Chadbourn Planning and Zoning Board.

Population and economy, Chadbourn, North Carolina online

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North Carolina State Library
Raleigh



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CH-A-iDBOxjFinsr, nsroFiTH c-A.Rorjiisr.A.



Digitized by the Internet Archive

in 2010 with funding from
State Library of North Carolina



http://www.archive.org/details/populationeconomOOchad



T:ie preporalion o< this reporl wos financially oided ihroogh c
'^■-isrol grant from the Urban Renewal Adminlstral.on ot" the
Housing and Home Finonce Agency gnder the Urban Plonning
A:-s.i5tunce ^rogrTi, authorised by Section 701 o! the Housin'
Ac o'. 1954, OS amended.



PREPARED FOR



W. J. Dutton, Mayor



THE TOWN OF CHADBOURN, NORTH CAROLINA

Mrs. Estelle B. Carter, Town Clerk



James Dunca n
L . V . Grantham



TOWN BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS
Edwin Nance, Mayor Pro Tem



J . M . Jackson
Jerry Stephens



PREPARED BY

THE CHADBOURN PLANNING AND ZONING BOARD

George A. Pollock, Chairman
Mrs. Milton Blake, Secretary

W. F . Davis

Paul Fr i edman

J. H. Honeycutt, Jr.

Edgar Mincher



W. N. Pee 1
Pau 1 S p i vey
Bruce Turner
A . L . Willi ams



WITH TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE FROM

THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA

DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT



DIVISION OF COMMUNITY PLANNING
George J. Monaghan, Administrator

CENTRAL AREA OFFICE
Victor H. Denton, Director

PROJECT STAFF
William A. Collier, Jr., Community Planner*



Gay Brantley, Cover Designer
Raymond Brown, Draftsman

No vemb er 19 6 5



* Responsible for this report



Frances Poole, Secretary
Anne Smith, Secretary

Price $1.00



TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

INTRODUCTION 1

HISTORICAL DEVELOPM NT 2

POPULATION 3

Migration 5

Effects of Migration on Age, Sex, and Race of the Population 7

Present Population in the Chadbourn Planning Area 10

Population Projections 1 '-

ECONOMY 13

Education 13

Income 1"

Industrial Transition 18

Specialization by Industry and Occupation 20

Unemployment 21

Recent Industrial Expansion 22

Worker Mobility 25

Availability of Workers 26

Agriculture 29

Commercial Activity 32

Employment Projections 34

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 37

MAPS AND CHARTS After Page

MAP 1 REGIONAL SETTING 2

CHART 1 POPULATION INCREASE, 1900-1960 3

MAP 2 SURROUNDING TOWNS AND TOWNSHIPS 5

MAP 3 CHADBOURN PLANNING AREA 11

CHART 2 RATE OF UNEMPLOYMENT BY MONTH, COLUMBUS COUNTY, J A NUAR Y- DE CEMBER , 1964 . 22

MAP 4 OUT COMMUTING PATTERNS OF RESIDENT WORKERS, CHADBOURN TOWNSHIP AND

COLUMBUS COUNTY, 1960 25

MAP 5 IN COMMUTING PATTERNS OF RESIDENT WORKERS FROM ADJACENT COUNTIES EM-
PLOYED IN COLUMBUS COUNTY, 1960 25



INTRODUCTION

The Town of Chadbourn contracted with the North Carolina Department of Conservation
and Development's Division of Community Planning in October 1964, for technical assist-
ance to prepare and implement a community planning program. The work elements proposed
for completion during the contract period are:

Base Mapp ing

Land Use Survey and Analysis
Population and Economic Study
Land Development Plan
Zoning Ordinance
Subdivision Regulations

This study of the population and economy in Chadbourn is an essential step toward
the formulation of a land development plan, a zoning ordinance and subdivison regulations
It is anticipated that this report will aid the Chadbourn Planning Board in the aspects
of the over-all planning effort by supplying an inventory of human and physical resources
available to Chadbourn and the surrounding areas. Significant trends are utilized to
project developments which may occur during the next two decades.

A large part of the data contained in this study was compiled by the Division of
Community Planning from decennial census reports printed by the United States Bureau of
the Census. Additional information was also derived from other sources which are cited
in the text .



- 1



HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT

Chadbourn is situated in the western part of Columbus County in Chadbourn Township
seven miles west of Whiteville, the county seat. Before incorporation in 1882 as Chad-
bourn, the town was known as Timberville, a sawmill village and shipping point for naval
stores produced at nearby turpentine distilleries. The town was named for the Chadbourn
family of Wilmington, owners of the sawmill and 10,000 acres of timberland.

The original charter of incorporation set the town limits as a one mile square with
rhe center located near the present intersection of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad and
Brown Street (NC 410). In 1927, the town limits of Chadbourn were expanded an equal dis-
tance in all directions to include an area of two square miles.



Columbus County is located in the fertile agricultural Coastal Plain region of
southeastern North Carolina (Map 1). The agrarian economy of this area supports many
small marketing centers. In Chadbourn the agricultural markets for strawberries, tobacco,
yams, cotton, peanuts, and other products are supplemented by industries which include a
modern textile mill, a veneer plant, and grain and feed mills.



MAPI REGIONAL SETTING



FAYETlTEVILLE




SCALE: I =APPROX. 13 MILES



POPULATION



In 1900, Chadbourn had a population of 243 persons, about one-tenth the number re-
ported in 1960. With the exception of one ten year period, 1910 to 1920, there has been
a population increase for each decade since 1900 although there have been considerable
variations in the increases. Over-all from 1900 to 1960, Chadbourn's rate of growth has
been greater than that of Whiteville. Similarly Chadbourn Township's population has in-
creased at a rate greater than the population increase in Columbus County (Table 1 and
Chart 1) .

TABLE 1 - POPULATION TRENDS FOR COLUMBUS COUNTY, CHADBOURN TOWNSHIP, WHITEVILLE AND

CHADBOURN, 1900-1960



1900

1910

Percent Change

1920

Percent Change

1930

Percent Change

1940

Percent Change

1950

Percent Change

1960

Percent Change



Co 1 umbus
County

21 ,274
28,020
+ 31.2
30, 124
+ 7.5
37,720
+ 25.2
45,663
+ 21.1
50,621
+ 10.9
48,973
- 3.3



Chadbourn
Township

1 ,563
2,945
+88.4
1,719
-41 .6
3 ,922

+12 8.2
4,632

+ 18.1
5,083

+ 9.7
6,019

+ 18.4



Wh iteville

634

1 ,368
+115.7

1 ,664
+ 21.6

2,203
+ 32.4

3,011
+ 36.7

4,238
-r 40.8

4,683
+ 10.5



Chadbourn

243

1,242
+ 411. 1

1,121
- 9.7

1,311
+ 16.9

1,576
+ 20.2

2, 103
+ 33.4

2,323
+ 10.5



3 -



CHART I POPULATION INCREASE , 1900—1960




The largest number of new Chadbourn residents was added during the years of the
strawberry boom, 1900 to 1910, when the population gain was 999, which represented a ten
year increase of 411.1 percent. During the next ten year period there was a sharp cur-
tailment in strawberry production due to a breakdown in transportation, insect infesta-
tion, and a labor shortage resulting from the nation's manpower mobilization for World
War I. As a result of these events, by 1920 Chadbourn's population had declined by 121
persons, a 9.7 percent decrease since 1910. From 1920 to 1950 the rate of population in-
crease for each decade was greater than in the previous decade; however, this trend of
increasing growth rates was broken in 1960 when the rate of growth was only one-third of
that recorded in 1950.

Population changes for Chadbourn Township have follwed much the same trend as that
recorded for the town. However, due to the strong agricultural economy of the area over
53 percent of the net population increase from 1900 to 1960 has occurred in the part of
the township located outside the town.



TABLE 2 - POPULATION IN TOWNSHIPS NEAR CHADBOURN, 1950 AND 1960

PERCENT

TOWNSHIP 1950 1960 CHANGE

CHADBOURN 5,083 6,019 +18.4

Cerro Gordo 2,648 2,312 -12.7

Lees 2,390 2,211 -7.5

Tatums 3,728 3,255 -12,7

WhiteviUe 10,061 10,048 - 0.1

Williams 4,056 3,301 -18.6

TOTAL 27,966 27,148 - 2.9



Five municipalities are located in the five townships surrounding Chadbourn. White-
ville is the largest with a population of 4,683 and Chadbourn second largest with 2,323
residents (Map 2). Cerro Gordo and Evergreen each have approximately 300 persons and
Brunswick has less than 200 residents. Brunswick declined in population during the
1950's although the other four incorporated communities had increases of more than 10
percent each. Because of the relatively large losses in Cerro Gordo, Tatums and Williams
Townships which offset the increases in Chadbourn Township, the total population in the
six township area decreased by 2.9 percent during the 1950 to 1960 decade. This was
similar to the 3.3 percent population decrease for Columbus County. (Tables 2 and 3)



TABLE 3



POPULATION IN TOWNS NEAR CHADBOURN, 1950 AND 1960



TOWNS
CHADBOURN
Brunswick
Cerro Gordo
Evergreen
Wh iteville

TOTAL



1950

2, 103

190

265

245

4,238

7,041



1960

2,323

169

306

300

4,683

7,781



PERCENT
CHANGE

+ 10.5

-11.1

+ 15.5

+22.4

+ 10.5



+ 10.5



Mi gr a t ion

Births, deaths, migration and boundary alterations can generally cause a population
change within a community. Chadbourn's population growth from 1950 to 1960 was influ-
enced by births, deaths and migration since there were no changes in the corporate
limits.

Based upon the expected natural population increase for Columbus County there were



EVERGREEN

o



MAP 2 SURROUNDING TOWNS AND TOWNSHIPS



T A T U M S



'EVILLE



CERRO
GORDO



WHITEVILLE



o

CERRO GORDO



CHAOBOURN



BRUNSWICK I



_ L I A M S



lEES



k



scale: i"= approx. 3 miles



an estimated 429 more births than deaths in Chadbourn during the 1950's. An increase of
429 people would have caused the population of the town to be 2,532 in 1960 rather than
the actual 2,323 recorded by the census. The difference between the actual and expected
population indicates an out-migration of 209 people from Chadbourn during the 1950's
(Table 4) .

Some of the town's residents may have moved to areas of Chadbourn Township outside
of Chadbourn's corporate limits. A comparison of net migration figures in Table 4 shows
that the township had an out-migration of only 101 persons as compared to 209 for the
t own .

Although out-migration did have a partial dampening effect upon the population
growth of the town and township, these two areas did not suffer from the large out-
migration of people from Columbus County as a whole.



Effects of Migration on Age, Sex, and Race of the Population

An indication of the age and sex of migrants is gained by comparing the number of
people in a given age group in 1950 to the number of people in an age group ten years
older in 1960. Available figures for Chadbourn as shown in Table 5 indicate that there
has been a higher proportional out-migration of males than females. The age groups
which lost most through migration were those aged 5-14 and 25-34 in 1950 (15-24 and 35-
44 in 1960). Probably the major factor contributing to the heavy out-migration of young
males (15-24 age group) is the general lack of employment opportunities in Chadbourn and
the desire to seek higher educational attainment. Lack of employment opportunities for
middle age male adults may explain the out-migration in the 35-44 age group (Table 5).

The presence of a modern textile mill which employs a large number of females has
probably been a factor influencing the relatively low out-migration for this part of the
population. Females also gene r a 1 ly have stronger ties with the home in the rural communi-
ties.

- f, -



TABLE 4 - MIGRATION FROM COLUMBUS COUNTY, CHADBOURN TOWNSHIP AND CHADBOURN, 1950-1960



Columbus County



1950 Population

Natural Population
Increase during the
Decade^

Expected 1960
Population

Actual I960
Population

Migration

Rate of Migration



White
33,448



Nonwh 1 t e
17,173



Total
50,621



Chadbourn
T own ship

5,083



CHADBOURN
2, 103



5,543


4,774


10,317


1 ,037


429


38,991


21 ,947


60,938


6, 120


2 ,532


31 ,858


17,115


48,973


6,019


2 ,323


-7,133


-4,832


-11,965


- 101


- 209


- 18.3


- 22 .0


- 19 .6


- 1.7


- 9.9



Figures on natural population increase for Columbus County from Annual Reports,
Public Health Statistics Section, N.C. State Board of Health.



Estimates based on rate of natural population increase for Columbus County from
1950 to 1960.



TABLE 5 - CHANGE IN CHADBOURN's POPULATION BY AGE GROUPS. 1950-1960



AGE GROUP IN 1950

Ma le s

1950 Population

1960 Population

7„ of 1950 group
present in 1960



5-14 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54



210
146



167
138



69.5 82.6



169
114



67 .5



135
123



91.1



83
72



i6.7



Fema les

1950 Population

1960 Population

% of 1950 group
present in I960



201
167



13 . 1



177
155

87 .6



165
134



;1 .2



164
156



95. 1



109
94



16.2



As people grow older they tend to become less mobile and the factor of higher natu-
ral mortality rates replaces migration. This is especially true for those residents
approaching 50 years of age and older. This explains the relatively higher percentage
of people in older age groups for an area experiencing an out-migration of population.

Changes in the age composition of Chadbourn's population during the 1950's were in-
fluenced by three major factors and the results may be seen in Table 6. The increasing
percentage of children from 0-14 years of age was influenced by the higher birth rate in
the years following World War II. An out-migration of young people, young adults, and
middle age adults resulted in a decline of population in the 15 to 44 year age groups. A
greater life expectancy among the older adult age groups as well as the previously men-
tioned lack of mobility was responsible for the increase of persons in the 45 and over
age groups. These senior citizens (45 years and over) accounted for 27.2 percent of



TABLE 6 - PERCENTAGE CHANGE IN THE COMPOSITION
OF THE POPULATION IN CHADBOURN 1950 - 1960



AGE GROUPS

Under 5
5-14
15-24
25-34
35-44
45-54
55-64
6 5 & over



PERCENTAGE CHANGE
1950-1960

+0.7

+ 4.0

-2.9

-3 .3

-3 .5

+2.9

+ 1.2

+ 1.0



Chadbourn's population in 1960 as compared to 22.1 percent in 1950.

Changes in the sex composition of Chadbourn's population during the 1950's increased
the proportion of females. Whereas females outnumbered males in all but three of the
age groups in 1950 as is shown in Table 7, they outnumbered males in all age groups by
1960. The female part of the total population increased from 52.3 percent in 1950 to
54.6 percent in 1960 as is shown in Table 8. As previously stated, females are generally
less inclined to migrate away from Chadbourn and they also have a longer life expectancy.

It is evident from the available statistics that the nonwhite population has a great-
er tendency to migrate away from Chadbourn than the white population. In spite of higher
birth rates and although the number of nonwhites in Chadbourn increased fron 853 in 1950
to 916 in 1960, their proportion of the total town population declined from 40.6 percent
in 1950 to 39.4 percent in 1960.



- 9 -



TABLE 7 - CHADBOURN POPULATION BY AGE AND SEX - L950 AND 1960

1950 1960

AGE GROUPS



Under 5
5-14
15-24
25-34
35-44
45-54
55-64
6 5+



TOTAL



MALE


FEMALE


116


133


210


201


167


177


169


165


135


164


83


109


51


73


73


77



1 ,004



1,099



MALE


FEMALE


125


165


257


288


146


167


138


155


114


134


123


156


72


94


79 .


110



1,054 1,269



TABLE 8 - POPULATION OF CHADBOURN BY SEX AND RACE, 1950 AND 1960



Total






Percent




Non-


Percent


Population


Male


Fema le


Fema le


White


White


Nonwh i t e


2 , 103


1,004


1,009


52.3


1 ,250


853


40.6


2,323


1 ,054


1,269


54.6


1 ,407


916


39.4



Present Population in the Chadbourn Planning Area

The total number of people residing in Chadbourn is not significantly greater than
in early 1960. According to population projections, the number of people in the town
should total 2,439 in April 1965, or 116 more than in April 1960. This represents an
average annual gain of 23 people each year.



According to a visual field survey by the Division of Community Planning in June
1965, there are 255 occupied housing units located in the one mile perimeter area sur-
rounding Chadbourn. Assuming 4.2 persons per occupied housing unit, there are 1,071

people living in the perimeter area. The combined population for the Chadbourn Planning
Area (Map 3) is estimated to be approximately 3,510.

Population Projections

The future population of a small area is predicted by using past trends with the
assumption that they will not be altered to any great degree by unforeseen events in the
coming decades. Of course new employment could become a positive factor by altering the
migration rates which would in turn cause greater population growth. By contrast fewer
employment opportunities could cause a higher proportion of the population to migrate to
other areas in search of jobs and thus result in a slowdr of population growth.

Population estimates are shown in Table 9 for Chadbourn, Chadbourn Township, and
Columbus County for 1970 and 1980. A moderate increase is indicated for Chadbourn and
Chadbourn Township with the proportion of township residents living in the town remain-
ing at about the same level as recorded in 1960. Columbus County is predicted to con-
tinue losing population through 1980.



J^/ The average number of persons per occupied housing
rated areas of Chadbourn Township in 1960.



.t recorded the unincorpo-




MAP 3

CHADBOURN

NORTH CAROLINA



PLANNING AREA



TOWN

ONE MILE PERIMETER



+



TABLE 9 - POPULATION PROJECTIONS, CHADBOURN, CHADBOURN TOWNSHIP, AND COLUMBUS COUNTY,
1970-1980

1950 1960 1970 1980



CHADBOURN 2,103 2,323 2,600'" 3,000

Chadbourn Township 5,083 6,019 6,800*^ 8,100*^

Columbus County 50,621 A8,973 45,90o'' 42,800*^

Determined by the age cohort survival method which accounts for natural increase
and migration trends during the 1950 to 1960 decade.

County figures calculated by Professor Horace Hamilton, N.C. State University and
Josef Perry, Division of Community Planning are based upon state and national population.
Township figures apportioned from county population pr o j e c t i oiis .

Methods a and b indicate 2,800 residents for Chadbourn and 7,600 for Chadbourn
Township by 1980; however, with the expected new population growth to be generated by
faculty and students as well as an upgrading of technical skills in association with
Southeastern North Carolina Community Co 1 lege , p opula t i on figures of 3,000 in the town
and 8,100 in the township are projected for 1980.



12



ECONOMY

Educa t ion

There is a direct association between educational attainment of residents and the
over-all prosperity of a community. A highly trained labor force is more capable than
unskilled labor of influencing new industries to locate in an area and thereby offering
a means for steady economic growth. Chadbourn has the advantage of a new community col-
lege to further improve educational levels of the local population.

The median school years completed by adults 25 years old and older in Chadbourn
Township is 8.0 years which is about the same level of achievement for Columbus County
(8.1 years). Nevertheless, the township and county are below the state average of 8.9
years (Table 11).

Twelve years of education is considered to be a minimum requirement to insure an in-
dividual stable and permanent employment. Approximately 80 percent of the adult popula-
tion (25 years old and older) in Chadbourn Township and 76 percent of the adults in
Columbus County lack a high school education. Approximately one-half of the township and
county residents, 25 years old and older, have less than an eighth grade education. There-
fore there is a considerable need for adult education and training programs in the Chad-
bourn area.

The educational levels of nonwhites in Chadbourn Township and Columbus County are
far below those of the white population. Nonwhites in the township have completed a
median of only 5.8 years of school as compared to 9.7 years for whites. The inferior
educational achievements are even more pronounced when it is realized that fewer than one
out of ten nonwhites 25 years old and over are high school graduates.

A combination of outmigration by young people and a substantial number of high
school dropouts also contribute to the low educational levels existing in Chadbourn and

- 13 -



Columbus County. High schools in Che county recorded 133 students dropping out during
the 1963-64 school year. One student, therefore, left the high schools without graduat-
ing for every six high school graduates.



TABLE 11 - EDUCATION LEVELS, CHADBOURN TOWNSHIP AND COLUMBUS COUNTY, 1960

Chadbourn Township Columbus County

Non-

Tc tal White wh i t e Tota 1

Persons 25 years

old and over 2,908 2,009 899 22,895 16,338 6,557

Number with 7th
grade education

or less 1,455 822 633 11,427



Non-
White whi te



7 , 1 (1 6 4,321



Percent



50.0



40.9



70.4



49 .9



65.9



Number without
high school
education



2,299 1,459



840



17,429



11,556



5,873



Percent



72.6



93.4



76.1



70.7



89.6



Median school years
C omp le ted



8.0



9.7



6. 7



The need for specialized training beyond high school is recognized by many of the
county's graduates. Over two-fifths (43 percent) of the 475 whice gr f: i'la t es in 1964 have
enrolled in colleges or trade, business or nursing schools. More than one-fifth (26 per



- 14



cent) of the 251 nonwhite graduates are continuing their education. These young people
will use their skills elsewhere unless new industries are attracted to the county.

Total school enrollment in the county increased during the 1950's in spite of a
population decline. Between 1949-50 and 1959-60 total school enrollment rose from
13,205 to 15,007, a 13.6 percent gain as compared to a loss of 3.3 percent in the total
population. No appreciable changes in enrollment have been recorded since 1960.

The new Southeastern North Carolina Community College to be located two miles east
of Chadbourn as well as a new consolidated high school located five miles west of Chad-
bourn are plus factors in education for the Chadbourn area. A two year regular college
program and technical vocational training are being offered by the community college
opened in September 1965. West Columbus High School which a i i, o opened in September, 1965
will draw students from areas forme-ly served by four smaller schools (Chadbourn, Cerro
Gordo, Evergreen, and Fair Bluff) and be a major improvement in educational facilities.

Appropriation of state tax funds by the N.C. General Assembly represents the major
portion of monetary support given to public education in Columbus County. Although the
expenditures of state funds per pupil are higher in Columbus County than the average for
N.C., total funds spent per pupil in the county fall below the state average because of
a disparity in the utilization of local and federal monies in Columbus County when com-
pared to the N.C. averages (Table 12).



- 15



TABLE 12 - PER PUPIL EXPENDITURES BY SOURCE, 1963-1964
Area



Columbus County
Percent of Total

North Carolina

Percent of Total

Columbus County as
Percent of N . C .



Total
$268.96

100.0
$292 .25

100.0

92 .0



State
$231.31

86.0
$228.56

78.2

101 .2



Local

$29.99

11.2

$51.68

17.7

58.0



Federal

$ 7.66

2.8

$12 .01

A. 1

63.8



SOURCE: N.C. Department of Public Instruction, Statisti-
cal Services.



Income levels in Columbus County are low. In 1959, the per capita income of all the
population in the county was $857 which was only 68 percent of the $1,260 per capita in-
come recorded for North Carolina.

Chadbourn Township had a slightly lower per capita income than the county (Table 13).
Per capita income in the township amounted to $811 in 1959. This was 5 percent below the
county figure and less than two-thirds of the North Carolina p ^ r capita income level.

The incomes of the nonwhite residents reflect low wages and direct attention to the
presence of an economically depressed part of the population. Columbus County's nonwhites
had a per capita income of $385 in 1959. This was only 35 percent as great as the white
per capita income. White and nonwhite income shows an even greater difference in Chad-
bourn Township. Nonwhites had only 29 percent as much per capita income as whites in the


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