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the Chancery Office, in which the Bishop lodges the definite
authority of his own decision.

Miss Eleanor C. Donnelly, whose religious poetry suggests
habitual life in the pure and sympathetic atmosphere that sur-
rounds the Sacred Heart of her Divine Master, has contributed

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to the current number of The Dolphin the following beautiful
dedication in verse.

The Dolphin from the earliest days of the Church has stood
as the Symbol of Christ See an article on this subject in the
January number of The Dolphin, 1902.

Strong silent symbol of the Father's Word,

King of thy brethren in the crystal brine !
Swifter than flight of dart or flash of sword,
Thou imagest to us our puissant Lord,

Our Dolphin all divine !

Enamored of earth's tuneful melodies,
And meekly docile to thy friends terrene,

Thou foUowest their barks thro' limpid seas.

Warning them oft of unseen enemies.
Most faithful coryphene !

If, in the dusky chambers of the deep.

All lustreless and dull thy scales appear.
The rainbow tints that flush thy flying leap.
Recall the Risen Christ — the radiant sweep
Of robes divinely dear.

Yea, more than all, thy changeful loveliness.

Thy brilliant iridescence at death's hour.
Reminds us of that Beauty bom to bless.
Which bids the grave, so drear and comfortless.
To blossom like a flow'r.

Hence do we meet thine emblem in the homes

Of Apostolic ages — view it traced
Upon the martyrs' sacrificial tombs,
The hidden altars of the Catacombs —

Monuments, time-defac'd.

For thou, dear symbol of the Ufe, the Way,

The ICHTHYS Whom celestial waters shrine-
Didst to our fiithers, as to us, portray
The Glory of the everlasting Day,
Our Dolphin all divine !

Eleanor C. Donnelly.

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On the third Sunday of Advent (Dec. 14) the calendar says
that the playing of the organ is permitted in the liturgical service.
As a matter of fact the organ is played at the solemn functions in
our churches without discrimination throughout the whole year.
Properly this ought not to be ; and in the great churches of Catho-
lic countries the services during the preparatory days of Advent
are performed by trained chanters without organ accompaniment.
The purpose is to mark the absence of festive joy and to bring
home to the mind of the faithful the fact that at these seasons they
are to refrain from whatever tends to flatter the senses, even with
reference to things which are lawful at other times. For the same
reason solemn marriage celebrations are interdicted until the end
of the Christmas octave.

This spirit of self-restraint belongs, as has been said, to Advent,
which is a preparation for the Christmas joys. We are making
ready for the reception of our Heavenly King coming to dwell
with us for a time on earth and in our hearts permanently. This
means taking thought, cleansing, and furnishing, which involve
labor and sacrifice. So we meditate, purify our hearts by sorrow
for sin and by mortification, decorate our interior by prayer, the
practice of self-restraint and works of charity.

But the season is long, the work tiresome, and the body weak.
And as the laborer rests at times in the midst of his task, to take
a glance at what has been accomplished, and to refresh himself
with the anticipation of the joy that awaits him at the end of his
work, so the Christian stops in the midst of Advent preparation
to rehearse for a moment the sweet melody of coming Christmas
chant and to take in the full meaning of the encouraging words of
the Holy Spouse, his Mother the Church, as she calls out to her
•children " Gaudete," that is " Be joyful," the Lord, the Emmanuel,
your consolation and Saviour is at hand !

Such is the meaning of the Mass service on the third Sunday
of Advent. Hence the organ is played in momentary joyful
strains, flowers deck for the day the altar, and there is a tone of
hopeful jubilation in all the prayers of the sacred office of that

The vestments are still of the violet color which — a mixture of

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blue which signifies the hope of heaven, and red which symbol-
izes sacrifice — denotes the spirit of soberness and penance, but in
the solemn service the deacon and sub-deacon wear the dalmatics
(vestments of joy) in place of the folded purple chasuble, which is
properly worn by them during all seasons of penance throughout
the year.^

On the feastdays which occur during the week of Advent the
festive service and therefore the organ music and the decorations
of the altar are retained. So also at Benediction of the Blessed
Sacrament, when neither the violet color is used in the vestments
of the priest, nor the purple antipendium which usually hangs in
front of the altar, which is removed for the time, to indicate the
character of the Eucharistic joy. Only the Sunday service of the
Mass is always distinctly penitential throughout, with the brief
exception of the Gaudete liturgy just mentioned.


This year the feast of Holy Innocents occurs on Sunday. The
color of the vestments at Mass and at the Canonical Hours is
Red, Ordinarily, as for exemple next year (when the feast occurs
on Monday), the color is Violet, And on the octave day of the
feast the proper color is Rose. This is the only feast in the
liturgical cycle that admits of such a change. The Rose color is
not ordinarily used, though it is proper, simply because it is
needed only once a year. For the third Sunday of Advent
(Gaudete) and for the fourth Sunday of Lent, a very light purple,
much like rose color, is proper ; and in churches which are not
too poor to procure such vestments this color should be used.
It gives occasion for explaining the significance of the feasts and
of the beautiful symbolism by which the Church teaches us the
ways and precepts of God.

Violet vestments signify on the whole Sorrow^ and are meant
to inspire a grave and thoughtful attitude in the faithful who
attend the liturgical services. If you mix blue and red in liquid

' This custom is likewise little known in our churches, where the complete litur-
gical service is not carried out, owing to a neglect due to the original poverty of our
mission churches and kindred conditions.

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colors you obtain violet Blue is the color of heaven and suggests
that our thoughts turn away from earth. R6d is the color of
martyrdom, of blood, and of the flame which consumes the
sacrifice. A combination of the two, which makes violet, is,
therefore, indicative of sacrifice with a view to heaven, unselfish
devotion. In the darker shades of violet used in Lent the
suggestion of penance predominates as an element of self-sacrifice;
similarly in Advent, when the spirit of reflection and the purging
of the heart (as a preparation to meet the poor and humble Christ-
Child in the Cave of Bethlehem) call for self-denial from motives
in which heaven leads the soul against earthly attachments.

On the third Sunday of Advent (and the fourth of Lent), when
there is a momentary interruption of the penitential strains lest
the soul wrapt in continuous darkness might become disconsolate,
the Church permits — ^with the sounds of music and the flowers on
the altar — a light purple approaching rose color, to indicate the
tone of hopful joy which mingles with and relieves the application
to penance. It is the encouraging caress of the Spouse, our holy
Mother, bidding her sons and daughters to keep on bravely in
the spirit of faith.

On Holy Innocents violet is ordinarily used at the Mass and
Office. For the spirit of the feast indicates a twofold sentiment —
that of sorrow with the weeping Hebrew mothers, and that of
limbo where the little Innocents were necessarily to be detained
until after the sealing of our Redemption in the Resurrection of
our Lord and His descent into Hell (limbo), which would re-
move from the eyes of their souls the veil of original sin that
prevented for a time their enjoyment of the Beatific Vision.

At the same time they were martyrs ; the baptism of their
blood would obtain its sanction together with that of the Hebrew
martyrs, Eleazar and the Maccabees, as soon as the sacrifice on
Calvary had been consummated. So their martyrdom has the
spirit of penance rather than that of triumph, as in the case of St
Stephen, the first Christian martyr. For these latter we use red ;
it is the color which marks the birthday of the martyrs into
heaven simultaneously with the fiery baptism of the Holy Ghost
that transforms them into citizens of the heavenly Jerusalem.

But when the feast of Holy Innocents happens on a Sun-

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day, its spirit mingles with that of the joy peculiar to the octave
of Christmas ; for a Sunday which wears violet calls to penance
pure and simple. But a Sunday within the Christmas season is a
joyous day, and even the sadness that comes with the reflection
on the cruelty of Herod does not suggest sorrow for actual sin so
much as regret for the hereditary loss and present delay of happi-
ness in heaven which awaits the Holy Innocents. Hence the
Church does not permit violet, which is the color both of sorrow
and of penance, on Sunday, indicating by the red color that on
that day she forgets the sadness and regards the little victims of
Bethlehem simply as martyrs of Christ.

However, on the eighth day of Holy Innocents she uses rose
color. Rose is red tempered by white. Red is the martyr's sign ;
white the vane of peace and truth and innocence. Thus the
Church indicates by the choice of this color on the eighth day,
that at the termination of their course of martyrdom these little
ones obtain the heavenly reward of innocence ; they are virgins
that have passed through the purifying process of a singular
baptism by blood. Other Virgin Martyrs went with the lily of
their baptismal innocence to reach for the palm of a martyr's
victory ; but these came with the palm to the Saviour's cradle,
and on Easter-day, which marked the Octave of the Christ-Child's
earthly life. His chastening breath blew lilies from the blood-
stained palm. Hence, white and red commingled mark the color
of our little Innocents in fair, scarce-blushing rose.

St. Andrew, whose feast occurs on the 30th of November
(transferred this year to December ist, on account of its conflict-
ing with the first Sunday of Advent, which has precedence over
all feasts that happen on that day), was an intimate friend of St
John the Beloved Disciple, and the two were the first to introduce
themselves to our Lord. In the Greek Church St Andrew is
actually styled Protocletos, that is " the first called." It was he
that introduced his brother, St Peter, to our Divine Master. St.
John mentions him twice in his Gospel in a way which directs
attention to the gentle providence which characterized him. Once

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before the miraculous multiplication of bread (St John 6 : 8) it is
St Andrew who finds the boy furnishing the five loaves and two
fishes ; and again (12: 20) he asks Jesus to speak to the Hellenist
strangers who wished to see our Lord. This, besides the bare
mention of the Apostle's name in the Synoptic Gospels, is all the
account we have of him in Holy Writ.

There exists, however, an old history of St Andrew which
gives further details of his life and martyrdom and also contains
some of his pastoral writings. The authenticity of these details
rests upon a much later tradition, but they are partly corroborated
by statements of the early Christian Fathers (Origen, Eusebius,
etc.), who speak of the Saint's missionary activity in Scythia and
Greece, and of his death upon the cross. As to the precise form
of the cross we know only the tradition which makes it differ
from that of our Lord. In the earliest representations it has the
form of a Y, in accord with the assumption of St. Peter Chrysol-
ogus, who says that the Saint was fastened upon the trunk of a
tree, his arms tied to two separating branches. Since the four-
teenth century we find him mostly pictured with the X, the
so-called "Andrew Cross." In a mediaeval sacramentary or
Mass-book of about 1000 A. D., belonging to the Cathedral of
Ivrea, and in other manuscripts of nearly the same age, the
Apostle is represented with the ordinary Latin cross t.

Durandus,^ describing the traditional form in which painters
and sculptors in the decoration of churches are to represent the
twelve Apostles, says : " St Andrew was of dark color (niger fuit
colore), with a heavy beard and long white flowing hair and of
middle height. He is always pictured with a certain likeness to
St. Peter, his brother, but as having a peculiar gentleness of ex-
pression (mitissimus) wanting to the Prince of the Apostles."

Guido Reni and Domenichino have left us some magnificent
paintings in the Church of St. Gregorio, Rome, where the two
masters were to rival each other. Reni's picture represents an
open space outside the walls of Patras (Achaia); the Saint is
approaching the cross, in the act of falling on his knees in devout
adoration of the sign of his redemption ; there are the multitude of
soldiers, the protesting and weeping crowd of women and children,

» Rat. di. VII, 38, n. I.

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which give strange and vivid emphasis to the beautiful figure of
the aged Apostle mindful only of the one thought that he is now
to meet his Master whose
sweet presence, as of old
during the three years of
public life, he had now
missed for over thirty years.*
On the opposite wall Do-
menichino painted the
scourging of the Saint,
which is said to have pre-
ceded his crudfixion. The
last-mentioned painter also
decorated the Church of S.
Andrea della Valle, in
Rome, with a cycle of fres-
coes representing five scenes
in the life of the Saint, that
is — his vocation, in two pic-
tures (one representing St.
John the Baptist directing
the attention of St Andrew
to the passing of Jesus, " Ec-
ce Agnus Dei ; " the other
representing the Master call-
ing the Saint to follow
Him), the martyrdom in
two scenes, finally the apo-
theosis, representing angels
bearing the Saint to heaven.
Murillo also has a pic-
ture of the Saint's cruci-
fixion which presents him
tied to a rude cross fash-
ioned of trees; the silver
hair and beard flowing in
the soft breeze; his face lit up with that incomparably sweet

* The death date of the Apostle is uncertain ; most writers assign it between the
jean 64-67, others even much later.

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ecstatic gaze of which Murillo was such a consummate master, and
angels of matchless beauty descending with palm and crown
upon the scene. There is a group of compassionate women
and frightened children in the foreground suggesting an air of
earthly contrast with the heavenly spectacle. Another Spanish
masterpiece, of much more naturalistic and somewhat weird
tendency, is the famous picture by Ribera, preserved in the Munich
gallery (Pinacothek). Probably one of the best pictures, viewed
as a single piece for window or panel decoration, is Andrea
Sacchi's painting. It represents the Saint kneeling before the
cross in the act of uttering the traditional salutation found in the
Roman Office : Hail precious cross, which has been consecrated
by the Sacred Body of my Divine Master ! The executioner and
a guard standing by express the typical restlessness and cruelty
of those who ignore and condemn the Christian maxims.

Among modem painters Overbeck has left us a series of paint-
ings of the twelve Apostles remarkable for its simplicity of form
and melodious color-tone. The accompanying cut, which we
take from a copy of the Diisseldorf collection, represents the
saintly artist's figure of St. Andrew.

St. Francis Xavier, December 3. — ^The Patron Saint of Mis-
sionaries, who died on his way into China, 1552, is usually painted
in the prime of life, with short dark beard, and holding a cross to
his heart or aloft, sometimes with a lily in the left hand to indicate
the purity of his heart. Le Brun (ti69o), and Steinle more
recently, among noted artists, picture the Saint as a single figure,
suitable decoration for window or niche ; the one with the cross,
the other in the attitude of heavenly contemplation. In the latter
picture the figure is standing full front, looking heavenward ; the
two hands unfolding the upper garment so as to lay bare his
breast, from which issues forth a great flame, indicative of the ardor
which consumes his heart. The whole attitude is expressive of
fervor and self-sacrificing love, although the face lacks something
of the spiritual refinement which belongs to the character of holi-
ness. However homely we know to have been the face lines of
some of the Saints, their countenances showed a certain inner
charm when they conversed with men, and this living beauty of
character wholly obliterated the defect of outward form upon which

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mechanic perfection is based. This quality of the interior it is the
true artist's privilege and power to make predominate in his repre-
sentation ; it is the ideal element which makes art something higher
and nobler than mere photography.

Carlo Dolci's picture in the Pitti gallery of Florence represents
St. Francis as a pilgrim, and thus expresses the artistic motive
suggestive of the Saint's missionary zeal which took him to distant
lands for the love of Christ.

Among the painters who give us a more or less historic view
of the Saint's life is to be mentioned foremost and earliest Rubens.
He had been a pupil of the Jesuits at a time when the fame of St.
Francis Xavier pervaded all Europe, owing to his contemplated
canonization. When that event occurred, Rubens was at the very
height of his glory as a painter, alike influential in the world of
art and of politics. It was a work of noble devotion with him to
fresco the magnificent Jesuit church of Antwerp, beginning his
work the very year of the Saint's Beatification by Pope Paul V.
Just one hundred years later that masterpiece of Christian archi-
tecture, containing over forty large wall paintings by Rubens, was
destroyed by lightning. The flames consumed nearly all except
the altar pieces. These were (at the time of the suppression of
the Jesuit Order) purchased by the Empress Maria Teresa for the
National Gallery of Vienna. Here we find the celebrated picture
of St. Francis raising the dead. It is perhaps the best example
of Rubens' power to seize the dramatic force of an action in all its
bearing, — devotion, fear, love, defeat, and triumph are blended
in the different groups that surround the Saint, tottering idols
and horrified Indians on one side, triumphant confidence and
grateful appeal on the other.

Nicolas Poussin, a younger contemporary of Rubens, has
painted the same subject, now among his principal works in the
Louvre (Paris). This picture belonged originally to the Jesuit
Novitiate, but was, like Rubens* work, sold to Louis XV. It
represents St. Francis raising to life the daughter of a Japanese
citizen (at Cangorima). Weeping attendants and astonished
Indians surround the Saint and his companion, Jean Fernandez,
who are praying at the bedside of the girl about to raise her
head. Above, the figure of our Lord appears, surrounded by
adoring angels.

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In the titulary church of the Saint at Naples there is a fresco
by Luca Giordano, that wonderful genius whose power of rapid
execution has gained for him the name of Fa Presto. He paints
the Saint administering baptism to Indian and Japanese converts.
It is a fine piece of drawing characterized by a certain anachron-
ism in architecture and the ethnic features of its personnel, but
otherwise impressive. A still more favorite scene from the life of
the Saint is that of his deathbed. The most noted pictures of
this class belong to the end of the seventeenth century.

Carlo Maratti, the last of the Roman Masters, and Giovanni
Ballista Gauli, his Genoese contemporary, have each left us fine
pictures of St. Francis dying on the shores of Sandan. Maratti's
work is preserved in the church of the Gesu at Rome. It is char-
acteristic of the artist in this that he indulges in certain contrasts
of light and shadow in his figure of the Saint surrounded by the
angels who console him in his final agony. Maratti's angels are
always robust creatures, perhaps because he liked to keep his
delicate manner of painting figures exclusively for our Blessed
Lady, of whose image he was exceedingly fond. A good ex-
ample of this artist* s peculiar manner is to be found in this country
at the Convent of the Ladies of the Sacred Heart, Eden Hall. It
is a well preserved original and shows in its technique the par-
tiality for our Blessed Lady by which Carluccio della Madonnina
(" Little Charlie of the Madonna,'' as his friends called him)
distinguishes his pictures.

Gauli's picture is in San Andrea in Monte Cavallo in Rome.
It also was painted for the Jesuits.

Modem painters have largely imitated the old masters. The
best known examples of the death-scene are probably those of
Seitz and Flatz. In the former, St Francis lies under a rude shed
on a mat, near the seashore, the cross in his hands placed upon
his breast. Above is our Lord stretching out His arms to welcome
the Saint. Flatz's picture is very much the same in motive. The
Saint is in a sitting posture on his couch of straw. In the distance
is a rude cross of stone. The figure of our Lord and heads of
angelic hosts are at the right of the Saint

St. Lucy, December 13. — A favorite Saint with the great
Masters of the Renaissance is St. Lucy, the Virgin Martyr of
Syracuse in Sicily. At the tomb of St Agatha at Catanea she

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obtained the grace of health for her infirm mother, who in conse-
quence permitted her the free disposal of her dowry in behalf
of the poor. Her betrothed, a pagan, thereupon accused her as
a Christian. She was tortured and finally put to death by the
sword. Among authors* who refer to the traditional pictures in
which the Saint is represented as carrying two tyts upon a tray,
some say that she is invoked as a patron in diseases of the eyes,
because she is supposed to have suffered the loss of her own eyes
through the cruelty of her former lover; others, because she
voluntarily sacrificed her eyesight to escape his importunities.
Kreuser holds that this form of representing her is purely sym-
bolical, and signifies either her gift of prophecy (she is related to
have at her death foretold the end of the persecutions in Italy),
or else to the provident care of the sick (her mother) and the
poor to whom she gave all she possessed. Perhaps the most
likely reason, which in a manner includes the others, is the iact
that the name of Lucia or Lucy itself signifies not only lightness
but also helpful ; and that the Syracusans likened her to Ludna,
the " giver of light," their former goddess, both names being
derived from the same source, lux, an old Greek and later Latin
word, which means daylight, joy, help, etc.

Fra Angelico (Academy of Siena), Carlo Dold (Uffizi Gallery
in Florence) and Massarotti (in the church of Santa Luda at
Venice) paint her as holding a sword, her neck showing the wound
inflicted by that instrument of her martyrdom.

At the entrance of the church of St. Lucy in Florence there
is a representation of the Saint holding a palm branch and a lamp.
It is by Luca della Robbia, and supposed to be an expression of
Dante's image, who in company of Beatrice meets the Saint and
sees in her the image of the heavenly light (wisdom) which
dispels all ills.

In her entreaty she besought Lucia,

And said : ''Thy &ithful one now stands in need

Of thee, and unto thee I recommend him."

Lucia, foe of all that cruel is.

Hastened away, and came unto the place

Where I was sitting with the ancient Rachel.

* DetscI, CkrisiL Ikonographie, Vol. II, p. 492.

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" Beatrice/' said she, '' the true praise of God,
Why succorest thou not him who loved thee so.
For thee he issued fh>m the vulgar herd ?

Online LibraryCatholic University of AmericaAmerican ecclesiastical review, Volume 27 → online text (page 73 of 78)