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spirit of fairness and unprejudiced controversy, have appeared in the
leading magazines of France and Germany. This conciliatory attitude
of the representatives of different phases of thought toward the
author's standpoint in philosophy is greatly due to his method, which
avoids all aggressiveness in tone and form, and shuns acrimonious and
abusive criticism. The ring of sincerity in his words prepossesses the
reader and the student in his favor ; one feels that the author does not
dispute, but discuss.

The volume can hardly be called a text-book, though it is sure \x>
be consulted with great profit by students. It appeals to a wider
circle of readers ; it is intended to reach everybody that takes interest
in philosophical studies, that watches the currents of human thought,
and looks for a solution of those problems which reflection on the
universe inevitably raises. Accordingly the style is clear, the treat-
ment perspicuous and methodical. Precision is not the author's prin-

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cipal aim ; yet there is nothing superfluous, whilst the connection of
the parts, their mutual, organic relation stands forth in bold relief.
The thought finds a fiill, adequate expression, not in stereotyped
formulas, but in sober, easy language. There is a happy touch of
freshness and spontaneity in the style.

The volume embodies the natural results of long years of earnest
and continued mental work, fertilized by extensive reading and
quickened by intelligent controversy. The arrangement of the chap-
ters differs somewhat from the plan generally pursued in books dealing
with the same subject. The pian adopted by the author is suggested
by the genesis of our concepts; it is as legitimate, perhaps more
practical and lucid, as the traditional one. A simple review of the
contents of the chapter will acquaint us with the plan and substance
of the book. An introductory chapter explains and justifies the title.
A second chapter sets forth the scope and object of the treatise and
exposes the prejudices of the age against metaphysical speculations.
The next greater section deals with Being. To gain a firm basis for
his speculations, the author takes real existing being as the point of
departure. The question on the principle of individuation fits in here
very aptly and is taken up. It is solved in the spirit of the Thomists,
making the "materia signata" the ratio individuans for material
things, and contending for the individuality of the species in the
purely spiritual realm. The arguments are concise and clear, yet to
our mind they do not carry conviction. With regard to the founda-
tion of possibles we must chronicle a somewhat singular view of the
author. He maintains that the foundation of possibles is to be sought
in the abstractions from experience. He brings some subtle argu-
ments in support of his theory, but they only go to show that the
noetical origin of the concepts of possibility and possibles is indeed to
be found in the abstract character of our knowledge. Mgr. Mercier
is led to this opinion by a wholesome, but in this case, it seems to us,
unfounded, fear of ontologism. If his idea be true, then it appears
the so-called ideological proof of the existence of God must be dis-
carded as unsound and .inconclusive. Does not objective reality
require as much an ultimate, explanatory reason as the actual reality
of physical things? If we do not admit an eternal arch- type for our
conceptions of possibles, they are illusive and as empty as Kant's
categories. A further chapter is devoted to the divisions of Being,
essence and existence being the chief. In the much mooted question
of the relation of Being to existence the author sides with the Thomists

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and claims St. Thomas' authority for the real distinction. This
opinion seems to gain new advocates of late, among them some
prominent Jesuit professors. Withal it is difficult to grasp the full
bearing of this theory, in whatever form it may be proposed. Among
the chapters that deserve special mention because of the masterly
way in which the topics in them are handled, are those on the attri-
butes of Being and on Substance. In the development of these
concepts the author follows the genetical and analytical method of
exposition, which leads to a clearer and fuller comprehension of them
than the synthetical process, mostly followed out in books treating of
Metaphysics. In speaking of goodness the author throws some inter-
esting sidelights on finality and evolution. The chapter on Substance
shows Dr. Mercier at his best ; fully abreast of the theories broached
in our days, he explodes the arguments of phenomenalism and vindi-
cates the reality of substance. A chapter on actual and potential
being leads over to the treatise on causes, a cardinal point in any
philosophical system. The manner of exposition is worthy of the
subject, and the terminology which is preferably modem appeals to
present habits of thought. The concluding chapter contains a sub-
stantial and interesting dissertation on the Finality of the Universe.
The author deftly controls the course of his speculations by referring
and comparing them to established &cts ; and he is equally cautious in
his generalization.

All in all the book is a valuable contribution to philosophical
literature, its distinctive feature being a certain up-to-dateness, not so
commonly found among modern treatises on scholastic philosophy.

X. M.

Hewton. Edinburgh and London: Blaokwood k Son. Pp. ix— 2&.
Prioe, 58.

Catholic students desirous to place themselves au caurant with
modern Protestant religious thought, as represented by Professor
Caird's Gifford Lectures on '* The Evolution of Religion," will find
Mrs. Hay-Newton's Readings a useful summary of the main arguments
of the larger work. It does not lay claim to originality. The bulk
of it is composed of long extracts from the Lectures, and other kin-
dred sources, poetical as well as prose, with explanatory comments by
the authoress, who shows herself a capable cicerone in the exploration
of the many devious byways of Dr. Caird's transcendentally obscure

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theological thought. As is to be expected in Dr. Jowett's successor
as Master of Balliol, there is a great deal of nebulous teaching where
dogma is concerned, a tendency to substitute a wholly subjective stand-
ard for objective realities as the test of truth, an anxiety to unify at
any cost contending principles, — the whole tinged with idealistic phil-
osophy and, to be fair, expressed generally in language of fascinating
purity. Mrs. Hay-Newton considers, we think justly, the innermost
kernel of Dr. Caird*s meaning to be the evidential value of that
** longing after we know not what,*' that " glow which thrills us when
we hear of noble deeds,'' as more than a mere sentiment or emotion
— nothing else than ' * a spark of that Divine Perfection which we call
God. " In so far as he develops this idea, Catholics will follow his
arguments with appreciation, although he is apt at times to erect fer-
reaching conclusions on very slender premises ; but they will regret
his unsatisfactory teaching on the Person of Christ. In spite of lengthy
quotations from Dr. Gore's Bampton Lectures ^ which the authoress
claims to represent Dr. Caird's position, we cannot think that the
latter' s answer to the question ** Is Christ supernatural? " and to the
further question, * * Is Christ divine ? ' ' would have passed muster at

Emerson's saying — " Heartily know when the half-gods go, the
gods arrive" — is quoted appropriately to illustrate the spirit with
which Jesus declares that he who gives up anything for the service of
God and the good of men will receive a hundredfold ; and the golden
mean between optimism and pessimism adopted by Christianity as the
essence of its moral teaching is well drawn out. There is also an
excellent summary of non -Christian creeds, heathen and otherwise,
and a later lecture on the relation between St. Paul's Christology and
that of the Apostles is useful, if only for the emphasis that it lays upon
the universality of the Evangel, which the great Apostle of the Gen-
tiles, from the very fact that he ** stood at some distance from the
facts of the life of Jesus, and for that reason was in a better position
to estimate their general meaning," was the first to proclaim.

llie arrangement of the " Readings " is on the whole good, except
in one or two instances where the matter is allowed to overlap, or
appears in a wrong place. A word of praise is due to the compiler's
impartiality, as evinced by her reference to the ** Roman Catholic
Church (as holding) many instances of the results of the idealized
spirituality in women, of which no one can deny the nobility and
beauty. ' ' We trust that she will complete the usefulness of her book
by adding an index to its second edition.

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THE HOLT 8A0BIFI0E OF THE MASS, dogmatioaUy, litnrgicaUy, and
asoetioally explained. By the Ber. Dr. Bicholas Gihr. Translated
from the lizth German eoition. St. Lonis, Mo. ; B. Herder. 1902.

Dr. Gihr*s voluminous treatise on the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass
has gained for itself the reputation of a classic in its French transla-
tion, as well as in the original. During the twenty-five years since
its first appearance in Germany, the volume has been in ever-growing
demand. The &ct that it has remained untranslated into English
until very recently could hardly be accounted for, except by the pre-
dominantly missionary activity of our clergy, whose opportunities for
reading and spiritual self-culture have been absorbed by the necessary
devotion to external tasks. But gradually the cultured and devout
priest, whose influence lies in the quiet ways of instructing and of
directing the interior upbuilding of the Church, is becoming a more
frequent figure in clerical circles ; and with this growth we are sure
to find an increasing demand for books peculiarly suited to the taste
of men who derive help in the practical ministry from a good collec-
tion of choice books suited to their profession or calling, and who
find delight and recreation in spending some hours each day in their

The immediate object of Dr. Gihr's volume is not so much to
rehearse the historical data which mark the development of the Cath-
olic liturgy, as rather to lead his readers to a deeper appreciation of
the devotional significance of each rite, and, above all, to animate
the priest himself to a &ithful and respectful observance of the cere-
monies which betoken reverence for the great Reality of the Divine
Mysteries. " A correct and clear understanding, as well as frequent
consideration of the profound and mystical Rite of the Mass, will, in
all probability, be the best means to enable the priest to refrain from
a thoughtless, habitual mannerism, and lead him to celebrate the
adorable Mysteries of the Altar with becoming attention, devotion,
and reverence. The priest who studies this book will, moreover, find
manifold reasoning and argument wherewith to direct the &ithful
according to their capacity in the proper understanding of the Divine
Sacrifice, and in their fervent recourse to the Eucharistic fountain of
grace. The authorities of the Church have often impressed upon pas-
tors, that this is a chief duty of directors of souls, for the conscientious
discharge of which they shall have to render an account before God."
— (Pref, I Edit.)

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The volume is, however, aside of its practical purpose, a work of
extended and accurate erudition. It deals with the theology, and we
might say the philosophy of its great subject, in a way worthy of pro-
found study for those who derive spiritual benefit from measuring the
wondrous wisdom which the trained intellect is able to recognize as
part of the divine economy which supports the institution of the
Blessed Sacrament in its Eucharistic and sacrificial aspect. This is
the characteristic feature, in the main, of the first part of the work.
It treats of the reality, the essence and efficacy of the Eucharistic sac-
rifice, and shows us its distinctive and important place in the organic
structure of the Church.

The second part of the work deals with the more popular aspect of
the Mass, the altar and its belongings, the chalice, vestments, language,
rites, and the parts of the Mass service proper. And here the devout
and intelligent lay-reader, as well as the priest, finds abundance of
instruction, which will make his assistance at the Holy Sacrifice an ap-
peal to his Maker, in which all the forces of his soul cooperate. How
much joy the intelligent realization of the ceremonial of the Church
adds to the otherwise devout fulfilment of the Sabbath duty which the
Spouse of Christ has imposed upon her children, will be understood by
those who carefully peruse this part of Dr. Gihr's volume. The trans-
lation serves its purpose excellently ; for although versions from for-
eign idioms of spiritual books do, on the whole, very much less for
their readers than their authors intended, yet where the information is
didactic, and the argument constitutes an appeal to &ct quite as much
as to sentiment, there a simple version in any language will produce
similar effects. The volume eminently deserves a place in every well
appointed Catholic library.

8AIHT OAJETAK. By B. De Hanlde La Olaviere. Translated by George
Herbert Ely. London : Dnokworih & Oo. Pp. 175. Price 38.

The Life of St. Cajetan will hardly prove as interesting to the gen-
eral reader as many of the preceding volumes in Messrs. Duckworth's
"Saints Series.*' Nevertheless it will repay perusal, if only for the
light that it throws upon Catholicism in Italy during the early part of
the &teful sixteenth century.

The future founder of the Theatines was bom in 1480, and his lot
was cast successively at Padua (where he obtained the doctorate
utriusque juris) y Rome, Verona, Venice, and Naples. His first stay
in the Eternal City synchronized with the apogee of the Renaissance.

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Leo X sat in the Chair of Peter, and Raphael reigned supreme in the
worlds of art and sestheticism. A wave of semi -paganism invaded
Rome. Yet Cajetan could touch the heights of sanctity, unaffected
by the prevailing atmosphere of worldliness and indifference. It is
curious to note that at the very time when the Barque of Peter seemed
engulfed in the stormy seas, our saint was living in a state of ecstatic
exaltation. More than that, he laid the seeds of his future Order in
the practical work of ministering to the dying. Charity had done much.
Even Luther was struck with admiration at the multitude of well-
ordered hospitals which met his eye at the very centre of the Catholic
world, which to him was the apostate Babylon of the Apocalypse. In
his Table Talk he goes out of his way to eulogize the Roman hospitals,
although his warped theology makes him add characteristically : '* The
mischief is that the Italians imagine they are meriting heaven and will
be saved by such good works, which spoils it all. ' ' There was, how-
ever, one class of unfortunates passed over by the charitable. The
incurable had received little or no persevering help. Practical diffi-
culties seemed insuperable. It was lefl to Cajetan to plead with all
the passion of a " prelate of the Divine Love ** for the outcast, the
hopeless, and the dying. He persuaded the confraternity of St.
Jerome at Vicenza to open an asylum, impoverishing himself to sup-
port it. At Verona, Venice, aud elsewhere, he threw himself heart
and soul into similar work, until in 1524 he gave it permanent shape
by founding the Order of the Theatines in conjunction with Caraffa, a
future Pope. It had for its object the infusion of new life into the
priesthood that it might become an effective instrument of social
reform, especially in relation to works of charity. The Theatines
were to be apostles rather than recluses. St. Cajetan left precept for
practice. We find him tending his " dear sick " with his own hands,
burning with the zeal of divine love for the most repulsive and aban-
doned. His passion for active service gave him the name of ** the
Saint of Providence.'* It was rooted in an extraordinary sensibility
to the attractions of the Divino Amore that was almost feminine in its
mingled timidity and gentleness. Perhaps the most interesting chap-
ter in the book is that on " The Art of Divine Love," based on the
doctrine of St. Francis of Sales * celebrated Treatise. St. Cajetan
sought for a religion impregnated with love, demanding from its dis-
ciples a corresponding boundless charity towards God and man ; and
that central idea became the ruling principle of his life of heroic self-
sacrifice. He saw that the intellect without emotion was powerless to

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move the will heavenwards. As Fr: Jolly, the author of the Psy-
chology of the Saints (the initial volume of the present series), well
says, "men have never been holy save through love." St. Cajetan
made love the beginning and end, alike of his &ith and practice as
embodied in the Order, which was his legacy to the world. We can
give no better praise to his biographer than to say that he has made
the Saint so human in his charity as to make the reader desirous of
imitating him in the intensity of his love.

THE WA6EB OF GEBALD O'BOITBEE. OhristmaB drama in three acts.
From a story by Franois J. Finn, 8. J. Transposed by M. B. Thiele.
Kew Tork, Oinoinnati, Ohioago : Benriger Brothers. 1902. Pp. 47.

It is hardly necessary to do more than mention anything new from
the pen of Father Finn, to assure its popularity. This is not indeed
a new book, but merely a new way of bringing home the salutary
lessons which our popular Jesuit writer of juvenile stories has managed
to teach American boys and those who have to deal with them. Teach-
ers will readily welcome this adaptation. There is a decided want of
good dramatized material for Catholic children of English speech ;
but we have less that is suitable for boys than there is for girls, since
the religious of our convents manage to provide plays for their pupils
where men for the most part have failed. The Wager is for boys
only ; there are five of them in the play, and two more to impersonate
fathers, and an additional uncle, so as to give &ir play to all sorts
of temperaments. The end and object of the performance is that the
pious boys win, and even make their elders better, and thus increase
Christmas joys in their families a hundredfold.

THE LIFE OF JESUS OHBIST. Embraoing the entire Oospel nanatlTe,
embodying the teaohings and the miraoles of our Saviour, together with
the History of His FoondatioB of the Ohristian Ohnroh. By the Ber.
Walter EUioU, of the Panlist Fathers. Fifth edition. Hew Torki
Oatholio Book Exchange. 1902. Pp. zzv— 761.

It is encouraging to know that Father Elliott's popular Life of our
Divine Lord is already in its fifth edition. It is written in a devout
spirit and embodies closely the Gospel history. At the same time
there is abundance of accessory material which helps the reader to fill
in the background and historical interpretation of such scenes and
incidents in the Scriptural narrative as require the light of tradition to
make them intelligible and show them in their original proportions to
the modem reader not otherwise familiar with the Palestinian manner

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of expression of the Evangelists. The book offers an excellent medium
of instruction — ^in an agreeable and original way — ^both for the home
circle and for converts, since the author has deftly interwoven the
doctrines of Catholic belief in his narrative of our Lord's life and in
that of the history of the Church, which forms the sequel. The
manner of illustration does not greatly attract us, though it may have
its advantages for a certain large class of readers who want striking
images of a newspaper type to attract their easily diverted attention.
The style is that of Father Elliott which has gained so many souls to
the truth of Christ through love of the man — ^in which simplicity of
statement alternates with a certain glow of fervent expression betoken-
ing deep conviction and devoted zeal.

Stanislaus MaoOarthy, O.S.D. Dublin t M. H. Oil! and Son ; Hew Tork,
Oindnnati, Ohioago: Bensiger Brothers. 1902. Pp. 184. Piioe,
28. 6d.

Some of our readers are probably familiar with a short and
agreeably-written biography of St. Emmelia, mother of SS. Basil and
Gregory of Nyssa, members of a much larger family of less-known
saints, which was published some years ago by Sister Stanislaus Mac-
Carthy, daughter of the distinguished Irish poet, Denis Florence
MacCarthy. The similarity of names, Emmelia and Aemilia, though
not the same in their original meaning, attracted the gifted nun to
inquire into the life of Blessed Aemilia Bicchieri, all the more since
the latter belonged to a religious Order of which she herself was a
devoted member. She died before she completed the task, which was
taken up by a Sister of a neighboring community of St. Dominic, who
completed the work in the spirit in which it was originally undertaken.

Blessed Aemilia was prioress of a Dominican convent in Vercelli,
which she had built of her inheritance from her mother, about 1256.
She was remarkable for her gifl of prayer and spiritual discernment.
Pope Clement XIV beatified her in 1769, and ordered her feast to be
inserted in the Roman Martyrology of the Dominican Proprium on
August 17th. The biography is but a sketch written in a pleasant
style, and, like its predecessor, deserves to become popular, especially
among those who bear the name of Emily without knowing anything
of their patron saint.

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Literary Cbat*

The MacmilUns are to begin this month the pablication of a uniform edition of
Edward Fitzgerald* s works under the editorship of Mr. Aldb Wright It is nearly
fifty years since the quatrains of Omar Khayyam cams as a genuine treat to thought-
ful readers who then began to set great literary value on the author's translation of
Calderon*s Dramas as well as upon his quaintly reflective Saim of the fVise. The
edition is to be limited to 250 sets.

We hear constant complaints of a lack of fair treatment of Catholic subjects in
secular manuals of history and pedagogics, and especially in the larger encycloptedias,
which are supposed to appeal to popular intelligence on neutral ground, that is to
say, which treit of all topics with absolute freedom from sectarian prejudice. That
is a fact.

Another fact is that we Catholics have no correctives for this evil in the shape of
similar works which would set an earnest and unprejudiced inquirer right A good,
large, carefully written encyclopaedia published under Catholic auspices and censorship
would do all the work which half a dozen wide-awake Truth Societies can accomplish
in the same direction. The expense would be less, the effect greater, more per-
manent, penetrating, and conclusive. If a newspaper were to talk us down by mis-
representing Catholic doctrine, Catholic morals, aims, we should at once be able to
dte fiurts, with chapter and verse, and bigotry itself would not be able to hide itself
under false pretences of quoting authentic sources when it goes to the Briiannica or
any other <' poisoned well'' for its definitions and statistics about Catholic matters.

Can we get together such a work ? Undoubtedly, provided we take a rational
interest in the matter, and instead of making speeches and criticisms in public and
private about the bigotry of our opponents and the incompetency of our fellows,
simply go to do or to encourage those who are capable and willing to do.

Here is the firm of Herder publishing a third edition of one of the most beauti-
fully made encyclopaedias, in every sense perfect, and wholly Catholic, which calls
for the respectful acknowledgment of its merits from non-Catholic quarters in all
parts of Germany. The first volume of the new edition (1739 pages), scholarly
and withal popular in style, accurate in its last and least detail, printed and bound

Online LibraryCatholic University of AmericaAmerican ecclesiastical review, Volume 27 → online text (page 76 of 78)