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in Essence, Nature, property, Eternity, powre, glory or ex-


This only god hath created mar? good, accordinge to his jmage
& likenesse, to a good & happy estate, & in him all men to y*
same blessed end. The first man was fallen into synne &
wrath : And was againe by god, through a sure comfortable
promise, restored, & assumed to everlasting life, wtth all those
y' were guilty through him : so y' none of his posterity, (by
reaso/i of this resolution) is guilty synfull, or borne in originall



Man being created good & continuing in goodnes, had hability,
the spiritt of wickednes tempting him, freely to obey, assume
or reject y^ propounded [?] evill : man being fallen & consisting
in evill, had hability, the Lorc?^ himselfe moving him, freely
to obey, assume, or reject y* propounded [?] good : for as he
through free powre to the choise of evill, obeyed & assumed y"

» Dr B. Evans in "The Early English Baptists", Vol. I., p. 245, has

•'the T " for "the hord", and Prof. McGlothlin faithfully reproduces

this incorrect reading.

Earliest English Anabaptist Congregations 189

evill : 80 did he through free powre to the choise of good, obey
and reassume y® propounded good. This last powre or hability
remayneth in all his posterity.


God hath before all tymes forseen & foreknowne all thinge*
both good & evill, whither past, present, or to come : Now, as
he is y® only perfect goodnes, and y^ very founte3Tie of life it
self; So is he y® only author, originall & worker of such things
as are good, holy, pure, cleane, & of nature like vnto him ; but
not of synne, or of damnable vncleanenes : He forbiddeth y'
evill, he forwameth to avoyd evill, and threatneth the evill
doer: he is y® Permitter, & Punisher: But Evill men through
free choise of all synne & wickednes together with the spiritt
of wickednes wAich ruleth in them, are the Authors [?], originall,
& workers of all synne, and so worthy y^ punishme?it.

The cause & ground therfor of mans destruction and damnation
is th[e] mans free choise of darkenes or synne & living therein :
Destruction therfor commeth out of him self, but not from y®
good creator. Fo[r] being perfect goodnes & love itself (following
the nature of love and perfect goodnes) he willed the health,
good, & happinesse of his creatures : therfor hath he pre-
destinated none of thew y*^ they should be condemned, nor
ordeyned or willed the s^Tines or meanes [?] wherby they should
be brought to damnation: Yea much more (seing he hath no
delight in any mans destruction, nor willeth y' any ma?i perish,
but y^ all men should be saved & blessed) hath he create[d]
them all to a happy end, and being fallen & restored in Christ,
hath forseen & ordeyned in him a medicine of life for all their
8ynn[es?] and hath willed y^ all people or creatures through
the preaching of y® gospell, should have this tidinges published
& declared vnto them : No[w] all they y*^ with penitent &
faythfull hartes receave & embrace, this gracious benefitt of
gods, manifested in Christ for y® reconciliation of y^ world,
are & continue the Elect w/itch god hath ordeyned before y^
foundation of y^ world, to make partakers of his kingdo?n &

190 Early Encflish Dissenters

glory. But they -which despise & contemne this profered grace
of god, which, love the darknes more then the light, pgj-severe
in impenitency & vnbelief, the[y] make themselves vnworthy
of blessednes, & are rejected & excluded horn the end wherto
they were created & orde^Tied in Christ ; & shall not for ever
tast of y* supper of y* Lord, wherto they were invited.


The purpose, w^i'ch god before y** foundation of y® world had
for y° reco7iciliation of y® world, {which, he saw would fall into
wrath & want of grace) h[e] hath in the fulnes of tyme ac-
complished ; and for this purpose hath se[nt ?] out of heaven
his everlasting word or sonne for y® fulfilling of the promises
made vnto the fathers, and hath caused him to become flesh
o[r] man, in the womb of a holy virgin (called Mary) by his
wonde[rful ?] powre & working of y^ holy ghost. Not, y'' y*
Essence of god, y® eternall word, or any part thereof[?] is
chandged into a visible, morta[l] flesh or man, ceasing to be
spiritt, God, or gods essence : but y'^ th[e] everlasting sonne of
god continuing [?] y' he was before, namely God and spiritt,
became y^ he was not, y*^ is, flesh or man : and s[o] is in
one person true god, & man, borne of Mary, being visibly &
invisibly, inwardly & outwardly, y* true sonne of y^ living god.


This person god & man, the sonne of the living god, is come
into the world to save synners, or to reconcile the sinfull world
to god the father : Therfor wee acknowledg him to be the only
mediator, king, Preist, & prophett, Lawgever & Teacher, which.
god had promised to send into the world, whom wee must
heere, beleeve & follow.


In him is fulfilled, & by him ther is taken away an intoUerable
burthen of the law of Moses, even all the shadowes & figures :
as namely the Preisthood, Temple, Altar, sacrifice : also the
kingly office, kingdom, sword, Revendg appointed by y* law,
battell, and whatsoever was a figure of his person or offices, &
so thereof a shadow or representation.

Earliest English Anabaptist Congregations 191


And as the true promised prophett he hath manifested &
revealed vnto vs whatsoever god asketh or requireth of the
people of the new testame/it. for as God by Moses & the other
prophettes hath spoken & declared his will to the people of the
old testament : so hath he in these last dayes by this prophett
spoken vnto vs, & revealed vnto vs the mystery (concealed from
y* beginning of the world) : & hath now manifested to vs what-
sover y* remayned to be manifested. He hath preached the
promised glad tidinges, appointed & orde3nied the sacramentes,
Offices, & ministeries by god therto destinated [?] : & hath
shewed by doctryne & life y* law of Christians, a rule of their
life, the path & way to everlasting life.


Moreover as a high Preist and mediator of the new testament,
after y' he had accomplished the will of his father in the
foresaid workes, he hath finally given himself obediently (for
the reconciliation of y® S5nines of y® world) to all outward
sufFeringes, and hath offered vp himself in death vppon the
crosse vnto the father for a sweet savour & a common oblation.


Wee acknowledge y* the obedience of the sonne of god, his
sufFeringes, dying, bloodshed [?], bitter passion, death, & only
sacrifice vppon the crosse, is a perfect reconciliation & satis-
faction for our synnes, & the synnes of y® world ; so y*^ wee
therby are reconciled to god, are brought into peace, & have
a sure hope, & certaynty to the entranc[e] into everlasting life.


lesus Christ our prophett & Preist, being also, the promised,
only spirituall, heavenly king of the new testament, hath
erected or built a spirituall kingdom & vnited a company of
faythfuU spirituall men : These persons hath he indued with
spirituall kingly lawes, after y® nature of his heavenly kingdom,
& hath established therin justice, righteousnes, & the ministers

192 Early English Dissenters


Having .accomplished & performed, heer vppon the earth, by
dying the death, his office of y* Crosse ; he was afterward
buryed, therby declaring y*^ he was truly dead, the third day
he rose againe, & stood vp from the dead, overcomming death
& testifying y*^ he was Lord over death, & y^ he could not
possiblie be deteyned by y® bands of death, hereby comfortably
assuring all the faythfull of their resurrectio/i & standing vp
from death


Afterwards 40 dayes space he conversed among his disciples,
and oft tymes showed himself vnto them, that[?] ther[?] might
no doubt be had concerning his resurrection : after y*, being
compassed by a cloud, he was caryed vp into heaven, & entred
into his glory, leading captivity captive, & making a show[?] of
his enemies, hath gloriously triumphed over them, & is sett at
y* right hand of y® majesty of God, & is become a Lord, &
Christ, Glorifyed in body, advanced, lifted vp & crowned with
praise & glory, & remayneth over mount syon a Preist & king
for everlasting.


The holy office of this glorifyed Preist, king, Lord, & Christ, in
this heavenly glorious being, is, to help, goveme, & preserve by
his holy spiritt, his holy Church & people in the world, through
the storme, wind & troubles of the sea : for according to his
Preistly office, as an overseer or steward of y® true tabernacle,
is he our intercessor, Advocate & mediato"" by y® father: He
teacheth, comforteth, strengthneth & baptizeth vs with y®
holy ghost, his heavenly gifted, & fiery vertuc: & keepeth his
spirituall supper with y® faj^hfull soule, making it partake of
y* Life-giving food and drinck of y® soule, y^ fruit vertue and
worth of his meritts obteyned vppo/i the crosse, the only true
necessary good signified in y® sacraments.


And according to his kingly office in his heavenly being, he
gouerneth the hartes of y'' faythfull by his holy spiritt & word :
he takes them into his protection, he covereth them vnder

Eay^liest English Anabaptist Congregations 193

the shadow of his wings, : he armeth them with spirituall
weopens[?] for y® spirituall warfare, against all their enemyes
namely y® spiritts of wickednes vnder heaven, and whatsoever
dependeth vppon them in this earth. He their most glorious
almighty, heavenly king, standeth by them, delivereth & freeth
them frow the hands of their enemyes, giveth them victory &
y® winning of y® field : & hath prepared for them a crowne of
righteousnes in heaven. And they being the redeemed of the
Lord, who dwell in the howse of y® Lord, vppon the holy mount
syon, do chandg their fleshly weopens[?], namely their swords
into shares, & their speares into sithes, do lift vp no sword,
neyther teach nor consent to fleshly battell. /


All these spirituall good thinge* and benefittes with lesus
Christ by his merites hath obteyned for y^ saving of synners,
wee do graciously enjoy through a true living working fayth.
WAich fayth, is an assured vnderstanding & knowledg in the
hart, obteyned out of y® word of god, concerning God, Christ,
& other heavenly things, w/a'ch are necessary for vs to know &
to beleeve to salvatiori ; together with a harty confidence in y®
only god, that he as a gracious heavenly father will give &
bestow vppon vs through Chri[st] & for his meritts, whatsoever
is helpfull & profittable for body & soule to salvation.


Through such a fayth wee obteyne true righteousnes, forgivenes
or absolution from synne through y® bloodshed of Qihrist lesus,
and true righteousnes, wAich through Christ lesus by y^ co-
operation of y® holy ghost is plentifully shed & powTed into
vs, so y*" wee truly are made of evill men, good : of fleshly,
spirituall : of covetous liberall, : of Proud, humble : & through
regeneration are made pure in hart, and the children of God.


Man being thus justified by fayth liveth & worketh by love
(wAich the holy Ghost sheddeth into their hartes) in all
goods [good] workes, in the lawes, precepte* & ordinances given

B. II. 13

194 Early English Dissenters

them by god through Christ, he prayseth & blesseth god by
a holy life, for every benefitt, especially of y® soule : And so are
all such Plants of y" Lord, Trees of righteousnes, who honour
god through good works, and expect a blessed reward.


Such faythfull righteous people, scattered in several! parts of
y* world being y^ true congregation of god, or y® church of
lesus Christ, whonie he loved & for whomc he gave himself
y'' he might sanctify them, yea whom he hath clensed by y*
washing of water in the word of life : of all such is lesus
y** head, y** shepheard, y^ Leader, y° Lord, y" king, & maister.
Now although among these ther may be mingled a company
of seeming-holy-ones & hypocrites ; yet ncverthelesse they are
& remayne only y^ righteous true members of y® body of Christ
according to y** spiritt, & in truth, y® heyres of y® Promises :
truly severed from y^ hipocrites & dissemblers:/


In this holy church hath god ordeyned y° ministery of y®
Gospell, y'' Doctryne, of y® holy word, the vse of y* holy sacra-
ments, y* oversight of y® poore, & y® ministery of y® same
offices, furthermore y® exercise of brotherly admonitio?i &
correction, & finally y® separating of the impenitent : wAtch
holy ordinances conteyned in the word of god are to be
administred only according to the contented thereof.


And like as a body consisteth of divers parts, & every part
hath his owne proper work, seing every part is not a hand,
eye, or foot : so is it also in y® church of god : for although
every beleever is a member of y® body of Christ, yet is not
every one therfor a teacher. Elder, or deacon : but only such
wAtch are orderly appointed to such offices. Therfor also the
administration of y® said offices or dutyes perteyneth only to
them y' are ordeyned therto, & not to every particular common
p67'Son. /

Earliest English Anaha2)tist Congregations 195


The vocation or Election to y® forsar'd offices is performed by y*
church with fasting & prayer to god. for god knoweth y^ harts ;
hee is amongst y® faythfull wAich are gathered together in his
name : and by his holy spiritt doth so goueme y® myndes &
harts of his, that he by them bringeth to light & propoundeth
whom he knoweth to be profitable to his churches.


And although y® Election and vocation be performed by y®
foresaid meanes yet neverthelesse y® investing into y* said
service is accomplished by y^ Elders of y® church, through
laying on of hands.


The doctryne wAi'ch by the foresaid ministers must be pro-
pounded to the people is even the same wAich lesus Christ
hath brought out of heaven, wAi'ch he by word & work, y^ is
by doctryne & life hath taught the people : AvAich was preached
by the Apostles of Christ by the commaundement of Christ &
y* spiritt : which wee find written (so much as is needful for vs
to salvation) in the scriptures of y® new testament, wherto wee
apply whatsoever wee find in the Canonical! Bookes of y" old
testament, w/iich hath affinity & vnity with the doctryne of
Christ & his Apostles, & consent & agreement with the govern-
ment of his spiritual! kingdom.


Ther are two sacraments appointed by Christ in his holy
church, y^ administration whereof he hath assigned to y*
ministery of Teaching, namel}' y® Holy Baptisme, & y® Holy
supper : These are outward visible handlings & tookens setting
before our eyes, on gods side, y® inward spiritual! handling,
wAich god through Christ by y'' cooperation of y*" Holy Ghost
reacheth forth in y® justification of y^ penitent faithful! soule :
& wAich on our behalf, witnesse our Religion, repentance, fayth,
& obedience through y® obliging of a good conscience to y*
service of god.


196 EarUj English Dissenters

The holy baptisrae is give;? vnto them, in y" name of y* father,
y* Sonne, & y" holy ghost, whioh. heere, beleeve, & with penitent
hart65 receave y° doctryne of y° holy gospell : for such hath y'
Lord lesus comrnaunded to be baptized, and no vn-speaking


The whole dealing in the outward visible baptisme of water
setteth before the eyes, witnesseth, & signifieth, y'' lesus Christ
doth inwardly baptise the repentant faythfull, man in the lavo'
of regeneration & renewing of the holy ghost, washing y^ sonic
from all pollutio?? & synne, by y"' vertue & meritt of his blood-
shed, & by y** powre & working of the holy ghost the true
hevenly spirituall living water clenseth the inward evill of
y® soule, & maketh it heavenly, spirituall & living in true
righteousnes or goodnes. Therfor the baptisme of water
leadeth vs to Christ, to his holy office in glory & majesty :
& admonisheth vs not to hang only vppon y® outward, but
with holy prayers to mount vpwards, & to begg of Christ y®
good thing signified.


The holy supper according to the institution of Christ is to
be administred to the baptised, as the luord lesus hath com-
maunded y*^ whatsoever he hath appointed should be taught to
be observed.


The whole dealing in the outward visible supper, setteth before
y® eye witnesseth & signifieth, y'' Christes holy body was broken
vppon y® crosse & his holy blood spilt for y® remission of our
synnes : That he being glorifyed in his heavenly being, is the
alive-making bread meate & drinck of our soules, : it setteth
before our eyes Christes office & ministery in glory & majesty
by houlding his spirituall supper with y® beleeving soule,
feeding & meating y" soule wtth spirituall food : it teacheth
vs by y*^ outward handling to mount vpwardes wtth y® hart in
holy prayer to begg at Christes hands y* true signified good :
and it admonisheth vs of thankfullnes to god, & of vnity & love
one with another.

Earliest English Anabaptist Congregations 197


The church discipline or externall censures is also an outward
handeling among y^ beleevers, wherby the impenitent synner
after Christian admonitio7i & reproof is severed by reason of his
synne from y® co7nmunion of y® sa3aits for his future good : and
the wrath of god is denounced against him vntill the tyme
of his conversio7i and reformation : and ther is also, by this
outward seperation of the church, manifested, what god before
had judged & fore-handled, concerning this seperate synner, by
reason of his synne : Therfor first before y® Lord, the prejudging
& predetermining of the matter must passe in respect of the
synner impenitent, and the after-judging & handling by y^
church Therfor the church must carefully regard, that none
in the church be condemned wAi'ch is not condemned in the
word of god. /


The person seperated from the church may not at all be
admitted (so long as he proceedeth in synne) to the vse of y®
holy supper or any other ecclesiasticall handling, but he must
be avoyded therin, as also in all other thinges betokening y®
communion of y^ saynts or brotherhood. And as the rebellious
life, conversation, or dayly company of y® godlesse and perverse ;
or mingling wtth them is daungerous & hurtfull, & oft tymes
procureth scandall & slaunder to the godly, so must they with-
draw themselves ixom the same rebells, avoyding them in all
workes & endes wherby their pure soules might be polluted
& defiled : yet so y'^ alwayes the word of god take place & y'
nothing take place or be preferred y*" is contrary to love mercy,
Christian discretio??, necessity, Promise, or any other like


Worldly Authority or magistracy is a necessary ordinance of
god, appointed & established for y® preservation of y® com^non
estate, & of a good naturall, politique life, for y® reward of y®
good, & y^ punishing of the evill : wee acknowledg ourselves
obnoxious, & bound by y® word of god to feare, honour, & shew
obedience to the magistrate in all causes not contrary to the

198 Early English Dissenters

word of the Lord, wee are obliged to pray god almighty for
them, & to thank the Lorrf, for good reasonable magistrates.
& to yeeld vnto them without murmuring beseeming Tribute,
Toll, & Tax. This office of the worldly Authority the Lord
leans hath not ordeyned in his spirituall kingdom the church
of the new testame7it : nor adjoyned to the offices of his church :
Neyther hath he ciiUed his disciples or followers to be worldly
kinges, Princes, Potentates, or magistrates : neyther hath he
burthened or chardged them to assume such office, or to
goveme the world in such a worldly manner : much lease hath
he given a law, to the members of his church, w/iich is agree-
able to such office or government. Yea rather they are called
of him (whome wee are comwaunded to obey by a voyce heard
from heaven) to y® following of his vnarmed or vnweopened life,
& of his crosse-bearing footsteps. In whom appeared nothing
lesse then a worldly gouerment, powre, & sword. This then
considered : (as also further, y' vppon the office of y* worldly
authority many other ihmges depend, as warrs, \hlank space] to
hurt his enemies in body or goodes etc [?], wAi'ch evilly or not
at all will fitt or consort with Christ, & y* crucified life of
Christians) : so hould wee y' it beseemeth beseemeth [sic] not
Christians to administer this office : Therfor wee avoyd such
offices & administrations, notwithstanding by no raeanes therby
willing to despise or conderane the reasonable discreet magis-
trate nor to place him in lesse estimation, then he is described,
by the holy ghost, of Paull.


lesus Christ the king & lawgiver of the new testament hath

prohibited Christian [sic] y swering of oaths : Therfor it is not

permitted y' the faythfull of y® new testament should swere

an oth.


The marryed estate or matrimony hould wee for an ordinance
of god, wAi'ch according to y*^ first institution shalbe observed :
Every man shall have his one only wife, & every womaw shall
have her one only husband : these may not be seperated but
for adultery. Wee permitt none of our communion, to marry



\ C H I L D R E N:.


BabciTmc prooucd to be confonanc to

the Scriptures and will of G o d (againft

the erroneous pofitions of th€


By R O- B E R T C L E A V E R, with the
ioynt confcntof M" I oh it D o d.

M A T. 2I» I<^.

Hauejce neuer rcad^ Out of the month of Bahfs ^ni
SuthlingS, thoH hafi ftrfe^edpratfe V*

L O N D O N»
Pdnccd by BerndrdtAlfop, {orffifiph Huttfcot X'ndiBemA<
nun FtpHTy andaretobeloldatthefigncofthe
1^^^ z 6 X:^

Title-page. (Size of original Tj^^ in. x 5| in.)
See Vol. I., pages 268-9.

Earliest English Anabaptist Congregations 199

godles, vnbeleeving, fleshly persons out of y® church ; but wee
censure such (as other synnes) according to the disposition
& desert of y® cause.


Lastly : wee beleeve & teach the Resurrection of y® Dead : both
of y^ just & vnjust, as Paul: 1. Cor. 15. soundly teacheth and
witnesseth : The soule shalbe vnited to the body, every one
shalbe presented before y^ judgment seat of Christ lesus, to
receave in his owne body wages according to his workes : And
the righteou[s] wAi'ch heer have lived holyly, & through fayth
have brought forth the workes of love & mercy, shall enter into
everlasting life with Christ lesus y® Brydegrom of y® Christian
host : But the vnsanctified, wAi'ch have not knowne god, & have
not obeyed y® gospell of lesus Christ, shall goe into everlasting

The Almighty, Gracious, mercifull God, preserve vs from the
punishment of the vngodly, & grant vs grace & gifts helpfull
to a holy life, saving death, & joyfull resurrection with all the
Righteous. Amen.

Wee subscribe to y® truth of these
articles, desiring further instructio?i

lohn Smyth.^ Garuase Neuile. /

Hugo [?] Bromhead
his wife X lohn Grindall

Elizabeth Tomson
Thomas Cannadine[?] Mother Pigott.

Mary Smyth
Samuel Halton lane southworth

Thomas Pigott Margarett Stavely.

lohn Hardie Isabell[?] Thomson.

Edward hankin[?] lane Organ.

Mary Dickens.
Thomas lesopp

Betteris Dickens.
Robert Staveley Dorottie Hamand.

^ The names in this list printed in dark type have been crossed out
in the original.

200 Early English Dissenters

Allexander fleem.inge[?] Ellin [?] Paynter

lohn Arnfeld

Anne Broomhead
Fraunces Pigott Ales Parsons.

Thomas Dolphin loane Houghton.

Salorao/i Thomson. loane Brigges

Ales Pigott.
Alexander Hodgkin Margarett Pigott

Vrsulay Bywater Ales Arnetield.

dorethie Oakland Elizabeth White

lohn Dorethie Tomson

Margaret Maurice

[A Copy of a Letter sent in April, 1610, by the Waterland
Church at Amsterdam to the Waterland Congregations outside
the city, concerning the admission of the Remnant of John

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