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Hemels vader, dan moet het noot sakclik volgen, dat alle
syne soonen, broederen met malcandcr sijn, doch onse
breeder christus de outste is, nti na dien dit waer is, so
ic begeere dat ul. alle, my in beyde, liefde bewijsen ; gelijc



Evidently an English word.
* My transcript reads "niet", but from the sense it is evident that
it should either be omitted, or another " niet " inserted after " lesus " and
before " de Messias ".

Earliest English Anabaptist Cong^^egations 259

christiis & syn Apostelen vermanen : hopende een trooste-
ling Antwort cortelix te onfangen, Ic bevel ul. alle met
my selven, de Salich genade des Heeren lesu de^ Messias,
vl. d.w [?] : & desolate breeder in christo, Mark Leonard
Busher . . in de blaw Clawe tusken de Pieterstraet, end
Browery van der de [?] verkerde weerlt.

' Surely the writer of such Dutch was not a Dutchman, as Dr Whitley
haa contended !




[A Letter of " G(eorge) Abbot, Archbishop of) Ca.nterhury ",
probably written to Sir William Boswell, and dated " From
Croydon Sept: 4: 1622."] •

My verie good Lord

You are therefore to knowe, that his mniestie beinge much
troubled and greived at the hearte, to heare euerie daie of
see manie defeccions from our Religion, both to Poperie and
Anabaptisme, or other points of Sepa/'aci'on, in some parts of
this kingdome, and Consideringe wtth much Admiracton, what
might [be] the Cause thereof, especiallie in the Raigne of such
a kinge, who doeth soe Constantlie professe him selfe an open
aduersarie to the superstition of the one and madnesse of the
other, his princelie wisedome Could falle vpon noe one greater
proba[bi]litie then the lightnesse affectednesse, and vnprofit-
ablenesse of that kinde of preachinge, which hath beene of late
yeeres two much taken vpp in Courte, vniuersitie, Cittie, and
Countrey : /

[An interesting Letter written by John Cotton to the "Lord
Bishop of Lincolne, Lord keeper of the great Seale", dated
"Boston [England]. lanwary 31. 1624."]'

• Add. MS. 6394 (Boswell Papers, Vol. i.), fol. 29-30, in the British

« Add. MS. 6394 (Boswell Papers, Vol. i.), fol. 35-36.

Early English Churches on the Continent 261

My honourable & very good Lord,

As yo«<r Lordship hath dealt
honourably, & Christianly with me : so might I iustly be
esteemed impiously vngratefull, if I should deale otherwise,
then ingenuously, & honestly with yowr Lordship. When my
cause first came before yowr Lords/iip, yowr LordsAip wisely
and truely discerned, y*^ my forbearaunce of y^ Ceremonyes was
not from wilfull Refusall of Conformity, but from some doubt
in my Judgement (w""^ I confesse is very shallow) & from some
scruple in Conscience, w^*^ is indeede as weake. And therefore
vpon mine humble, & instaunt Petition, yo/ir LordsAtp was
pleased in much goodnesse, to graunt me time to consider
further of these things for my better satisfaction. Your Lord-
sAips gentlenesse hath not since bred in me any obstinacy in
mine owne Opinion : much lesse emboldened me to depart the
further from y® receyved ludgeme/it & practise of y® Church in
any point. The point of kneelinge in Receyvinge y*^ holy
Communion, was noe lesse doubtfull to me (if not more) in y*^
dayes of yowr Lords/itps Prsedecessowr, then it is now. His
Lords/rtp knoweth, that in Westminster by his Com/?munde-
me/it, I propounded my doubts about it before himselfe, & the
Reverend & learned Bishop of Sarisbury. y*^ now is. Vnto
whom I did so freely open my selfe, out of deepe desire to
helpe my selfe by their deeper Iudgeme?its, y*^ my Lord dis-
cerninge my simplicity, became (as I conceyved it) y** more
favourable & willinge not onely to beare with me, but also to
give some way to my Restitution, & in the windinge vp to
leave me in such Estate, as yowr Lords/up found me. I humbly
beseech yowr Lorrfs/wp thinke not I have so abused yowr Lord-
sAips Patience, as to harden my selfe by yowr LordsAtps Lenity.
Noe, I assure yoetr Lord.s/a'p, out of an vnfeigned Desire, to
improove yo?tr Lords/wps Gentlenesse to mine owne Peace, &
the Churches satisfaction, I have thus farre gayned (what by
Conference, what by study, what by seekinge vnto God) as of
late to see the Weakenesse [?] of some of those groundes against
Kneelinge, w"^^ before seemed too stronge for me to dissolve.
The Experience of y^ faylinge of my ludgement in some of
these thinges, maketh me the more to suspect it in other

262 Early Eiuflish Dissenters

Argiime/its & grounds of like nature. Besides I shall never
forgett, what your LordsAip gi-avely & wisely once said vnto
me, The Cerenionyea I doubted of, „ were noe where expresly
„forbidden in Scripture: the Arguments brought against y™
„were but by Consequence deducted from Scripture: deduction
„of Consequences was a worke of y* Judgement: other mens
„Iudgemewts (so many, so learned, so godly) why should I not
„conceyve, did as infallibly deduce iust Consequences, to allowe
„ these thinges, as mine owne, to doubt of y™. Alas, alas, (my
deere Lord) I see by often Experience, the shallownesse of
mine owne Judgement, especially in comparison of many
Centuryes of Godly-Learned, who doubt not of the Lawful!
liberty of these Ceremonyes, especially of this Gesture. Their
Consent herein doth further strongly persuade me, to suspect
the motions of mine owne minde, when I see my selfe in any
thinge to dissent from y* receyved Judgement of so many
Reverend Fathers, & Brethren in y® Church, whom I doe not
onely highly reverence, but admire. I see, it is commonly a
Palsey-distemper in any member of y^ Body, when it is carryed
by a Motion different from y® rule of y* rest of y* members.
And I iustly suspect y'' Spirit, in my selfe, or in another, y*"
breatheth a motion different from y^ rest of y* members of
y* body of Christ, y® Church of God.

Thus may your Lords/up well perceyve, how little, your Lord-
ships forbearasnce of me hath hitherto stiffened me in any
private Conceyte. And though it hath bene suggested to your
LordsAip (as I heare) y'' it hath emboldened our Parish to
Incomformity, & induced divers others to come from other
Parishes, to Communicate with vs in y* like Liberty : Yet
surely your Lords/iip hath done honourably & Christian ly, &
well beseeminge the aequity of your High & Honourable
Court [?], Not to give Credit to such a Suggestion, till your
LordsAip hath Enquired, & heard our Answer. The trueth is,
the Ceremonyes of y® Ringe in Marryage, & standinge at y'
Creeds, are vsually performed by my selfe: & all y* other
Ceremonyes of Surplice, Crosse in Baptisme, Kneelinge at }'•
Communion are frequently vsed by my fellow-Minister in our
Church, & without disturbance of y® People. The People on

Early English Churches on the Continent 263

Sabbaths, & sundry other Festivall dayes, doe very diligently,
& throug[h]ly frequent y* Publique Prayers of y* Church,
appointed by Authority in y^ Booke of Common Prayer:
neyther doe I thinke, y' any of y"* ordinarily (vnlesse it be
vpon iust occasion of other buisinesse) absenteth himselfe. It
is true indeede, y' in Receyvinge the Communion, sundry of y"*
doe not kneele : but (as I conceyve it, & as they Expresse
themselves) It is not out of scruple of Conscience, but from
y® store & multitude of Communicants, w''^ often doe so thronge
one another in this great Congregation, that they can hardly
stand, (much lesse kneele) one by another. Such as doe for-
beare kneelinge out of any doubt in Conscience, I know not,
how very few, they be : I am sure, in comparison of y® rest,
they be nullius numeri. That divers others come from other
Parishes for y^ Purpose, to Receyve without Kneelinge, is
vtterly vnknowen to me, & (I am persuaded) vtterly vntrue.
All y^ neighboz^r Parishes, Ministers &; People rounde about
vs, are wholly Conformable. Once indeede (as I heard) one of
y® Inhabitants of oi<r neighbour Parish, coraminge to visit his
wife (who then nourced a Gentlemans child in our Towne) did
here Communicate with. vs. And whether for his not kneelinge,
or for some further Cause, I know not, but (as I heard) y^ Coiirt
beinge Informed of Him, did proceede severely against Him,
But otherwise, the man (as I have since bene certefyed) hath
alwayes vsed to receyve Kneelinge, both before, & since. Yet
his Case beinge further bruited abroade, then well knowen,
might easily breede such a Suspicion, & afterwards a Report,
w*''' in time might come to your Lords/iips Eares, y*^ divers did
come from other Parishes to vs, for this purpose. To Receyve In-
comformably. But your Lord.9^ip is wise, easily discernninge [?]
betweene Report & Evidences.

Let me now therefore humbly intreate yoi^r Lordship, in
y* bowells of Christ lesus, since yoi^r hordshi-ps Lenity hath
hitherto neyther hardened me to any selfe-conceyted Obstinacy,
nor wrought any Prgeiudice, eyther to yowr Lordship, or to y*-'
Church of God : Your Lordship will therefore be pleased To
allowe me yet further time, for better Consideration of such
doubts, as yet remayne behinde That if vpon further search,

264 Early English Dissenters

I can finde them too weake to deteyne me, as I have done
y* former I may then satisfy your Lords/iips Desire, & Ex-
pectation : If Otherwise, yet I trust your LordsAtp shall ever
finde mo (by y'' helpe of God) a peaceable, & (to my best
endeavottr, accordinge to my weake abilityes) a serviceable
member of y* Church of God. I dare not praesume, with more
wordes to Presse yo«r Lord^/a'p, whom y'' store & weight of
so many important Affayres, presse continually. The Lord of
Heaven & Earth give me still to finde favour in your Lordships
Eyes : And even He prosper your Lords/a'p with Longe life, &
Happynesse, & Favour with God, & man. So humbly cravinge
Pardon for my great boldnesse, I desire leave to rest

Yowr LordsAips exceedingly much bounden Oratour /

Boston. lanuory 31. 1624./ lohn Cotton./

[A Petition of English and Scottish ministers in the Nether-
lands to King Charles I of England against six articles
exhibited by Sir D.(udley) Carleton. Dated " Att Rotter-
dam the 4.^'' of lune 1628."]^

Articles exhibited & delivered unto the Synod
of the English & Scottish Ministers in the
Netherlands, in the name of his Ma^'e.s-de of Great
Brittanie, by the right bono:'''® the L. Carleton
Baron of Imbercourt, kmhassadour extraord:'^ to the States
Generall of the united provinces, May 19. 1628./

1 It is his Maje^ries pleasure, that the said Ministers meddle
not with the making or composing, much lesse y® pub-
lishing of any new Liturgie or sett forme of prayer for
their congregations.

2. That they by no meanes do exercise the power of Ordina-
tion, but that they leave both English & Scottish to
receive holy orders only from their owne mothersChurches
established in these two kingdomes : And that they
accept of no other into any pastorall charge, but those
only who have beene so ordained.
I Add. MS. 6394 (Boswell Papers, Vol. i.), fol. 41-44.

A very plain and well




Wherein U is very ckerly/hov^n ^ and out e/ '

gtedgrxmds demtnfrate^ fhat Bapcifmc wds snfiimedAnd
§rdainid hj the L era Chriji , for thfife thiit ktlseve ^nd rffent,
i^mlwas fi taught and u fed y^ his '^fifi Us , oKd okferved ^rj
filUivedhj th^ Primitive Church.

As alfo how that in proceffc of time the Baptifoie
1^ ©fChiWrcH in ftcadaf true Baptifme was brought in
and received, and by divers Counccls, Popes, an4
Bmpcrours commanded to be obferved.

Marke i6. i6.
- HtthatfhttllheUeveattdbeBiftifedjkallbifa'veit
I But he that mil ntt believe Jhail he damned.

Printed in the yeare of our Lwd and Saviour
f £ SUS C H & J ST.

TlTLE-i'AOE OF THE .Secund Imi'uk.ssion. {Facsimi/e.) Probable date
1G48. See Vol. I., pp. 263-4 and Appendix B, p. 370.

Early English Churches on the Conthient 265

3 That they bring in no novelties in any rites or Ceremonies
which either concerne the actuall admission of Lawful!
Ministers unto their pastorall charge, or which may be
used in any other sacred act whatsoever.

4. That they assume no power to themselves to meddle with

any point of doctrine : but that in doctrinall points they
keepe themselves to what hath beene established by the
English & Dutch Churches.

5. His Majestie is well content that they should still keepe

that power, w'^'' K. James his Royall Father intended
to them; viz: To suppresse those who tooke vpon them
the function of preachers, without lawfull vocation or
admission to y^ Ministery. And 2.'^ to examine, re-
straine & punish the ill manners of such as give scandall
by their vitious lives. And moreover, his Majestie doth
recommend unto them, to make diligent inquisition
after those who write books or pamphletts any way
derogatory to y^ Church or state of England ; & as
much as in them lieth to suppresse them.

6. In case any doubt or difficulty arise concerning y^ true

meaning or execution of these particulars ; that they
then repaire to his Majesties Amhassadour or Agent for
y® time being, who will ever have, or be able to procure
such directions from his Majesty whereby so godly a
worke, may be duely & rightly advanced.


D. Carleton.

May it please yowr Sacred Majestie graciously to receive
& consider this humble declaration of us yowr Majesties
most loyall & duetifiill subjects (the English & Scotch
Ministers) now living under the power of a forraine
state, touching these articles exhibited unto us in your
Majesties name, as your Royall pleasure, by the right
honorable the hord Carleton, Baron of Imber Court,
your Majesties Amhassadour extraordr/iary to y** States
generall of y*" united p/'ovinces y^ IQ''^ of May 1628./
First in generall, we humbly beseech your Royall Majestie

266 Early English DisseiUera

to cunsidur how unjustly, without any occasion by us
ministred to these Churches of England & Scotland,
a needles trouble hath beene raised unto us. First in
the time of K. James of happy memory ; & now againe
in yoiLT Mjy'esdes time upon some sinister suggestions
only, as though our proceedings in our Synodall as-
semblies should be derogatory to the Churches of the
said kingdomes ; whereas that solemne protestation
made by us to the contrary att our first embracing
& undertaking that authority given us by the most
Illustrious Lords the States Generall by the procure-
ment of his Majesties kxnhassadour doth sufficiently
cleare us of that imputation : the contents of w** pro-
testation here following, we humbly present to your
The said Ministers for the removing of all jealousy of innovation,
separation, faction or schisme, did all jointly & severally
protest, That as they did entertaine the liberty & benefitt
of the said order & govemement to be practised and
administred only according to the French Churches, &
as is contained in the grant from the most Illustrious
Lords the States, without any purpose or intention to
do any thing in any other forme to the least offense of
the Churches in these provinces ; or any way to impaire
any particular lawfull priviledge w*''* hitherto hath beene
enjoyed by any of the English Churches in these pro-
vinces, being in nature & quality neither offensive or
contrary to the order of the Dutch or French Churches
among whom they reside, nor any way repugnant to the
power & grant aforesaid. So likewise did they protest
their entertainement of the said forme & order to be
(notwithstanding the bond of our uniforme obedience to
the power & gi-ant aforesaid during our abode in these
parts) free in their soules & consciences from any dis-
respect, censure, prejudice, or condemnation of the
Churches in his Majesties dominions ; reserving unto
them all due reverence as to the true Churches of
Christ, equally precious in the sight of God (through

Ea7'ly English Churches on the Continent 267

the same most precious faith) with our selves resolving
still to hold communion with them, notwithstanding
any difference of extemall order ; & evermore to pray
for, & procure their happines & wellfare with our owne.

And 1, concerning the making or publishing of any new
Liturgie. We are sorry, that our best intentions are
so misconstrued, it never havinge entred into our minds,
to frame or publish any new Liturgie : or to oppose or
condemne the Liturgies of any other Churches : but only
to enlarge that allready extant (: \sic\ w*^"^ by authority
& command of the States we are enjoyned to observe :)
by adding thereunto from other Liturgies; & among
the rest from the Liturgie of England, so much as
without offense or scandall in these Churches might be
practised : w^** foresaid Liturgie hath beene in continuall
use in all Churches here, from the time of Q. Elizabeth
of famous memory, whilst the Earle of Leicester did
governe in these provinces ; & agreed upon & practised
in the Churches of the Brill & Vlissinghe, then absolutly
depending upon y® authority of the Kings of England,
& maintained by them. Such was the care of yo«r
M.2ijestie^ royal 1 p>-edecessors to have all things among
their subjects here residing to be done in conformity
to the Churches of these lands, thereby to prevent all
offense, & to maintaine the peace & unitie of the
Church : w''*' course we trust assuredly, your Majes^ie
intends we should follow ; not purposing we should putt
in practise any Liturgy never as yett authorized in
these parts ; or that we should leave every man to his
owne liberty to use what Liturgie he pleaseth ; seing
thereby as great, if not greater confusion & disorder
should raigne amongst us after order established, as
was before the erection of our Synode.

Touching the practise of Ordination forbidden us in the
2.*^ Article : We humbly beseech your Majes^ie to weigh
the nature of ordination, being an essential 1 point of y®
function of our Ministery, for the well ordering y*^ house

268 Early Enylisk Dissenters

of God, over w''' wo are sett, as well as the preaching of
the gospell &i adInillist^a^ion of the Sacraments; so that
with good conscience we cannot omitt it, nor leave it
wholly to others without being guilty of neglect of the
office laid upon us by Christ. And we are persuaded,
that your Ma;es^ie considering this, will never prohibitt
us the exercise of any thing, the power whereof is
conferd upon us by him, there being (as we hope) no
just cause in our persons or carriadge to y* contrary.

2. Ordination is of such a nature, that the exercise
thereof being taken from us, the practise of all other
points of Ecclesiasticall discipline over others of the
Ministery are taken away with it; Seing none can
displace that have no power to place ; nor take away
authority, where they cannot give it. The Ordainors may
maintaine the ordained by them against all others ; it
being the order of all Churches, that Ministers in their
Ministery be subject to their Ordainors. This point is
also confirmed by the Popes owne law

3. If we should leave this practise wholly to these
Churches, & thereby leave to them all the rest of the
points of Ecclesiasticall governement we consequently
give way to a forraine Ecclesiasticall power over y^
Churches within y® dominions of this State ; & so
should not only prove ourselves most unthankfull
persons, but also wrong the state, in transferring the
liberty & power graunted us by them to strangers ; so
enthralling them to a forraine authority./

4. Your Majesde may consider what infamy & disgrace
by this course shall be brought upon us yowr Majesties
subjects, as the only men in these Churches, who are
unworthy to enjoy the freedome, w*^** other strangers
(& namely the French) do peaceably possesse. We
beseech your M.a.jestie graciously to respect the credit of
your owne loyall subjects, that they be not herein made
inferio?" in estimation to other strangers, & so exposed
to the prophane derision & contempt of all men.

5. We beseech your Ma^'esrie to ponder what a dangerous

Early English Churches on the Continent 269

president this were to have the practise of any affaires
Ecclesiasticall to depend upon a forrain power, without
the limits of the kingdome or state, where it is exercised.
What confusion should fall amongst States & Princes,
if once this practise should take place ? For why may not
a forrain civill power, order the affaires of another state,
if a forraine Ecclesiasticall power shall once have place
to order the Ecclesiasticall affaires of another State ?
Was not this a speciall reason w*^'* moved your Majesties
Father of happy memory to take such paines in writing
that famous Apologie pro juramento fidelitatis against
such usurped power by the Pope ? We beseech your
Majestie to consider, if any state under heaven, except
papisticall, would willingly suffer such a practise, so
dangerous, to creepe in, & take place in their dominions :
considering, that even in this point of ordaining of
Ministers, the Popes owne law doth not permitt a
BzsAop to ordaine any without the limits of his OAvne
Bw/ioprick, much lesse in a forrain state, as hereby doth

manifestly appeare

6. We beseech yowr Majestic to conceive, that if we
should continue a Synodall body without practise of
ordination; we should be such an Ecclesiasticall body,
as is not to be found in any reformed Church in the
world. And therefore we leave it unto your Majesties
wise judgement, if the leaving this practise wholly to
the Churches of England and Scotland, should not
worke in all abroad a greater distaste of the Churches
of England & Scotland, & Episcopall govememe?it in
them (: if once it begin to extend its authority to
forraine nations without the compasse of your Majesties
dominions:) for suppressing in their owne brethren
abroad, the ordinary practise of all other reformed
Churches? May not all Churches thinke; yea do
they not allready conceive hereby that if they could,
they would both condemne & overthrow all their
governement ? Whereas otherwise, they might have
all other Churches to hold peace & communion wtth

270 Early EnglisJi Dissenters

them, if they should not incroach so strangely upon
them, & their practise in our persons.

[Information concerning the English Congregations in the
Netherlands between 1621 and 1633.]'

Concerning the Classis.

That in the yeare 1621. M" forbes obtaining a Commission
for the English Classis M"" Paget, & M"" Potts refused to be
members of it : And being p?'essed to come in they made
their case knowne to the Amsterdam Dutch classis of
wAi'ch they were. & gave their reasons, which were so
approved That the Classis made an Act, That they
thought it best the English should have no classis, &
that M"" Paget & M"^ Potts should not be drawen from
the Dutch classis they were in. This Act with the
reason are [sic] vpon register. & recorded.
That M"" Paget fo*" [?] being yet farther p7-essed by the
Engl classis ; The busines was presented to the North
Holland synod : where the former Act of the Amsterdam
classis was confirmed ; this is likewise to be seene vpon
record. /

M"" Forbes notwithstanding this once with M"" Scott the
Vtrecht minister, & another time with M' Batchelour
came to Amsterdam privately to the Burgomasters to
desire them to constraine M"" Pagett & M'' Potts to be
of their classis...

That the two maine reasons why the English Classis is
condemned are these (as they may be seene vpon record)
1. Because the Ministers of England which, come over
hi the?" are of several! & inconsistent opinions differing
from one another & fro7n, all reformed churches, as ex-
pressely that some are Brownists. some Brownistically
affected in particular opinions, as .1. in allowing private
men to p^-each. 2. In denijng [?] formes of praier.
3 In admitting Bro%\Tiists to their Congregations not
1 Add. MS. 6394 (Boswell Papers, Vol. i.), fol. 146, recto and verso.

Early English CJuirches on the Continent 271

renouncing their Brownisme. Some are lacobites who
require a New Covenant for members of a church to
make before they can be Communicants, 2. Condemne
the Decisive & Judging power of all Classes & Synods ;

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