of his fighting men ? No ! He went merely to stand
upon the hilltop, and to beg with outstretched arms for the help
of the God of battles. His prayer was heard. " And whep Moses
lifted up his hands, Israel overcame ; but if he let them down a
little, Amalek overcame. . . . And it came to pass that his
hands were not weary until sunset, and Israel put Amalek and
his people to flight by the edge of the sword."

As a proof of the power of prayer, this incident, recorded by
the sacred chronicler in the Book of Exodus, possesses perhaps
no special significance beyond many another instance equally well
authenticated ; yet, as symbolizing the role of contemplation in
the Christian life, it serves peculiarly well to illustrate a spiritual
principle of the first importance. That prayer possesses a certain
practical efficacy, and should be employed by every individual
laboring to attain an honest end is, of course, a truth admitted by
all who recognize the existence of an omnipotent and benevolent
God. Yet, in its integrity, the utility of prayer seems not to be
appreciated by all theists, or even by all Christians ; and indeed
we may assert that the principle of prayer, with all its conse-
quences and implications, is accepted only by those who give
definite public sanction to the state of life known as the contem-
plative. These are a very limited number. For while in theory,
and according to the rules of rigid reasoning, approval of the con-
templative vocation should invariably accompany sincere profes-
sion of belief in the efficacy of prayer, yet, in fact, such approval
is a thing distinctively Catholic.

That to commune with God is a most valuable aid to human
striving, is so palpably evident that no Christian would, or could,
ignore it. Setting aside the value which is traceable to the sub-
jective results of prayer, to the psychological stimulus of ardent
petition, to the enthusiasm bom of concentrated intention, — setting
this aside, we perceive that man's labors are rendered doubly effi-
cacious when joined with prayer. There is an invisible divine
power strengthening the arm that has been lifted in supplication,
rounding and deepening the tones of the voice that, a moment ago,
was silenced during the heart's still worship. There is a new
force, sustaining and cooperating with the man of prayer, as he



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THE CONTEMPLATIVE LIFE. 503

goes about his work, a force that subdues opposition, and wins
over the many who held aloof until the irresistible secret stirrings
of God's spirit impelled them to listen and respond. So declare
all Christians. Can they speak differentiy. merely because the
question concerns society instead of individuals ?

Assuredly not ! If prayer is efficacious at all, it avails the
community as well as the individual ; it possesses social as well as
private value ; it should be regarded not simply as a general priv-



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