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the Red Sea about 1250 B.C., as in fgs. 4 and 5, had one mast
with two yards, and carried one large square-sail. The mast
was secured to a prop at its foot to keep it steady, and was
held by two fore-stays and one back-stay ; the two halyards
of the upper yard being carried down to the quarters, so that
the strain on these relieved the back-stay and partially
obviated the need for shrouds. It is strange that the mast
had no shrouds at all : but a curious double mast, like a pair
of sheer-legs, had formerly been carried by vessels on the
Nile, as in fg. i, which mast was always set athwartship, so
that no shrouds were needed on these vessels ; and possibly
mere force of habit kept the Egyptians from fitting shrouds
to the single mast of later times. Each yard was formed of
two spars lashed together, so as to avoid the waste of timber
in tapering the thicker end of a single spar to balance with
the thinner end : and this device was adopted by the Greeks
and Romans, as may be seen from the Athenian ships of
about SCO B.C. in fg. 19 and the Pompeian ship of about
50 A.D. in fg. 26, and was thus transmitted to the modem
world"'. The yards were each worked by two braces; and
there were numerous lifts to support the lower-yard at all

*'* Aristotie, mechanica, 8, quoted in note 106 on p. 96.

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times and the upper-yard when lowered. The other ropes
were brails for taking in the sail.' In the great relief repre-
senting the battle in the Mediterranean about looo B.C. the
rigging is indicated very roughly both in the victorious
Egyptian ships, as in fg. 6, and in the defeated Asiatic ships,
as in fgs. 7 and 8 : but two things at least are clear. The
lower-yard had been discarded ; so that the lower corners of
the sail must now have been controlled by sheets. And the
sail was no longer taken in by brails stretching down obliquely
from the centre of the upper-yard, but by brailing-ropes
stretching vertically down from several points along the yard.
A figure of a square-sail on a mast with two yards forms the
hieroglyph nef, and forms part of the hieroglyph chont, which
represents a boat: so the unnecessary lower-yard had been in
use from very early times. But now it was discarded finally.
In the vase-paintings of about 600 B.C. in fgs. 12 and 13,
which come from Etruria and Attica respectively, the ships
certainly look as though they had this yard. But in the
former the painter has simply reproduced the hieroglyph
chont ; as was perhaps to be expected, for the vase was made
by some Greek settler in the Delta of the Nile, and thence
exported to Etruria. And in the latter the absurdly straight
sides to the sail shew that its straight base is solely due to
the painter's methods.

The Phoenician ships of about 700 B.C., as in fg. 10, had
one mast with one yard, and carried a square-sail. They are
sometimes represented with two fore-stays and a back-stay,
sometimes with two back-stays and a fore-stay ; and always
with four other ropes, which seem to be sheets and braces :
but no further details can be traced. These ships, then, were
rigged like the ships that fought in the Mediterranean three
centuries before: so this scheme of rigging had probably been
long in use among the Phoenicians; and thus came to be
adopted by the Greeks, when they began seafaring.

^^ This explains why the Greeks and Romans usually spoke of the yard in the
plural as /cepatai or antenna. The Greeks should strictly have used the dual : but
the plural doefs not imply that there were more than two spars. Corp. Inscr.
Attic, vol. ii, no. 802, col. a, U. 4, 5, ice/xucu /AcydXac ^ iripa dddxifios.

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The Homeric poems shew clearly enough how the earliest
Greeks rigged their ships. There was the histos or mast,
supported at its foot by a prop termed histopede, and held by
two protonoi or fore-stays and an epitonos or back-stay.
When the mast was not in use, it lay aft in a rest termed
histodoke ; being raised thence and lowered thither again by
means of the fore-stays"'. Upon the mast was the epikrion or
yard ; and upon this was the sail. The sail is styled indif-
ferently speiron and histion and histia\ the plural perhaps
denoting that it was formed of many pieces, as in the
Athenian ship of about 600 B.C. in fg. 13 : and its whiteness
is emphasized. Ropes termed hyperai and kaloi and podes
are mentioned, but without any indication of their nature:
and the presence of halyards and brailing-ropes is implied *'^
The hyperai ?l!\A podes, that is to say, the upper ropes and the

*'• Odyssey, xii. 178, 1 79, ol d* ip rtjl fi idrjaav bfiod x«/His re t6&)w re | 6p$^ kv
IffToiridxi, iK d* adrod relpar di^rroK, where euJroO must refer to UrroO. cf. Alcseos,
Fr. 1 8, apud Heracleitum, all^orise, 5, vepfUv yb.p drrXos la-Toridav ^x^i, Odyssey,
xii. 409 — ^412, IffTov W irporUovi ififnf^* dvifioio OiieXKa | dfuporipovi' Urrbi 5* drlffta
v4ff€P, 5rXo T€ xdvra | els AmXov icaT^w^' • 6 5' Apa Tpifjofji b^l prjji \ xX^^e jcv/3e/>-
vfyr€<a ice^aXi^. These verses are imitated by Apollonios Rhodios, i. 1103, 1104,
if^bOev ifAwMf^affa 0<Ai dfifioio Kardi^ \ a^rdiin ff<tyfiv€ff<n.v inrU rrporbiKav kpiffryrou..
The cr^^i'ff are probably the trapacrdrai. ^hich replaced the Urrwirihii : see note
i8i. Odjrssey, xii. 422, 423, ^ic W oi Urrhv ApcL^c irvrl Tpbxuf airrdip iv* aiJry | ivl-
Tovos pipXriTOt pobs jkpoio t€T€vx<*^^' There is no direct proof that Mtovos means
back-stay ; but as vpfyrovoi means fore-stay, there is not much room for doubt. Iliad,
i. 434, Urrhp 3* taroSbiqi TiKaffOP, wpordpoiffiP inp^es, Odyssey, ii. 424, 425, lirrbp d*
eCKdrtvop KoP^rjs (pTOffOe fJLCffddfiiffs \ ffTrjffOP iclpaprei, /card 8i vporSpourtP (Svfaap,
These verses are imitated by Apollonios Rhodios, i. 563, 564, 5iJ ^ rdre fUyw
Unhp ipcffTi^aPTO ii€ffbiii% \ dijaap Si irporbpoun Topvaadfupoi iKdrepSep. In his
opinion, then, the fore-stays were made fast on either side of the bow, not right
forward. See also Lucian, amores, 6, t6p Urrbp ix tup fieffOKoCKutp dpapres, where
/u^oKoCKutp seems intended to convey the sense of koCKtjs fJLeffbbfiTfs, and clearly is
equivalent to KofXtfs laroSbKris in Apollonios Rhodios, ii. 1262 — 1264, aMxa d* Iffrla
Ijukp Kal irUpiop MoOi KoCKfji \ IffrodbKiis trretKapres MfffJicoP' h dk koX a&rbv \ Iffrbv
dif>ap x«Xd<roFTO TapcucXibbp. Apparently hroffde means /rom within and goes
with &€lpaPT€s in the Od3rssey, though Apollonios thinks it means within and goes
with trrrjffap : so the fiea-bbfAjf was probably the Iffrodbicri under another name, or else
the hold containing the laroSbKri, Thus the fjk€<rbbfuu are contrasted Mrith the decks
at stem and stem by Lycophron, 751, 752, cUrrous fMabbfuus xal aifp Uploii /SoXet |
Tpbs KvfM S&imtp, The UrrodbKrj is mentioned by Ptolemy, Almagest, viii. i,
'A/yyoOf dffrepurfibs : but the measurements are too corrupt for fixing its position
accurately, though they indicate a place towards the stem.

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foot ropes, are presumably braces and sheets; while the
kaloi are certainly the brailing-ropes, for Herodotos employs
this name for them in noting the perversity of the Egyptians
in putting the brailing-rings on the after side of the saiP'*.

The Greek ships represented in vase-paintings invariably
have one mast with one yard, and carry a square-sail ; and
probably they are all intended to have the same sorts of
ropes, though these are always sketched carelessly. The
Athenian ships of about 500 B.C. in fgs. 17 to 19 have
numerous brailing-ropes ; and in the merchant-ship, which
presumably was rigged on a larger scale than the war-ships,
each brailing-rope makes several loops round the sail. In
these ships, and also in the earlier Athenian ship in fg. 13,
the halyards are carried down to the waist, and thus take
the place of shrouds in supporting the mast

^^ Odyssey, v. 254, h 5* Xarhv irofet icai eTrUpiov apfievov air^, 160, iy 6* inripas
T€ KdXovs T€ ir6das T ipidijircv iv aOry. 316 — 318, fUffov di ol Urdu ^o|e | deiuii
IxuryofUiKav dvifjuav iXOoOffa ^jJeXXo, | rriXov 8i avetpop Kal iviKpiov ifiireae xbvrifi,
Iliad, i. 480, 481, ol d' Urrbv 9'Hiffairr\ &vd 9* larLa Xevicd iriToaffoy | iif d* ajfCfios
vpriffep fUffop tirriop, Odyssey, ii. 426, 427, (Xkop d* Icria \evKh. iwrrphrToun
poevffvp ' I ifJivp7fff€P d* opcfios fiiaop larlop, iii. 10, 11, ol 5* Idifs KardyoPTOy 18* UrrLa
pribs il<nfs \ ffTeiKaif deLpaPTcSt tV 8* wpfixaap, iK 8* ifiap aCrroL xii. 170, 171,
dpffT&PT€S 8* irapoi pebs IffHa firfpi&ffaPTo, \ koI tA flip ip prjl 7Xa0t;pj 04<rap, ol 8* iv
iperfid, #c.t.X. These last verses shew that there were halyards for hoisting sail ;
and also brailing-ropes of some sort, as the crew took in the sail by pulling it up,
areiXatf delpoprcs, fiTfpj&aoPTo. For the latter term, see Sophocles, Fr. 699, apud
AthenaeuiQ, iii. 55, paOrai 8i p.ripi<FavTo prfbs lax^^^y ^^^ Oppiail, de venatione,
i. 50, Ix'^ifP dawalpopra pvOwp &irofiripii<raff6<u. The meaning was apparently to
coil up cords or cables, and so haul up things attached to them.

^^ Herodotos, ii. 36, tQp Urriap roits KpUom koX Kd\om ol pJkp dl^CKoi. (^cjOcp
irpo<r84owrif Aly6imoi 8i ffftadep. The brailing-ropes, and the rings to keep them
in their place, may be seen upon the fore side of the sail on the Roman ship in
fg. 29 r and these clearly are the ropes and rings intended by Herodotos. More-
over, the word /cdXoj or icdXws occurs in various phrases where it can hardly refer
to any ropes but these. Plato, Protagoras, p. 338, fi-fyr* a5 Upioraybpap {avfi^ov-
XctJw) xdi'Ttt Kd\(ap iicrelpaPTa, oipLif, iipipra, ipeijyeip els rb wiXayos tup \6ytap, cf.
Sisyphos, p. 389, rb \ey6fi6p6p yc, vdpra KdXov iip^pres, Aristophanes, equites, 756,
pvp 8ifi <re irdpra 8ei KdXutP i^i^ai ffeavrov. Euripides, Medea, 278, 4x^pol ydp
i^Mffi, vdpra 8ii KdXcoPj Troades, 94, Stop ffrpdrevfi* *ApyeTop i^lji Kd\(os. To let out
the brailing-ropes was to let out the sail ; and to let these ropes out altogether was
to let the sail out to the full, and hence by metaphor, to make every effort.
Oppian, de piscatione, ii. 223, ya^rpl 8k irdpras iirLTp<air(affi xdXfaas, where he
alludes to gluttons; while now-a-days a sail is said to belly.

T. /

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The inventories of the Athenian dockyards shew that in
330 B.C. the rigging for the war-ships of three and four banks
consisted of the histos or mast, the keraiai or yard, the histion
or sail, and the topeia or ropes ; and that in four-banked ships
the topeia consisted of eighteen loops of kalodia^ two himantes,
a double agkoina, two podes, two hyperai, and a ckalinos^'^^.
The distinction between these six sorts of ropes is not indi-
cated by the inscriptions ; nor can it safely be inferred from
the langfuage of ancient authors, since technical terms were
often used very loosely : the term topeia^ for example, which
here denotes the ropes collectively, being popularly employed
to denote the halyards alone. But probably there were

^^ Corp. Inscr. Attic. voL ii, no. 807, col. c, 11. 66—101, no. 808, col. d, 11.
119 — 151, no. 809, col. e, 11. 75 — no, no. 811, col. c, 11. 11 — 32. These are the
lists of the entire gear (ivTtKrj ffK€&ij) supplied to ships of three and four banks in
330/319 B.c and following years; and the only items of rigging included therein
are Itrrds, /cepeucu, hHovt Toreia, In no. 809 the word rowtia is missing : but line
106 of col. e may be restored as Kard^ijfj^a, roir6?]a to match line 30 of col. c in
no. 811. The suggested restoration /caTa/8XiJ/i[aT]tt seems too short. For roweia
see no. 807, col. a, 11. 141 — 146, 153, 159 — 163, 178 — 183, no. 808, col. b, 11.
189 — 193, no. 809, col. b, 11. 122 — 237, Toireta rerfrfiptav, or roreto iwl Terpifipets,
iKdanis KoKifidiuM fijfpdfMra A PI 1 1, Iftdyres \\^ dyKOwa dutXr}, vddes \\^ {fripcu ||,
XaXivdf |. See also no. 807, col. a, 11. 62^4, 73 — 75, no. 808, col. b, 11. 1 10, in,
115 — 118, no. 809, col. b, 11. 145 — 147, 150— 152, TOTcto iirl wads HHPAAI,
tX^ /ATjpvfidTwu KoXifidLdtv III, which shews that there were ftijpCfiaTa Ka\<fi8luw
among the roveta for three-banked ships, but unfortunately gives no further
information. The KdXoi or KdXun had probably been replaced by these /caX^dta of
smaller size, when the brailing-ropes began to be looped round the sail instead of
merely passing down the front ; and the loops might well be termed /LtipOyMTa, If
so, there were not eighteen separate brailing-ropes, but six with three loops each,
or nine with two loops.

^*^ Strattis, Macedones, Fr. i, r^ viirkov ik toutov | (\Kovatw 6vc6owt€S rorelois
Awdpes AwaplBfiriToi \ els &Kpw, iSffTcp Iffrlov, rhv Iffrtv, Archippos, asini umbra,
Fr. I, rpoxOdoii.vi roOro Koi rovelois \ laroffiw o^k dyev wbPov, Both quoted by
Harpocration, s.v. rortiop. The plays were produced at Athens about 400 B.C.:
so this popular usage of the term roxeia was concurrent with the technical usage.
Assuming that the icaX^dta and rrhBes and inr4pai were brailing-ropes and sheets
and braces, the Ifidyres and dyxotya and x^^'^^* would naturally be halyards and
fore-stay and back-stay. The halyards are termed Ifidm-cs by ApoUonios Rhodios,
iv. 889, 890, O^t Si Xoi^of I dpvarav Tav6<rwT€S iv Ifidwreffffi Ktpalns, this TOFiJo-airef
bf representing iprwjiiraPTes, cf. Heliodoros, iEthiopica, v. 27, rd Iffrla dvifAdnn-w.
The dyKoiva or an^uina is mentioned by Cinna, apud Isidorum, xix. 4. 7, atque

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eighteen loops of brailing-ropes — six ropes with three loops
each, two halyards, a double fore-stay, two sheets, two braces,
and a back-stay^**. The inventories also shew that the
three-banked ships were rigged differently some years before.
There were then the histos megas and the keraiai megalai or
large-mast and large-yard, and the histos akateios and the
keraiai akateioi or boat-mast and boat-yard : there were also
two ^va^^x parastatai^ which probably were a pair of posts ar-
ranged as bitt-heads to support the foot of a mast that could
easily be raised and lowered : and although four of the six
sorts of ropes were the same, there were then kaloi instead of
loops of kalodia and the agkoina was not double^*. But whilst

anquina regat stabilem fortissima cursum^ and by Lucilius, apud Nonium, p. 536,
funis enim pradsu^ cito adque anquina soluta. But here anquina should be read
ancyroj the line meaning that the shore-cable was cut, and the anchor weighed : see
note 166 on p. 73 for similar passages. Cinna's expression anquina fortissima might
well denote the fore-stay, as that came to be the principal rope in the rigging :
see note 202 on p. 94. The term x^^^^ would thus remain for the back-stay,
and seems suitable enough.

^^* Corp. Inscr. Attic, vol, ii, no. 7^5, col. d, 11. 31—42, /cc^dXotoi' irapaororwy
ewl vavs Pill I, Kc^dXanov UrrCiv fi€yd\<ou A A [.-.], K€<f>d\ouop Kcpcuup fieydXiap iirl
vaOs A A PI, K€<pd\aiop ItrrOv [d«ca]re/wi' PH, K€<t>d\(uov [K€p\<u[{a\v dKarclfav ixl
pavs [...]. This forms part of a list of the gear for the three-banked ships in one
division of the fleet in or about 352 B.C. Corp. Inscr. Attic, vol. ii, no. 794, col.
b, 11. I — io=no. 793, col. a, 11. 38 — 52, vapaffraTUP dpiOfios HHHHPIIII* ourot
ylypoPTai M vaOs HHAAIIII, [l<rrQp fJL€y]d\w dpi^/i[6f iwl pojus [..] AAAP,
[if€p]cu«W fieyd(\(ap) dpidfWi HHHHP[Al]l ' atratylypopraiivl pads HHA A Al,
[lirrQ]p dKarelup dpLB/ids [iirl pavs...] AAAAII, [K€pai(a]p dKaT€L(<up) dpi^/^[jjHP]
APII* o5rai ylypoplrai] ivl pads PAAAIII [ical fda] Kcpala. no. 794, col. b, 11.
15— 2i=no. 793, col. a, IL 61—65, [lyrW dpidfjUn [4v]l pavs PAAAAPII,
[tot€C\up dpiSfJibs irl paOs [ipryXri PAAAPIIII [«o2] IfjiApres II, vbScs II, iJWpot
III, AyKoiva I, \x]a\ipbs I, koKus PI||. This forms part of a list of the gear for all
the three-banked ships in the fleet in or about 356 B.C. Such lists, however, can
only shew that masts of two kinds and yards of two kinds were in use concurrently
— not that there was a mast and yard of each kind on every three-banked ship ;
for obviously these ships might not all be rigged alike, but some with a large mast
and yard, and some with an akatian. But various entries in the inventories shew
incidentally that the ships carried a mast and yard of each kind. Corp. Inscr.
Attic, vol. ii, no. 791, 1. 92, lar fiey and IffT die wanted for the AeX^tWa, no. 794,


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there were two kinds of masts and yards, there certainly wias
only one kind of rope of each sort and only one kind of sail :
and the inscriptions give no hint that there was ever more
than one set of ropes and one sail for a ship. Xenophon,
however, mentions the two kinds of sails, megala and akateia,
in speaking of Athenian three- banked ships in 373 B.C.: and
both kinds might have continued in use for about sixteen
years longer without appearing in the extant fragments of
the inventories"". Still, the fact remains that the second
mast and yard and the parastatai were retained in the
Athenian navy for some years after the second sail and the
second set of ropes had been discarded: and this is a curious

col. a, 11. 18 — 20, 17 — 19, Ktp fJL€y and l<rr die ready for the E^wpew^s, col. d, 11.
66 — 68, Urr fiey^ xep ftey, Urr d«r, K€p dx, all lost by the Taxetd, no. 798, col. b, 11.
16, 17, 26, IffT fieyj K€p fiey and Urr &k now on board the MeyUrnif 11. 31, 32, lar
ftey and Urr dx now on board the ^evddvri, no. 800, col. b, 11. 57, 58, Urr ney and
IffT &K now on board the 'Hye/AoWa, no. 801, col. b, 11. 19, 20, xep fuy and Kcp d/c
now on board the Mcucapla, no. 803, coL b, 11. 53 — 55, lar fuy^ K€p fuy zndUrr die
lost by the Tpv^(offa, col. c, 11. 62 — 64, Urr fiey, lar die and xep die lost by the Awplt,
11. 87 — 90, IffTiify, K€p /*ey, Urr dif, Kep dx all lost by the 'T7fcta: and so forth. There is
clearly an error in the second of the lists above, where 454 Ta/KurTOTOi are allotted
to 224 ships : the mason has put |||| for PH by repetition, the ships really number-
ing 227, each with two ira/xM-rdrai. By some chance the N^my and the ^WkevOepla
once had three vapaffrarai, on board, according to the entries in the inventories,
no. 789, col. b, 1. 3, no. 793, col. c, 1. 22. But no other ships are credited with
more than two; and the entries here may possibly be wrong. The vapaffTarai.
were certainly of timber, for in the inventories they are reckoned among the VKeiri
£i)Xtya: and as they were discarded simultaneously with the masts and yards
described as neyaXw, and dtcdreuM,, they probably had some connexion with one or
other of those masts or yards. Their name indicates that they were a pair of
supports for something standing between them ; and such supports could not well
be attached to a yard, or to any part of a mast except its foot. Most likely they
were a pair of posts, to serve as bitt-heads, with the foot of a mast fixed on a pivot
between them in such a way that this mast could easily be raised or lowered ; for
the Athenian three-banked ships then had masts of that description. Xenophon,
Hellenica* vi. 2. 29, ^vXoirdt ye fn/jPt rds fih ev r^ yi {<S<nrep rpmri^irei) Ka0Umif h Hk
reus pavfflv alp6fieyos ad rods Urro^ dwb TO&rtav iaKOTeiTo, It is clear that there was
only one Icrlop and one set of roxeta for each ship, since the phrase is M pads in
the second of the lists above, where the phrase would have been raOra ytyperai erl
pads, had there been more than one. Unless there was more than one dyxoipa in a
set of Toxetd, there must have been more than eight koKojs, for otherwise these
TOTctd would have sufficed for ninety ships with one i&ir^pa to spare. But possibly
there were two dyKoiPoi in place of the dyxoipa divXfj of later date.

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fact. The extant fragments of the inventories do not mention
thirty-oared war-ships until 330 B.C.: and then mention them
so seldom that there are no parallel passages for correcting
errors and omissions. But apparently these ships had a mast
that could be raised and lowered; a pair oi parastatai to
support its foot ; a yard formed of two spars ; a sail ; and
the same six sorts of ropes, except that there were kalodia
and not kabiy and that the agkoina was not double*®*. The
inventories shew clearly that all ships of the same rate in
the Athenian navy were rigged in exactly the same way;
and that their masts, yards, sails, etc., were interchangeable.

^^* Xenophon, Hellenica, vL 1. 17, h ^k *I</>iKpdTijs hrel iip^ro rod vcplwKov,
dfJM ftkv (hr\€i, dfia 8^ vdvra o<ro els vavyMX^ Tope<r/ccvdi(Ero * eitOin fih yap rd
fuydXa Urria airrov KariXiirePf ibi iwl vavfiaxiav vXiutP' Kal rots d/carefotj W, kolL el
eUfffopov iTPevfJM etri, 6\lya. ixpV'^'o ' '''V ^^ Kunry rhv vXovp voio6/xepos &fieip6p re t^
<r<hfMra ixeip rods dpdpas Kal dfiewop tA$ paOi vXeuf iwolei. This was in the spring
of 373 B.C. The earliest fragments of the inventories in the Corp. Inscr. Attic,
are no. 789, assigned to 373/2, and no. 789. b (appendix), assigned to 374/3 :
but there are no entries about sails until nos. 793 and 794, which are quoted in the
last note. The large sails are mentioned again by Xenophon, Hellenica, i. i. 13,
'AXxifiidlhis 54t elwCiP koX to&tols dn»)KetP ainbp i^eXofUpois rd fieydXa UrrLa, a&rbt
(hrXewrep els Udpiop, cf. 12, dpdyeaOai tjSij a&roO fiiXXoPTOS wj ivl pavfJMxlap, ii. i.
19, K6pwp 8^, Karaax^" ^irl t^p *Apappl5a Hjp AafixpdKOv dxpop, iXapep ai>r6$ep rd
fjteydXa tQp Awrdpdpov peCop Iffrla, These events were in 410 and 405 B.C.
See also Epicrates, apud Athenaeum, xi. 13, Kard^aXXe rdKdreta, koX kvXIkm | alpov
rd fieil^u. This dates from about 375 B.C. There is an allusion here to hoisting
and lowering the large sails and the akatians, and also an allusion to taking up and
putting down the drinking-cups known as KvXUta and dicdreia. The kvXLkul were
shaped like saucers, and could therefore be compared to a sail swelling out before
the wind.

^^ Corp. Inscr. Attic, vol. ii, no. 812, col. a, 11. 6 — 11, rpiaKOPrdpov MepoKXijs
AeKeX(€€^) ffKejhf (txet ^liXiya' ra/}^6/i, TrvfSdXi.a, KXifiOKiSaSj kopto^, i<JTOi^s, xepaias,
trapatrTdTas 8iJo* dvh ttjs NLkiis, Xaipeffrpdrov ipyop. This thirty-oared ^Ikyj is
not to be confounded with the three-banked N/m; mentioned in note 181 on p. 84.
The mason has probably put Iffrods for Iffr^p by mistake : he would easily be mbled
by the neighbouring plurals, and especially by koptgOs just before. A little thirty-
oared ship was not very likely to be carrying two masts at a time when large ships
of three and four banks were carrying only one ; nor was any ship likely to carry
two masts of the same kind — the masts would naturally differ in size and bear
different names. The 81^ after vapaardras appears to be redundant. Corp.
Inscr. Attic, vol. ii, no. 809, col. a, 11. 115, 116, koX UttLop Tpi[aKOPT}&pov
ir<M^rd/i€[^a], no. 807, col. c, 11. 42—45, KalrpiaKOPripoVt KaXi^iad^Kiiia AAA A,
vhhes II, inripa |, dyKWPOt Ipapres ||.

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At the time when akatian masts and sails were carried
on the three-banked war-ships, the large sails used to be
sent ashore whenever the ships were cleared for action*^.
Battles being fought without regard to wind, no ship could
ever hoist a sail until she had abandoned all attempts at
fighting and was trying to get away ; and as the large sail
had been sent ashore beforehand, she had then to hoist the
akatian : so that ' hoisting the akatian * became a proverbial
expression for running away. This expression occurs in a
play by Aristophanes that was produced in 411 B.C. : and a
century afterwards it was adopted by Epicuros in a saying
that is quoted by Plutarch and parodied by Lucian*®*. The
classic name akateion is also applied by Lucian to one of the
sails on the merchant-ships of his own times : but apparently
the name does not occur again in ancient literature*^. Most
probably, therefore, these masts and sails went out of use
soon after they were discarded in the Athenian navy.

'** Xenophon, Hellenica, i. i. 13, ii. 1. 19, vi. 2. 17, already quoted in note 182.

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