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[BRARY



THE UNIVERSITY
OF CALIFORNIA

SANTA BARBARA



GIFT OF MRS. WILBUR JACOBS
COLLECTION OF HER MOTHER,
MRS. AUGUSTA G. STANLEY.




THIS BOOK

BELONGS TO







THE NEW



STUDENT'S REFERENCE WORK



FOR



TEACHERS, STUDENTS AND FAMILIES



EDITED BY

CHANDLER B. BEACH, A.M., LL.D.
/

. ASSOCIATE EDITOR

FRANK MORTON M C MURRY, PH.D.



VOLUME I



CHICAGO
. E. COMPTON AND COMPANY








THE STUDENT'S CYCLOPAEDIA

Copyright, 1893, by C. B. Beach



THE STUDENT'S REFERENCE WORK

Copyright, 1901, by C. B. Beach




THE NEW STUDENT'S REFERENCE WORK



Copyright, 1909, by C. B. Beach
Copyright, 1911, by C. B. Beach
Copyright, 1912, by C. B. Beach



Copyright, 1912, by F. E. Compton and Company
Copyright, 1913, by F. E. Compton and Company
Copyright, 1914, by F. E. Compton and Company
Copyright, 1915, by F. E. Compton and Company
Copyright, 191 7,. by F. E. Compton and Company
Copyright, 1918, by F. E. Compton and Company







v,\



EDITORS OF DEPARTMENTS

/ \

BOTANY

JOHN MERLE COULTER, Ph.D., LL.D;,
Head Professor of Botany, University of Chicago

\^_^ PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY
HENRY CREW, Ph.D.,
Professor of Physics, Northwestern University.

GEOLOGY

ROLLIN D. SALISBURY, A.M.,
Professor of Geology, University of Chicago

ZOOLOGY

WILLIAM ALBERT LOCY, Ph.D., Sc.D.,
Professor of Zoology, Northwestern University.

CHEMISTRY

HORACE LEMUEL WELLS, A.M.,
Professor Analytical Chemistry and Metallurgy Sheffield Scientific School,

Yale University.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

ALBERT PRUDEN CARMAN, Sc.D.,

Professor of Electrical Engineering, University of Illinois.

CANADIAN DEPARTME
HON. RICHARD HARCOURT, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D.,

Ex-Minister of Education, Ontario.

BRITISH COLONIES IN AFRICA AND AUSTRALIA

GRAEME MERCER ADAM,
Founder of the Canadian Educational Monthly.




\



PARTIAL LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS



HON. F. D. COBURN,
Per twenty years Secretary of Agriculture, Kan.

E. N. HENDERSON, Ph.D.,

Professor in Philosophy of Education,

Adelphi College, Brooklyn.

HENRY SUZALLO, Ph.D.,

President, University of Washington.

Formerly Professor of Education, Columbia.

B. R. SIMPSON, Ph.D.,

Teacher of Psychology and Principles of Edu-
cation, Training School for Teachers,
Brooklyn.

PERCIVAL R. COLE, Ph.D.,

Vice-principal Sidney Teachers College

New South Wales, Australia.

A. R. TAYLOR, Ph.D., LL.D.,
President James Milliken University.




C. A. McMuRRY, Ph.D.,

Professor Elementary Education, Peabody

College, Nashville, Tenn.

EDWARD C. ELLIOTT, Ph.D.,

Chancellor, University of Montana.

Formerly Professor of Education, Wisconsin.

T. D. WOOD, A.M., M.D.,

Professor of Physical Education,

Teachers College, Columbia University

C. H. ROBISON, A.M.,

Professor of Science, State Normal School
Montclair, N. J.

PERCY HUGHES, Ph.D.,

Professor of Philosophy,

Lehigh University.

GEORGE WILLIAM EGGERS,

Director of The Art Institute

of Chicago




' .'



Miss EMMA M. CHURCH,

Director School of Applied and Normal Art,

Chicago.

MRS. A. S. HALL,

Museum Instructor, the Art Institute of
Chicago.

CHARLES H. FARNSWORTH,

Professor in Music,
Teachers College, Columbia University.

CALVIN BRAINARD CADY,

Lecturer in Music, Teachers' College,

Columbia University.

H. E. BARD, A.M.,

El Ministerio de Justicia, Instruccion y Culto
Lima, Peru.

MRS. ELEANOR ATKINSON,

Author of The Boyhood of Lincoln,

Greyfriar's Bobby, etc.

E. E. GlLTNER,

Head of Department of History,

New York Training School for Teachers,

New York City.

Miss ALICE WESSA, B. S.,
Head Department of Geography, State Normal

School, Buffalo; formerly

Instructor Hebrew Training School for

Girls, New York City.

CLYDE FURST, A.M.,

Secretary Carnegie Foundation for the

Advancement of Teaching, New York City.

B. B. BURRITT, A.M.,

Director Department of Social Welfare, New
York Association for Improving the Con-
dition of the Poor; formerly of the
Teachers College, Columbia University.

CHARLES D. HINE,

Secretary State Board of Education,

Connecticut.

EDWARD HYATT,

State Superintendent of Public Instruction,
California.

JAMES H. FUQUA, SR., A.M., LL.D.,

Formerly State Superintendent of Public

Instruction, Kentucky.



FRANK EVANS,

Superintendent City Schools,
Spartanburg, S. C.

KATHERINE L. CRAIG,
Author of Craig's Primary Geography,
and Ex-State Superintendent Public Instruc-
tion, Colorado.

CHARLES H. ALBERT, A.B.,
State Normal School, Bloomsburg, Pa.

THOMAS C. MILLER,
Principal Shepherd College, State Normal

School , and

Ex-State Superintendent of Schools,
West Virginia.

KATHERINE POPE,
Research Specialist.

W. H. AlTKEN,

Manager Monotype Department,
The Franklin Company, Chicago.

HON. W. W. STETSON,

Former State Superintendent of Schools,

Maine.

CHARLES G. WETHERBEE,

Prince School,

Boston.

J. J. DOYNE,

President State Normal School,

Conway, Ark., and

Ex-State Superintendent of Public Instruction,
Arkansas.

WARREN UPHAM,
Archaeologist Minnesota Historical Society.

MALCOLM MCDOWELL,

Director of Publicity, Southern Settlement and
Development Company,

Baltimore.

Formerly Secretary Central Trust Company
of Illinois,
Chicago.

FREDERIC PERRY NOBLE, Ph.D.,
Author The Redemption of Africa.

ROBERT W. WOOD, A.B.,

Professor of Experimental Physics
Johns Hopkins University.



WILLIAM PAXTON BURRIS, A. M.,
Dean of Teachers College, University of

Cincinnati.
SIR HARRY HAMILTON JOHNSTON, G. C. M. G.;

K. C. B.,
British Administrator, Explorer and Author.



REVISIONS BY EMINENT MEN AND WOMEN

Absolut accuracy, as well as simplicity and charm of style, have been kept in mind in the
preparation of this work, as illustrated by the following examples of revisions of our articles by
eminent men and women in this country and in Europe on vital topics, current movements and
great achievements with which their names are identified.

THE INCOME TAX LAW AND HOW TO APPLY IT.
Revised by THOMAS B. PATON, General Counsel of the American Bankers Association.

An analysis of the law which will enable the layman to answer for himself the great majority of questions arising
out of its application to his income.

THE FLYING MACHINE AND ITS "MECHANICAL BRAIN."

Revised by ORVILLE WRIGHT, joint inventor with his brother of the first practical air ship
and of the wonderful "mechanical brain" called the Stabilizer, patented in 1913.

It is believed by experts that the Stabilizer may prove fully as important as the aeroplane
itself.

THE TRUTH ABOUT RADIUM.

An 'article specially prepared for The Student's by DR. WORTHINGTON SEATON RUSSELL,
Research Fellow and Chief X-Ray Department, New York Skin and Cancer Hospital.

Great harm is done by misunderstanding as to its virtues in the treatment of cancer and kindred diseases; so
that Dr. Russell's article is one which, for the public good, should be given the widest possible publicity.

THE TARIFF OF 1913.

Revised under the direction of HON. OSCAR W. UNDERWOOD, Chairman of the Committee
on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives.

Under its proper heading will be found a character sketch of the man under whose leadership this vital measure
was enacted, revised by Mr. Underwood,

MEXICO, CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE.
Revised under the direction of JOHN BARRETT, Director General of the Pan American Union.

"Our Southern neighbors in this Hemisphere," says Mr. Barrett, "will enjoy, because of the opening of the
Panama Canal, the greatest material, commercial and economic development which any group of nations has ever
experienced in the history of the world."

THE DOMINION OF CANADA AND ITS RESOURCES.

Revised under the direction of HON. GEORGE E. FOSTER, Minister of Trade and Commerce
of the Dominion.

Our articles on the various Provinces have been revised by or under the direction of the Lieutenant Governor
of each Province.

STORY OF NELSON, ENGLAND'S GREATEST SEAMAN.

Revised by ADMIRAL SIR CYPRIAN BRIDGE, G.C.B., K.C.B., retired; formerly member of
the Committee on Heavy Guns, Explosives, Armor Plate and Projectiles, Commander-in-Chief of
the Chinese Station, etc.

THE NEW FEDERATED BANKING SYSTEM.
Revised by THOMAS B. PATON, General Counsel of the American Bankers Association.

A clear and concise description of the Currency Law and its operation ; the most important change in the Banking
System of the United States since Alexander Hamilton, and a subject of vital interest to every business man and every
student of American Institutions.

THE ENGLISH WORKINGMEN'S INSURANCE LAW.

Revised by the Rx. HON. DAVID LLOYD-GEORGE, Prime Minister of England, formerly
Chancellor of the Exchequer, Minister of War and Munitions, etc.

ARBITRATION AND INDUSTRIAL PEACE.

Revised by FRANK P. WALSH, Chairman of the Committee on Industrial Relations.
THE POST OFFICE, POSTAL SAVINGS BANKS AND THE PARCEL POST.
Revised under the direction of HON. ALBERT S. BURLESON, Postmaster General.

THE CULTURE AND MARKETING OF COTTON

Contributed by G. S. MELOY, Office of the Chief of the Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S.
Department of Agriculture.

WORK OF THE WOMEN'S CLUBS.

Revised by MRS. MARY I. WOOD, Manager Information Bureau, General Federation of
Women's Clubs, Vice-President New Hampshire Woman's Suffrage Association and Member
Executive Committee State Conference of Charities and Corrections.



THE PROGRESS OP WOMAN'S SUFFRAGE.

Revised by FRANCES MAULE BJORKMAN, Secretary National American Woman's Suffrage
Association.

WORK OF FRANCES WILLARD AND THE WOMAN'S CHRISTIAN

TEMPERANCE UNION.

Revised by MRS. LILLIAN M. N. STEVENS, President of the Women's Christian Temperance
Union.

THE PARENT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS AND THEIR WORK.

Revised by MRS. FREDERICK K. SCHOFF, President of the National Congress of Mothers
and Parent-Teacher Associations.

THE PANAMA CANAL.

Revised by MAJOR-GENERAL G. W. GOETHALS, Chief Engineer Panama Canal, Chairman
Isthmian Commission and First Civil Governor of the Canal Zone.

THE CHILDREN OF TOPSY TURVY LAND. (Child Life in Japan)
Revised by His Excellency VISCOUNT CHINDA, Formerly Japanese Ambassador to the U. S.

THE BOY SCOUTS OF AMERICA.

With Illustrations by the Chief Scout, Ernest Thompson-Seton, showing how to build a
fire without matches, etc.

Revised by GEORGE H. MERRITT, Secretary to the Editorial Board, Boy Scouts of America.

STORY OF THOMAS EDISON, THE WIZARD INVENTOR.

Revised by WILLIAM H. MEADOWCROFT, of the Edison Laboratories, Author of "The Boy-
hood of Edison."

STORY OF LUTHER BURBANK AND HIS WORK.

Revised by MR. BURBANK, the Plant Wizard who has given us the "White Blackberry,"
the "Thornless Cactus" and other wonders of the plant world.

STORY OF THE LIFE OF GRANT.
Revised by U. S. GRANT, JR.

NEW YORK CITY, THE METROPOLIS OF THE NATION.
Revised by FREDERICK B. DE BERARD, Statistician of the Merchants Association of New
York City.

CHICAGO, THE METROPOLIS OF THE WEST.'

Revised under the direction of HUBERT F. MILLER, Business Manager, Chicago Association
of Commerce.

THE STORY OF FRANCE.
Revised by His Excellency J. J. JUSSERAND, French Ambassador to the United States.

STORY OF ROBERT PEARY, DISCOVERER OF THE NORTH POLE.
Revised by ADMIRAL PEARY. A thrilling "true story" of daring, persistence and scientific
skill.

STORY OF ROALD AMUNDSEN, DISCOVERER OF THE SOUTH POLE.
Revised by CAPTAIN AMUNDSEN, the (intrepid, modern Norseman with "sea-blue eyes" who
finished the work begun by Sebastian Cabot four centuries ago.

CHINA AN ANCIENT PEOPLE AND THEIR NEW REPUBLIC.
Revised by HON. W. J. CALHOUN, Ex-Minister to China.

STORY OF HILL, "COLOSSUS OF ROADS."

Revised by PRESIDENT HILL, the Scotch-Irish Lad from Canada, who dreamed a great dream
and made it come true.

THE COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES.

Revised by A. H. BALDWIN, Ex-Chief of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce,
United States Department of Commerce. Now U. S. Commercial Attache, London.

TRADE UNIONS AND TRADE UNIONISM THROUGHOUT THE WORLD.
Revised by SAMUEL GOMPERS, President American Federation of Labor.

THE RISE OF MODERN JAPAN.
Revised by His Excellency VISCOUNT CHINDA, Formerly Japanese Ambassador to the U. S.




A. R. TAYLOR, PH.D., LL.D. HON. R. HARCOURT, M.A., K.C., LL.D. JOHN M. COULTER, PH.D., LL.D.

H. E. BARD, A.M. CHANDLER B. BEACH, A.M. E. N. HENDERSON, PH.D.

ROLLIN D. SALISBURY, A.M. B. R. SIMPSON, PH.D. HON. F. D. COBURN

EDITORS A:;D CONTRIBUTORS, THE NEW STUDENTS REFERENCE WORK




GRAEME MERCER ADAM

C. H. ROBISON, A.M.
JAMES E. CLARK, M.PD.



WM. B. MERRITT

FRANK MORTON MCMURRY, PH.D.
CHARLES H. ALBERT, A.B.



JAS. H. FUQUA, S., LL.D.

HON. W. W. STETSON
FREDBRIC P. NOBLE. Pa.D.



EDITORS AND CONTRIBUTORS, THE NEW STUDENT'S REFERENCE WORK




J. J. BURNS
J. G. BENNETT
PERCIVAL R. COLE, PH.D.



CALVIN BRAINARD CAOY

WILLIAM A. LOCY, PH.D., Sc.D.

FRANK EVANS



ALBERT P. CARMAN, Sc.D.

E. E. GILTNER. A.M.
T. D. WOOD, A.M., M.D.



EDI-TORS AND CONTRIBUTORS. THE NEW STUDENT'S REFERENCE WORK




GEORGE WILLIAM EGGERS

KATHERINE L. CRAIG
HORACE LEMUEL WELLS, A.M.



KATHERIXE POPE

HENRY CREW, PH.D.

C. A. McMuRRY, PH.D.



CHARLES H. PARNSWORT
ELEANOR ATKINSON
PERCY HUGHES, Pa.D.



EDITORS AND CONTRIBUTORS. THE NEW STUDENT'S REFERENCE WORK



PREFACE

THE STUDENT'S REFERENCE WORK has long been known and valued
as supplying just that reference material which is needed by teachers
and pupils in elementary and secondary schools. While partial revisions
have been made from year to year, yet in order to keep fully abreast of the
times a radical revision and the introduction of much new material have
become necessary.

Accordingly we now present THE NEW STUDENT'S REFERENCE WORK,
which practically is a new work. New material has added more than one
third to its volume, while the articles which appeared in the former work have
been largely rewritten and entirely reset. In its preparation we were able to
secure the cooperation of specialists and educators whose standing will be
recognized upon inspection of our list of editors and contributors. Advantage
has been taken of suggestions which have come to us from many teachers during
years of experience in the use of the former work, and it is believed that the
present work will be found adequate and satisfactory.

C. B. B.



KEY TO PRONUNCIATION



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as in eve


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oil


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FOREIGN CONSONANTS are represented by the nearest English equivalents.

THE PRINCIPAL ACCENT is indicated by a heavy mark ', the secondary accent by a lighter

mark ', at the end of the syllable.
SYLLABIC DIVISION is indicated by a light hyphen.
COMPOUND WORDS have their members joined by a heavy hyphen.
(Q. V.) is Latin for quod vide or qua vide. In articles, after names, it means see this, that

is, the subject named.



THE NEW
STUDENT'S REFERENCE WORK



A ABBOTT




AARDVARK



A, the first letter in trie English alphabet
and in many others. In English the letter
has several different sounds, as in ah, at,
all, ask, ale, fan, private, penal. In the
French and other languages of Continental
Europe it has but one sound; the broad a
as in ah. This is the simplest vowel sound,
given with the open mouth and throat.
Aachen (a' then). See AIX-LA-CHAPELLE.
Aardvark (drd'vark : earth pig) , an animal
of South Africa, called also ant-bear. It is
a strongly
built ani-
mal, about
five feet
long to tip
of tail;
has a long
snout and
s t r o n g
claws with
which it
roots and

tears apart the ant hills, and with its tongue
licks up the ants and other insects which
are its chief food. It lives in a shallow
burrow and is nocturnal in its habits.

Aaron, the first high priest of the Israel-
ites. He was the elder brother of Moses,
his spokesman at the court of Pharaoh and
his assistant in leading the Jewish nation
out from Egypt. During the absence of
Moses on Mount Sinai he yielded to the
cry of the people and made a golden calf
for them to worship. Mount Hor, whereon
he died, at the age of 123 years, is still
called the "Mount of Aaron."

Abacus (ab'a-ctis), is the classic name for

what is now

often called in
schools the
bead frame, a
device for
counting by
means of beads
or discs which
have been strung upon parallel wires. Such
a machine was in usa among tha Greeks and




ABACUS



Romans. The Chinese and the Persians
employ it to this day. In architecture, an
abacus is the flat tablet above the capital
of a column.

Abalone (ab'a-lo'ne), a shelled sea fish
of the Haliotidae species, popularly known
as ear-shells or sea-ears, found on the rocks
of the California coast feeding on seaweed.
The shell is a flattened spiral, with a lining
of bright mother-of-pearl, used consider-
ably in the arts; while the animal itself is
used as food by Orientals on the coast, and,
gathered and dried, is exported in quanti-
ties both to Japan and to China.

Abbey, Edwin Austin, an American artist,
was born April 3, 1852, at Philadelphia. In
1883 he removed to England. He was an
illustrator of a high order and a painter of
watercolors that reveal ability as a colorist.
His chief characteristic was love for English
country life and scenery and for old poets
and dramatists. His most famous painting
is The Quest for the Holy Grail, in the
Boston Library, and his illustrations of
Shakspere and Goldsmith are notable. King
Edward VII commissioned him to paint the
coronation at Westminster. Died Aug. 1,1911.

Ab'bott, Hon. John J. J. C., born in
1821 at St. Andrews (Quebec), educated
at McGill University. Called to the Bar in
1847. F r * en years Dean of the Faculty
of Law at McGill. At one time a Director
of the Bank of Montreal. Counsel for the
Canadian Pacific Railway. Elected to the
House of Commons 1867. Selected by th
Government in 1888 for a mission to Aus-
tralia to further trade relations and cable
communication. Called to the Senate in
1887. Leader for the Government in the
Senate from 1887 to 1891. Became Premier
of Canada in 1891. Author of the Insolv-
ency Act which he carried through Parlia-
ment, Was Mayor of Montreal in 1887 and
again in 1888. An authority in Parliament
on matters of banking and commerce. He
died in 1893.

Ab'bott, Lyman, American preacher, edi-
tor and author, WAS born in 1835, tha son



ABBOTSFORD



ABBREVIATIONS



of Jacob Abbott. After graduating from
the University of the City of New York
he studied law, but entered the ministry
and became pastor of a Congregational
church in Terre Haute, Ind. Later he be-
came editor of The Christian Union, New
York, now The Outlook, and succeeded Henry
Ward Beecher as pastor of Plymouth Church,
Brooklyn. Here he became widely known
both as preacher and editor, and as the
author of several commentaries and other
books. Among his works are The Evolu-
tion of Christianity; Christianity and Social
Problems; An Evolutionist's Theory; The
Rights of Man; The Life and Literature of
the Hebrews.

Ab'botsford, celebrated as the home of
Sir Walter Scott, is situated on the Tweed
river, near Melrose Abbey, Scotland. It was
named from a ford where the abbots of
Melrose Abbey crossed the Tweed. The
house is an irregular, picturesque mansion,
built by Sir Walter Scott in 1811, in the
style of the old English manor houses.
Carved stones taken from old castles and
abbeys are placed at intervals in the walls
of the house and garden. The lavish use
of money in adorning Abbotsford was one
of the chief causes of Scott's financial
failure.

Abattoir (db'dftwdr'), originally merely
a slaughter-house, but now inclusive of a
number of industries connected with the
disposal of the parts of animals unfit for
food. The term is sometimes made to in-
clude also the market at which the products
are sold.

What to do with the waste parts of slain
animals has always been a problem where
population was dense enough to necessitate
much butchering. In the time of the Roman
Empire the killing was restricted to one
section of the city, and here there was a
public market, and sometimes, as in Rome,
a splendid market building. Previous to
1810 in Paris killing of animals was allowed
even along the principal streets, and^ con-
ditions had become so bad that a commis-
sion was appointed in that year to do away
with the nuisance. Under the direction of
this commission five great abattoirs were
opened in September, 1818, and these have
to a great extent been models for the
world. London did not take up the matter
in a serious way until 1852, and then in
1855 opened a great establishment at a
suburb called Islington. But it has re-
mained for America, in very recent times,
to perfect the greatest of these institutions.
Machinery has been so much brought into
use that an almost marvelous speed and
economy is attained. Perhaps an even
more wonderful advance has been made in
the matter of using the various parts of the
animals which were once a nuisance. Such
products as special foods, medicines, build-
ing materials, chemicals, manures, etc., utilize



practically every particle of an animal and
so solve the problem of their disposal.

Abbre'via'tions are used to save time
in writing. In letter writing they should
on the whole be avoided. Before printing
was invented, however, the labor of copy-
ing and the cost and scarcity of parchment
caused abbreviations to be used so freely
that they are apt to be very difficult to
follow. Signs, like $ or are not, prop-
erly speaking, abbreviations, but symbols.
An abbreviation generally consists of the first
part of a word, or else of the first letters of
the words of a well-known phrase. Those
which follow still occur frequently :

A. B Bachelor of Arts.

A. C Ante Christum, before Christ.

A. D Anno Domini, in the year of our Lord.

A. D. C Aide-de-camp.

A. H. Anno Hegirse. in the year of the Hegira.

or since 622 A. D.

Ad lib Ad libitum, at pleasure.

set setatis, aged.

A. M Ante Meridiem, before noon.

A. M Master of Arts.

Anon Anonymous.

A. U. C Ab urbe condita, from the founding of

the city of Rome.

A. V Authorized Version.

b Born.

B. A. Bachelor of Arts. Same as A. B.

Bart. Baronet.

B. C Before Christ.

B. C. L Bachelor of Civil Law.

B. D Bachelor of Divinity.

Bp Bishop.

B. S. or B.Sc. Bachelor of Science.

C Centum, one hundred.

C Centigrade.

Cantab Cantabrigiensis, of Cambridge.

C. B Companion of the Order of the Bath.

c. c Cubic centimeter.

C. E Civil Engineer.

C. M. Cy. . . .Companion of the Order of St. Michael
and St. George.

Co Company.

Co County.

C/O Care of.

C. O. D Cash on Delivery.

Cr Creditor.

Cresc Crescendo, growing louder.

Cwt Hundredweight.

d Died.

d penny.

D. C District of Columbia.

D. C Da capo, from the beginning.

D. C. L Doctor of Civil Law.

D. D Doctor of Divinity.

D. D. S Doctor of Dental Surgery.

D. G Dei gratia, by the grace of God.

Dim Diminuendo, less loudly.

D. Lit Doctor of Literature.

Do Ditto, the same.

Dr Debtor.

Dr Doctor.

D. Sc Doctor of Science.

D. S. O Companion of the Distinguished Service

Order.

D. V Deo volente, God willing.

dwt Pennyweight.

e. g Exempli gratia, for example.

etc Et cetera, and so on.

et seq Et sequentia, and the following.

F Fahrenheit.

f Porte, loudly.

f . O. b Free on board.

ff Fortissimo, very loud.

F. R. C. P. . Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians.
P. R. C. S. .Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons.

F. R. G. S. .Fellow of the Royal Geographical Soci-

ety.
P. R. S. . . .Fellow of the Royal Society.

G. C. B Grand Cross of the Order of St. Micnaei

and St. Georgo



ABD-EL-KADER



ABELARD



H. M. S His Majesty's Ship, or Service.

ibid ibidem, in the same place.

i. e Id est, that is.

I. H. S.. . . . .Jesus hominum Salvator, Jesus the

Saviour of men.

Incog Incognito, unknown.

Inst Instante mense, in the current month.

J. P Justice of the Peace.

Jr Junior.

K. C King's counsel.

K. C. B Knight Commander of the Bath.

K. C. M. G.. Knight Commander of St. Michael and

St. George.

Libra, pound (British money).

Ib Pound weight.

Litt. D Doctor of Letters.

LL. B Bachelor of Laws.

LL. D Doctor of Laws.

M Monsieur.

MM Messieurs.

M. B Bachelor of Medicine.



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