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-whether received as veracious or as £eibuIous, is not known. Its heroes are less
familiar than Jack the Giant-killer, or Jack the House-builder. Its poetry is not
appreciated. The majesty and the magnificence of its style, its deftness of phrase
and sweetness of allusion, its perfection of literary form, as well as the profound sig-
nificance of its ethical and religious teachings, are ceasing to be a part of the price-
less possession of the community. Explain the condition as best we may, point
out the results as one ought, yet the first emotion is one of grief over this impover-
ishment of humanity.*'

There are many books for young people, readings from, or
studies in Bible stories, published by both Catholic and Protestant
publishers. Is it possible to have these in public school libraries ?
If you find you leave the Bible and the Imitation of Christ for
wet Sunday afternoons, you may think you are in a bad way : so
shall be quoted to young people even that proud Positivist, Mr.
Frederick Harrison, in his Choice of Books, And in that, and in
other counsels, as to great poets, it struck one, looking through
his book and that on Books a?id Reading by the humble Christian
Brother Azarias, the American scholar of much authority, to find
how much there is on which all must agree. We needs must
love the best.

But both these books of guidance in reading our school
library might have to hand. Well, that is part of an important
matter, as regards school libraries. We are more ignorant of
history than is desirable ; upon that we are agreed, I think. And
one great cause thereof is, that everybody is afraid of offending
everybody else. Now the great modem tradition of English-
speaking people is non-Catholic. Catholics have simply to put
up with it, as Cardinal Newman told them. English literature is
non-Catholic, he said; so is history in English. It is even anti-
Catholic, if you like. Or it used to be. A great change has
come in our own day, as we all know. What then is to be done ?
Let the majority try to understand the position of the minority.
Let them be anxious for facts to be known. Cicero had three
rules : Never to tell a falsehood ; never to keep back a truth ; to
state your opponent's case as fairly as your own. The present

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Pope in opening the Vatican libraries to all comers impressed
these rules on all students. And the Catholics cannot well be
dissatisfied with Leo XIII. Even Protestants seem to have a
soft comer in their hearts for this particular Pope ; and they too
will not think badly of his Ciceronean rules. If these are hon-
estly followed, we ought to be able to read some history together.

I know of one Methodist official so fearful of offending, that
he would not have Parkman's histories in the school library, see-
ing that the historian does not approve the cause for which the
Jesuit heroes of Les Relations suffered. I insisted that an author-
ity on early Canadian history, in thi§ respect, Father Arthur
Jones, S.J., the Montreal archivist, thought Parkman very suit-
able for school libraries. I had asked his opinion according to
the wish of scrupulous officialism. Parkman tells the facts, the
Jesuit said : to be sure he goes on about it being a pity that the
self-sacrifice was not in a better cause ; but historians must be let
enjoy their private views. However, Parkman was voted danger-
ous, in spite of Jesuit influence, and nothing was put in his place.'

Talking of the Canadian Jesuits, we are furnished with an
illustration of the matter in hand, now that there has just been
completed the gjreat work for early Canadian history — and Ameri-
can — the accounts of the missionaries' seventeenth century life
and surroundings, of the Indian tribes, of the geography of the
country, of the conversion of the people. This 73- volume edition
of Les Relations des /elites is published by a non-Catholic firm
(Burrows Brothers, Cleveland), under the editorship of a Protest-
ant, Secretary of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin. And
in the final preface, Mr. Thwaites, while thanking many cooper-
ators, singles out one in the following words : " It is unnecessary
to name them all — the many distinguished American and European
scholars who have cordially given aid and advice — but the Editor
cannot refrain from again especially referring to the generous

' G>inpare, at the recent Royal Commission on Universities, sitting in Dublin,
the evidence of the Bishop of Limerick (Dr. O'Dwyer). The question is once more,
in Ireland, to try to arrange University teaching acceptable to various religions. The
Bishop declared that while he, as a sort of spokesman of the Catholic episcopate,
would have objections to a professorship of philosophy by public endowment, ** for
philosophy is a matter of opinion," he would have none to any professorship of his-
tory, <* for history is a matter of fact'*

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cooperation . . . active and helpful assistance and criticisms . . .
of the Rev. A. E. Jones, S.J., long the archivist of St. Mary's
College, Montreal, whose knowledge of the Jesuitica of New
France is unapproached by any other authority." This is as it
should be.

What is not as it should be is a different treatment of historical
fact, by suppressing mention thereof This, it seems, has actually
been done in an edition of Bancroft's History, his statement being
omitted which tells how Maryland was the first colony to grant
religious toleration.^®

I am trying to think of some suppression on another side to
match that And I remember sending to a Catholic newspaper a
statement of the judgment of Catholic historians against Pope
Alexander VI ; after that newspaper had made statements in his
favor, not only as clever and industrious, but as a worthy man
and Pope. By the way, it may seem strange, but it is true, that
historians' declarations on behalf of Alexander VI are coming
from non-Catholics — Roscoe, Bishop Crdghton, and a recent book
of this season — while the chief modern history of the Popes, that
by the German priest-professor. Dr. Pastor, will not have anything
to do with attempts to rehabilitate the Judas of the Papacy. Well,
any way, the publication alluded to would not. publish my state-
ment I think, too, it refused a protest against an allusion to the
so-called Nag's Head fable, which makes the first Protestant
Archbishop of Canterbury be consecrated profanely and ridicu-
lously in a tavern. The story grew up a century later, and its

*^ ** The hbtory [of Maiyland] is the historj of benevolence, gratitude, and
toleration. The Roman Catholics who were oppressed by the laws of EIngland were
fiax^ to find a peaceful asylum in this quiet harbor of the Chesapeake, and there, too,
Protestants were sheltered from Protestant intolerance . . . Calvert deserves to
be ranked among the most wise and benevolent lawgivers of all ages. He was the
first in the history of the Christian world . . .to advance the career of civilization
by recognizing the rightful equality of all sects. 1 he asylum of the Papists was the
spot, where, in a remote comer of the world, on the banks of rivers which as yet
had hardly been explored, the mild forbearance of a proprietary adopted religious
freedom as the basb of the State .... Upon the twenty-seventh of March the
Catholics took quiet possession of the little place ; and religious liberty obtained a
home, its only home in the wide world, at the htimble village which bore the name
of St Mary's.*' Bancroft, History of the Colonization of the United States. Vol. III.
Pp. 244, 247. 9th ed. London : John Murray. 1842.

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improbability was exposed by the Catholic priest-historian, Dr.

However, to pass on. Statements for our youth as to what
various religions teach should be taken from books of some
authority in each religion. Follow that rule inflexibly; and much
excitement will be allayed. Do not follow Voltaire, who brought
a railing accusation against the Prophet Habakkuk. It was urged
that the Prophet never said that. And the fanatic replied, " Eh
bien. il est capable de tout."

So, I certainly should not ask Catholics to accept as author-
ity a history of pedagogy like Compayre*s. He misquotes and
suppresses, blinded, I suppose, by a bad form of anti-Jesuit
disease. You can certainly learn from his book the fury of that
malady. In France, one may fairly say, M. Compayre is recog-
nized as meaning to attack the beliefs of Christian pupils, and as
ranging himself essentially on the side of those who wish " to
eliminate the hypothesis Grod " from the education of children."
Why should one be led along by a man of his narrow spirit ?
When one knows the whole truth, one feels ashamed of follow-
ing where he leads. It is like reading the modem history of the
French Revolution, which never mentions the Terror, lest little
public school republicans should "find out" But to take an
instance of his truth that is half a truth: this historian of
pedagogy quotes words from Voltaire, who says the Jesuit
Fathers taught him nothing but Latin and nonsense, /. ^., by the
way, a classical literary training, and Christian doctrine and
morals. But what he does not quote is this, from Voltaire ; for
it is not contempt and abuse, and would not harmonize with the
one-sided text : " During seven years that I lived in a college of
Jesuits, what did I see there ? Lives the most laborious and the
most frugal, the hours of the day divided between the care of us
and the exercise of their austere profession. I will call as witness
the thousands of men educated as I was. And therefore it is
that I am lost in astonishment at any one daring to accuse them
of teaching a relaxed or corrupt morality, men who live in
Europe the severest lives and who go seeking the most cruel
deaths to the extremities of Asia and America." "

1^ A resolution of five hundred teachers in a meeting at Bordeaux, 1 901.
" Letters^ February 7, 1746.

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Nor does Compayre quote this other Voltaire judgment:
^* There are among the Jesuits, writers of rare merit, scholars,
orators, geniuses." Nor yet more of Voltaire's words, on pop-
ular education : " I thank you for proscribing study among the
laboring classes." But he does say the Jesuits are opposed to
teaching the poor ; seemingly because they themselves teach the

Another illustration from this book of mjustice to youth : " It
is to the Protestant Reformers . . . that must be ascribed the
honor of having first organized schools for the people . . . the
primary school is the child of Protestantism." Take one country,
Scotland, and you find the reformers trying to save some of the
school money seized when the Catholic institutions were being
plundered. It is a common error, says the History of Education in
Scotland, by Edgar ,^ — a Protestant, if one must condescend to
note that — ^to fancy popular education began with the Reforma-
tion. The schools were there before, and then lost their share ot
the Church money. " The coffers of the greedy nobles were
filled to bursting : and for hundreds of years the schools of Scot-
land and the cause of education had to starve. The Reformed
Church fought nobly for the nation's patrimony; but only a mere
pittance was saved for education." The history of burgh schools
of Scotland (1876) speaks of facts that "show our obligation to
the ancient Church for having so diligently promoted our national
education — an education placed within the reach of all classes."
That is certainly history. Is there a professor of history in Scot-
land who would state it otherwise ? The University of Glasgow
does not feel called on to state that its founders were other than
a bishop and a Pope." And so, at its recent celebration of near
five centuries' existence, it sent a letter to Pope Leo XIII saluting
him as the successor of its patron and founder, Nicholas V.
That has nothing to do with the religious belief and unbelief ot
Glasgow University to-day. But in these difficult questions for
us, racial and religious, we recall the three warnings : don't tell
Ues ; don't hide the truth ; don't cheat and slander.

Mentioning rules at all reminds one of Emerson's reading

"Edinburgh: Thin. 1893.

'*In the opening Words of the account of the University : Calendar 1 902-1 903.

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rules — ^to come to our books — (i) Never read a book till it is a
year old ; (2) never read any but famous books ; (3) never read
any books but those you like. And that last rule has a pleasant
sound, would say these unfortunate children, for whom all these
dread voices but suggest the loads of learned lumber in the heads
of pedagogues. These children are the patients on whom we all
have designs to experiment.

Here is one saying about them, which will not make us write
down to them, or deal them out too many "juveniles:" "It
is a mistake to write down to the understanding of children." So
says Scott ; as if that modest man would have us give them of
his own high words, though indeed he himself shrank from inflict-
ing them even on the children in his house. He says somewhere
else that children receive very strong impressions from writing
which they imperfectly understand. And one recollects how
Scott himself as a boy used to read Shakespeare furtively
o'nights, when his candle ought to have been out. But we have
to force children to read Shakespeare.

One should begin with what children like. Build on that.
The love for animal life, for instance. Certainly, children, as their
elders, ought to be encouraged to reread books. " Books that
children read but once are of scant service to them ; and those
that have really helped to warm our imaginations and to train our
faculties are the few old friends we know so well that they have
become a portion of our thinking selves. To me it seems doubt-
ful if the flood of juvenile literature, though good, and an anti-
dote against poison, be an unalloyed good."'* Of our forward
youth it shall not be said : " Sir, he hath never fed on the dainties
that are bred in a book ; he hath not eaten paper as it were ; he
hath not drunk ink ; his intellect is not replenished ; he is
only an animal, sensible only in the duller part." Lord Bacon is
the more practical, for he distinguishes : " Some Books are to be
Tasted, others to be Swallowed, and Some Few to be Chewed
and Digested." And for the aim : " Reade not to Contradict and
Confute ; Nor to Believe and Take for granted ; Nor to Finde
Talk and Discourse; But to Weigh and Consider." Words
indeed to be weighed.

** Agnes Repplier.

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He further says : *' To spend too much Time in Studies is
Sloth;*' which when reflected on will satisfy the baseball devotee
or ice-boat pleasure seeker. Perhaps we teachers need the words
of the statesman. Again he suggests that we like to show ofT:
•' To use Studies too much for Ornament is Affectation/* And
Bnally, that a bookworm has much to learn in judging this world :
•* To make Judgements wholly by their Rules is the Humor of the
SchoUer;" or, as O. W. Holmes put it : " Every deacon should
be taken to at least one Derby day, to see the sort of world it is
that he lives in." I confess I should feel disposed to sympathize
with the deacon if he turned and quoted something like Diogenes
when taken to the fair : ** Lord, what quantities of things there
are in this world that Diogenes can do without" " It is always
of use to know the true temper of the time and country one Uves
in."** And yet, in trying to give interests other than material, to
save education itself from being materialized, those who excite to
loving use of good libraries are doing a work for which the people
owe them a debt of gratitude. We are all in their debt.

Nevertheless, we hark back from our plans and our philan-
thropy, not to Mrs. Malaprop and genteel illiteracy — that seems
a hard saying ; however, she accepts Sir Anthony's advice, and
will foi^et and forgive — but to the thought that each one must
give an account, first of all, of himself Enlightened selfishness
you may call it — with a difference. The fact remains — we live
alone, and we die alone. So " Plato by a goodlye similitude de-
clareth, why wise men refraine to medle in the conmion wealthe "
— thus the Utopia recalls the Republic (vi. 496) — " He who has
watched the madness of the many . . . keeps quiet and con-
fines himself to his own concerns, like one who takes shelter
behind a wall on a stormy day, when the wind is driving before it
a hurricane of dust and rain ; and when from his retreat he sees
the infection of lawlessness spreading over the rest of mankind, he
is well content if he can in any way live his life untainted in his
own person by unrighteousness and unholy deeds, and when the
time for his release arrives, take his departure amid bright hopes
with cheerfulness and serenity." Bacon gives the Christian touch
when he adds to his quotation from Lucretius beautifully blended

w Burke.

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with his own most noble words : " * It is a pleasure to stand upon
the shore and to see ships tost upon the Sea : A pleasure to stand
in the window of a Castle, and to see a Battaile, and the Adven-
tures thereof below : But no pleasure is comparable to the stand-
ing upon the vantage ground of Truth ' : (A hill not to be com-
manded, and where the Ayre is alwaies cleare and serene ;) 'And
to see the Erroures, and Wandrings, and Mists, and Tempests, in
the vale below ' : So alwaies, that this prospect, be with Pitty, and
not with Swelling or Pride. Certainly, it is Heaven upon Earth,
to have a Man's Minde move in Charitie, Rest in Providence, and
Turn upon the Poles of Truth."

Is that an ill use to make of books, to have them teach in the
end that, though there may be much higher studies than reading,
yet all we learn from books, of duty, of high pleasure, of knowl-
edge, of truth and beauty, we must get through ourselves — each
as he is, as he has helped to make himself We can learn only
what we are fit for.

Then once ag^n we hear the master of those who know urging
us to study ; yet, " so as not to forget our mortality."

But to come to an end, with the praise of books :

<' Dreams, books, are each a world ; and books, we know.
Are a substantial world, both pure and good ;
Round these, with tendrils strong as flesh and blood.
Our pastime and our happiness will grow.

Nor can I not believe but that hereby

Great gains are mine ; for thus I live remote

From evil speaking ; rancor, never sought.

Comes to me not ; malignant truth, or lie.

Hence have I genial seasons, hence have I

Smooth passions, smooth discourse, and joyous thought :

And thus fix>m day to day my little boat

Rocks in its harbor, lodging peaceably.

Blessings be with them — and eternal praise.

Who gave us nobler loves and nobler cares —

The poets who on earth have made us heirs

Of truth and pure delight by heavenly lays ! ' '

W. F. P. Stockley.
Fredericton, New Brunswick.

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FEW statements of Christian doctrine have caused so much
misapprehension of the Catholic position regarding the
economy of salvation as the proposition of the Fourth Lateran
Council (12 1 5)-— "Outside the Church there is no Salvation."
Apologists, in attempting to explain it, have frequently touched
two extremes. They have either so minimized its meaning as to
leave the impression that, since God*s mercy is coextensive with
His truth, it is needless to harass men in good faith with the duty
of entering the true Church ; or, they have defended the state-
ment in all the crude rigor of literal sense, and thereby made the
doctrine of the Church appear narrow and unjust, with the result
that well-meaning inquirers after truth were prevented from turn-
ing toward Catholicism as a probable answer to their aspirations.

St. Cyprian.

Among the early Christian Fathers St. Cyprian enjoys the
prerogative of special favor with Protestant controversialists, per-
haps because he had no hesitation to oppose a Pope of the
Roman Church when occasion called for an expression of his
views in matters of Church discipline. But whatever testimony
the frank declaration of his views bears to the breadth and inde-
pendence of mind of this great bishop, saint, and martyr, there can
be no doubt as to his position regarding the necessity of seeking
salvation within that Catholic Church which recognizes the Pope
as its head. In his treatise on the unity of the Church * he makes
the bald statement that " he who has not the Church for his
mother, cannot claim Grod as his father." Now St. Cyprian knew
no Church except the Roman Church. In the same treatise we
find him uttering the following warning to those who might be
inclined to hearken to men who had abandoned the true faith :
" Let no one think that those men who leave the Church can be
good," or that " he who does not profess allegiance to the
Church of God may attain the martyr's reward." Again we
say St. Cyprian knew no Church of Grod except the Roman
Church. We do not appeal to those words from the treatise De

^De Unitate EccUsia, n. 6 Patr. Lat. 4, 503.

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Duplici Martyrio, falsely attributed to the saint — " the holy Church
is the mystical body of Christ, outside which there is no salva-
tion ; " but if they are spurious they nevertheless represent his
mind quite as distinctly as do the words of St Augustine ad-
dressed to the people of Caesarea on the same subject : " Outside
the Church a man may find everything except only salvation."

The pertinent question is, What did these expressions of
representative teachers, like St. Cyprian, in the Church of Christ
mean ? They knew as much of heresy as we do ; they had lived,
prayed, taught, and suffered in order to check its growth ; their
lives had been passed in its very midst ; we cannot say, " Oh,
they would have reversed their decision had they lived in the
twentieth century." And yet how hard and revolting a sentence
it is ! How sweeping a condemnation, how stem, narrow, selfish,
bigoted, and petty it makes the Church look in the eyes of many !

Church Membership.

The whole point lies in this question, " What constitutes
membership of the Church ?*' What will enable us to say that a
man is or is not a member of the one true fold ?

The Church is the mystical body of Christ : ** He (the Father)
hath made Him (Christ) head over all the Church, which is His
Body.** ^ Consequently all the members of the body are united
to the Head, which is Christ, and they are members only and pre-
cisely because they are united to Him. The arm would be of no
service to the owner were it cut off from the body, and if the
head be removed the body at once perishes. Church-membership
then depends upon union with Christ ; according as we are united
with Him, so we are true members of His Church.

It must be admitted that there are many at this moment living
in the world without any religion at all, persons perhaps given
over to sin, who nevertheless may or will one day be knit to
Christ by the sweetly compelling force of Grod's grace. Such
men, although actually separated from Christ and the Church, are
not beyond the reach of grace and hence not outside the possi-
bility of being so united. Even those who are likely to die

« Eph. I : 22.

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impenitent are, whilst they still live on earth, within the power
of saving grace.

But our question concerns rather those who, to all seeming,
are leading good and Christian-like lives, and who yet, according
to the hard-and-fast axiom under discussion, are "outside the
Church " and by consequence " outside salvation."

Actual Union with Christ.

This, indeed, is the burning question : Is it impossible to have
real, actual, existing union with our Divine Lord except in the
pale of the Catholic Church ? To say that it is not possible, is to
assert that all who are not in actual communion with the Roman
Catholic Church are eternally lost ! — which God forbid ! Let us
examine the question.

Real, actual union with Christ is of three kinds. It may be

Online LibraryCatholic University of AmericaAmerican ecclesiastical review, Volume 27 → online text (page 6 of 78)