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After the war; London--Paris--Rome--Athens--Prague--Vienna--Budapest--Bucharest--Berlin--Sofia--Coblenz--New York--Washington; a diary online

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THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY

OF CALIFORNIA

LOS ANGELES



FROM THE LIBRARY OF
ERNEST CARROLL MOORE




AFTER THE WAR



By THE SAME A UTHOR

THE FIRST WORLD WAR, 1914-1918
A Diary Two Volumes 10th Impression

'This book is a remarkable and noteworthy
addition to the history of the time. . . . "The First
World War " will be a very widely read book, and
will provoke both controversy and recrimination. '
Daily Telegraph.

' Here is our Pepys ... as much at home in the
War Office and Whitehall as in Mayfair, who knew
every one worth knowing and heard everything
worth hearing. Thus were set down these pages
of secret history, and never was historian more
candid.' Evening Standard.

VESTIGIA

A Book of Reminiscences from Schooldays to the
Eve of the European War

' Love of England is the dominant note in all this
chronicle of many occasions, of keen study of the
art and science of warfare and soldiering in many
lands. ' Morning Post.



AFTER THE WAR

LONDON PARIS ROME ATHENS PRAGUE
VIENNA BUDAPEST BUCHAREST BERLIN
SOFIA-GOBLENZ-NEW YORK- WASHINGTON

A DIARY

BY

LIEUT.-COL. G. A COURT REPINGTON

C. M. G.

COMMANDER OF THE ORDER OF LEOPOLD
OFFICER OF THE LEGION OF HONOUR



CONSTABLE AND COMPANY LTD
LONDON BOMBAY SYDNEY



Firtt published



Printed in Great Britain by T. and A. CONSTABI.V LTD.
at the Edinburgh University Press



College
Library



PREFACE

WHEN the Peace Treaties, with one exception, were ratified
and in full operation, I felt the need of a wander-year in
order to acquaint myself with the new personalities and new
ideas which the great war-storm had thrown up to the
surface of affairs in continental Europe. It was useless
to content oneself with archaic notions when all was
changed, if one wished to keep abreast with the times, and
there was no better way to discover what was happening
than to go and see for oneself.

A mission suggested to me by Viscount Burnham enabled
me to carry out my wish under favourable conditions. To
him, and to many other good friends at home and abroad,
my thanks are due for their confidence, their hospitality,
and their assistance. Later in the year the opportunity
was presented of attending the Washington Conference for
the Limitation of Armaments. I offer this diary as a small
contribution to the knowledge of people and events in the
world of to-day in the hope that it may aid my readers to
judge for themselves the proper direction of foreign policy
in the future.



1440199



CONTENTS

CHAPTER I
PERSONS AND POLITICS IN ITALY, JANUARY 1921

PAGES

Sir George Buchanan Colonel Detroyat M. Maurice Pernot on
Italian politics Italy's financial position A conversation
with General Badoglio His views on the Greeks Talks with
MM. Breski and Gayda at the Messagero office A visit to
M. Bergomini of the Giornale d? Italia Views of Dr. Malagodi,
editor of the Tribuna The Hellenic problem Italian policy
A conversation with M. Barrere on Italian and Greek affairs
A visit to Count Sforza at the Consulta The aims of Italian
policy Emigration and commerce A story from the Bos-
phoros Italian journals The Italian Embassy in London
Sir George Buchanan on his warning to the Tsar Leave Rome
for Athens ......... 1-18

CHAPTER II
THE RETURN OF KING CONSTANTINE

Athens A talk with Lord GranviUe Princess Christopher's
views A ceremony at the Piraeus Blessing the waters
Enthusiasm for the King At Prince Nicholas's Palace The
Patriarch arrives Greek wines The Turkish policy Colonel
Rangabe M. Guy Beringer on Greek discipline Colonel
Mayes on physical training in Greece An audience with the
King His views on current events Prince and Princess
Andrew A talk with the Greek Chief of Staff on the campaign
in Asia Minor M. Gounaris on current events and politics
Back to Herodotus M. Calogheropoulos on the financial posi-
tion A conversation with the Prime Minister, M. Rhallys
Colonel Nairne A visit to the Bay of Salamis ' Ilthi ' H.M.
the Queen Mother A talk with M. Stratos Venizelist jour-
nalists at sea Tyranny of Venizelist agents M. Maximos on
Greek finance Admiral Kelly Visitors The Archimand-
rite of Rhodes A luncheon with the King and Queen The

Crown Prince of Roumania A visit to Tatoi Colonel Pallis

Tii



viii AFTER THE WAR

PAGES

on the operations Strengths and chances of Greeks and
Turks Mr. Bawlings on commerce General Dousmanis
General Gramat on the Greek Army Election and plebiscite
figures A conversation with the Italian Minister, M. Montagna
Views of M. de Billy, the French Minister A farewell
audience with the King A final dinner with M. Gounaris at
Phaleron Corfu The Governor's Palace and Mon Repos . 19-53

CHAPTER III
ROME AND PARIS

Consul-General Eyres The British Embassy The Fascisti and
the hotel strike An official dinner Some Roman beauties
Another talk with M. Barrere Princess Jane di San Faustino
Princess Radziwill Another conversation with Count Sforza
His success at Paris His views on Greeks and Turks The
London Conference The Italians and the Czechs in agreement
Sir George Buchanan on Russia Dr. Benes makes a favour-
able impression at Rome Good influence of Count Sforza
Miss Buchanan's City of Trouble Leave for Paris Thoughts
on Italy A conversation with Marshal Petain A talk over
Asia Minor Strong position of the French Army in Europe
A conversation with M. Venizelos His strenuous work for
Greece in London He will never work with the King Hero-
dotus and the Greeks Visit to Prince and Princess George of
Greece at St. Cloud Hopes in the French Views on events
Visit to M. Philippe Berthelot Reparations and Greece A
fair deal between France and England Bismarck on the value
of a man A talk with M. Briand He wishes to withdraw the
French troops from Cilicia The lies about Greece M. Briand
has reached the limit of concessions to Germany The French
Chambers a difficult team to handle Bonaparte and Briand
Lady Millicent Hawes Return to London .... 54-68

CHAPTER IV
CONFERENCES, SANCTIONS, AND PLEBISCITES

The London Conference of February 21 The Eastern Question
and Reparations Leave for Paris The French position
Diisseldorf occupied Marshal Petain's views M. Herbette's
opinions The Abbe Sieyes on Germans and victory General
Buat and Lord Hardinge prefer a blockade to sanctions
M. Barthou on events A conversation with M. Andr6 Lefevre
The Ruhr plus blockade Economic sanctions A lunch



CONTENTS ix

PAGES

with Marshal Petain Some shooting stories I go to Cologne
General Masterman on aircraft control in Germany General
Nollet on the military position in Germany War material not
delivered up Mr. Julian Piggott on the economic sanctions
A visit to Diisseldorf, Ruhrort, and Duisburg General
Gaucher Berlin Views of our Embassy Breslau ' The
Victors ' Journey to Oppeln, Upper Silesia General Le Rond
Mr. F. Bourdillon Views of various Allied authorities
Motor tours round the plebiscite area Major Robin Gray
Colonel Wauchope's brigade The industrial triangle Voting
day, March 20 M. Korfanty Germans win at Oppeln
Enthusiasm Rough returns of the voting Facts and figures
about the mining area Major R. W. Clarke, R.E. Motor to
Breslau Prince and Princess Bliicher Their views on Ger-
many Major Piper on his control work The English and the
French mentality I am robbed at Breslau Journey to Prague
The Germans to-day . . . .- . . . 69-107

CHAPTER V
A STATESMAN WITH A POLICY

Prague Palaces Slovakia seeks autonomy Two Englishmen
on the Czechs A conversation with Dr. Benes He explains
his policy Ententism and free trade The German danger
Sir George Clerk Czechs, Austrians, and Italians Population,
area, and industries of Czecho-Slovakia The political position
Dr. Krammarsch The British Legation King Karl enters
Hungary The Czech Constitution Agrarian reform Aboli-
tion of nobility, orders, and titles Commandeering of private
houses The Czecho-Slovak Army Resources of the State
The German fringe What the Czechs want from us General
Husak, the War Minister The King Karl adventure The
Czechs ready to move Beauty of Prague Conversation with
the Prime Minister, M. Cerny Another conversation with
Dr. Benes He thinks Germany can pay His system of
alliances No formula for his confederation of Central Europe
A ten years' programme Leave Prague for Vienna . 108-131

CHAPTER VI
INFELIX AUSTRIA

Vienna Sir Thomas Cuninghame The Vienna Emergency Relief
Fund Count Albert Mensdorff on the future of Austria The
condition of Vienna Untrue charges against Mensdorff



AFTER THE WAR

PAGES

Mensdorff on King Karl Baron Pitner on Austrian State
finance On King Karl The Anschluss Methods of saving
Austria Hatred of Bolshevism Independence of the Pro-
vinces The Hofburg and the Ball Platz State employes
Dr. Schuller Poverty of officials Austria's loss of popula-
tion and territory The new political system Parties and
leaders The greatness of Vienna Commercial prospects
Police- President Schober Dr. Friedrich Hertz The allotment
reform Austria's deficits due to food subsidies A memor-
andum on Austrian foreign policy Economics govern policy
A conversation with President Dr. Heinisch Agricultural
questions A talk with Chancellor Dr. Mayr, Foreign Minister
The Anschluss question No feeling for the Habsburgs in
Austria now Dr. Schuller on food and debt Schonbrunn
Another talk with Baron Pitner The Central Government and
the Provinces Austrian Foreign Ministers Berchtold The
Society of Friends A circle of the old regime Sir William
Goode His proposals and their rejection Leave for Budapest 132-153



CHAPTER VII
THE SORROWS OF HUNGARY

Budapest The British High Commission Lord Bertie's corre-
spondence Brig.-General Gorton A new Hungarian Govern-
ment Hungary's losses A waiting policy The Archduke
Joseph ' The Royal Hungarian Government ' Accusations
against Roumania Situation of the Danube Navigation Com-
pany The Mannheim-Regensburg Canal The Danube Com-
mission Agricultural statistics Two good diplomatic stories
Count Bethlen announces his policy in Parliament Count
Julius Andrassy M. Czabo Prince Windischgratz M. de
Barczy The scene in Parliament Hungary and the Rouman-
ians A conversation with Count Banffy, Foreign Minister
His definition of the Government The Crown of St. Stephen
A Protectorate Cromwell and Horthy Tales of the refugees
A conversation with Count Albert Apponyi The outlook of
people changed Apponyi at the Peace Conference Confidence
in English justice M. Hegediis, Finance Minister, expounds
bis great programme Colonel Alfred Stead A tour round
Lake Balaton The country and the crops Vienna A
party at Sir William Goode's hotel Foreigners and night life
at Vienna Police-President Schober's opinion Mr. Walter
D. Hines, U.S.A. Return to Paris 154-175



CONTENTS xi

CHAPTER VIII
PARIS AND THE SANCTIONS

PACKS

The conversations at Lympne Upper Silesia, the sanctions, and
the Ruhr Views of Lord Hardinge and Mr. Arnold Robertson
Sir Milne Cheetham on French vigour Colonel Baldwin on
Danube affairs Mr. Robertson on Rhine customs and the pro-
posed occupation of the Ruhr His alternative proposal
Marshal Petain in readiness He invites me to accompany him
His views on subject races The census of Paris Germany's
liabilities fixed at 132 milliards of gold marks Sir Basil Zaha-
roff Boucher pictures The business honesty of different
nationalities A story of the Chinese Zaharoff's gold plate
Comfort and civilisation The Dutch Loan Exhibition A
conversation with M. Clemenceau An unchanged host and
house He will write nothing about the past He is opposed
to the occupation of the Ruhr France financially exhausted
Views on Marshals Foch and Petain Clemenceau's love of
Burma Clemenceau's life His wound His reply to the
Sister of Charity A good story of Clemenceau Prince Ghika
and Count Zamoyski Preparations for a move into Germany
The situation A motor trip to Princess Murat's house The
1919 class called out, but the Essen coup put off Painful
moments at the London Conference A brief visit to England 176-196



CHAPTER IX
WITH THE FRENCH ON THE RHINE

The Allied ultimatum of May 5 Return to Paris The revolt of
the Poles in Upper Silesia Arrive at Mayence The Saar
General Michel French plan of concentration The 1919
class The new German Government General Degoutte A
long conversation Wealth of the Ruhr Berlin and the Rhine-
land ' Black ' troops The railways in German hands The
Kaiserin's funeral Mr. Lloyd George on Upper Silesia The
hidden formations of the German Army German informers
Wiesbaden Fury aroused in France by Mr. Lloyd George's
speech Wiesbaden races Another talk with General De-
goutte His hatred of war General officers in France Our
incomprehensible Prime Minister Dangers from future Na-
poleons of commerce General Claudon on the Rhinelanders
A good repartee Commandant Philippi on our new customs



xii AFTER THE WAR

PAGES

duties A lucky bargee The Mayence Cathedral The Guten-
berg Statue Our new douane at work A visit to Coblenz
Mr. Arnold Robertson A conversation with his staff Captain
Troughton Captain Georgi Their views on the customs and
the Ruhr Ruhr statistics Our battalions ordered to Silesia
Lunch with M. Tirard A talk with M. Rolin Jaequemyns
General Allen's opinions Return to Mayence M. Briand's
great speech A German bank director on the economical
situation Levies, taxes, and wages A review Visit to Frank-
fort The Stadel Gallery The Lenbachs Consul- General
Gosling Goethe's house -A talk with the editor of the Frank-
furter Zeitung A final conversation with General Degoutte
Conclusions from three weeks on the Rhine . 197-255



CHAPTER X
BERLIN AND VIENNA

Arrive at Berlin A talk with Lord D'Abemon The Kaiser
Friedrich Museum Our German policy A conversation with
Professor Hans Delbriick Emblems of Imperialism Mr. Fin-
layson on German State finance Germany must double her
revenue to pay reparations The Chancellor, Dr. Wirth, at
the Embassy General von Seekt, War Minister Their views
on events The Rodensteiners no more How the Bolshevists
plotted to invade Germany A conversation with Chancellor
Wirth at his office-^-Views on finance Germany can pay He
wants us to help him Militarist dangers The Universities
He shows me Bismarck's rooms An interesting figure Lunch
with General Nollet We discuss the work of his Commission
M. Haguenin and his colleagues of the Reparations Delega-
tion An authority on disarmament Colonel Thelwall's views
Uninspiring Berlin The Embassy interior A perfect
hostess American Embassy views on Germany A conversa-
tion with Dr. Rosen, Foreign Minister Return to Paris An
exchange of ideas with Lord Hardinge Return to London
Off to Roumania Munich Some Bavarian opinions Vienna
A provincial procession Austria's mountaineers A talk
with Chancellor Schober His first acts Dr. Hertz's views
Austria a colony How Austria obtained her best information
during the war The situation in Austria Only a third of
expenditure met by revenue The League's financial plan
Vienna holds her own 256-296



CONTENTS xiii

CHAPTER XI
NEW ROUMANIA

PAGES

Country and crops A first talk with M. Take Jonescu Summer
nights in Bucharest Mr. Millington Drake Mr. Peter A. Jay
and Colonel Poillon, U.S.A. People to see An audience with
the King of Roumania A talk on current affairs The question
of Transylvania MM. Jacovaky and Grigori Jon Complaints
of Bulgaria Bucharest architecture The butterflies Rou-
manian statistics M. Filaleki on Russia The opposition on
strike Views of M. Nedkov, the Bulgarian Minister Answers
to Roumanian charges A conversation with the Prime
Minister, General Avarescu His account of 1916 His views
on the Straits A talk with M. Goga Religions in Transyl-
vania Roumanian resources Wheat, maize, and timber
Foreign capital Industrial concerns Railways Foreign
trade Banks Public finance Public debt A talk with
General Nikoleano on the Police Mme. Lahovary on the
agrarian reforms A talk with the Minister of Communications
A talk with the General Staff General Gorski and Colonel
Palada The strength and distribution of the Soviet armies
More complaints of Bulgaria A conversation with the War
Minister, General Rascano Roumanian Army organisation
M. Garoflid, Minister of Domains, on the agrarian laws
Colonel Duncan Consul Keyser Mr. Guest on the oil industry
A dinner at the Take Jonescus The Foreign Minister on
Roumanian policy Mr. Alexander Adams The Decree Laws
An investigation at the Roumanian Foreign Office The
complaints about Bulgaria The oil industry Statistics and
observations Trammels of the industry The export tax
Astra-Romana and Steaua-Romana Mr. Charles Spencer on
the future of our trade By motor to the Danube ; . 297-353

CHAPTER XII
BULGARIA

Rustchuk Across Bulgaria Crops and herds Plevna A visit
to the Premier, M. Stamboulisky An interesting character
His account of the Council of September 15, 1915 I recount
the charges against Bulgaria Stamboulisky's answers Views
on Russia Relations with Kemalists and the Soviet Stam-
boulisky and death The King arrives Stamboulisky on re-
parations Sour milk and caviare Captain Collins Attraction



xiv AFTER THE WAR

PAOEB

of Sofia The Board of Works and our Legations Talks with
Little Entente representatives The Labour Conscription Law
Sir Arthur Peel Colonel Baird on the Bulgarian Army
On our propaganda An audience with King Boris An attrac-
tive character His views on the charges against Bulgaria
On a volunteer army No relations with ex-Tsar Ferdinand
He considers an attack on his neighbours insanity The
stamp episode The Museum A conversation with General de
Fourtou Effectives and armaments of Bulgaria Some secret
reports challenged His plan for completing the Army Why
our secrets get out Another talk with the Little Entente
Need to test the authenticity of the challenged reports A
talk with M. Dmitroff, the War Minister Bulgaria's past
treachery Her ferocity in war Drs. Gueshofi and Majaroff at
the British Legation Defects of the Agrarian Party Treaty-
making power Sanctions against Bulgaria M. Petco Steinov's
opinions Grozkoff's mission A visit to Vranja A conversa-
tion with the Serbian Minister, M. Raditch His opinion of
Stamboulisky The Government a tyranny The Consortium
Sir Charles Stewart Wilson on reparations Return to Buch-
arest Two Clemenceau stories M. Kissimoff gives reasons
for considering the secret reports forgeries His summary of
the Bulgarian policy Leave for Paris Robbed by bandits in
Transylvania Compare experiences with Lord Hardinge
How he calmed an Anglo-French dispute Sledge-hammer
politics Arrival of Mr. Lloyd George in Paris for the Confer-
ence Return to London . . . 354-396



CHAPTER XIII
THE WASHINGTON CONFERENCE

Crossing the Atlantic Fellow travellers Mr. H. G. Wells and
M. Chaliapin Thoughts on the Far East A concert New
York The American Press Photographers and interviewers
Japanese statements Gold and exchanges Washington Sir
Auckland Geddes Personalities The Metropolitan Club
Major- General Harbord Mr. Frank Simonds Secretary of
State Hughes Maurice Low Philippe Millet and Pertinax
A galaxy of journalists Mr. Elliot Goodwin The Chamber of
Commerce of the United States Parties Foreign journalists
Mount Vernon Arlington General Pershing General
Buat An Embassy dinner Major- General Squier Mr. Bryan
Armistice Day Ceremony at Arlington The opening
session of November 12 American proposals for limitation of



CONTENTS xv

PAGES

naval armaments An audacious scheme General astonish-
ment The Hughes Memorandum Public acquiescence
Lord Riddell and Sir Arthur Willert Public discussion of the
proposal Mr. Balfour, Admiral Baron Kato, and Signer
Schanzer Mr. Hughes's speech Mr. Balfour under Press fire
China Admiral Kato's views Commander Brown Mr.
Stanley Washburn Mrs. Marshall Field Admiral Lord
Beatty Land armaments discussed M. Briand, Mr. Balfour,
and Mr. Hughes speak French naval claims An Embassy
reception A French cable to London Trouble in Italy follows
Senator Root The President forecasts future conferences
Mrs. West and Mr. and Mrs. Miller More parties and receptions
Jonkheer Van Karnebeek The Japanese block the way A
Presidential tea-party The Big Three meeting on December 2
An Italian dinner-party First impressions of America . 397-470

INDEX 471-480



PERSONS AND POLITICS IN ITALY
JANUARY 1921

Sir George Buchanan Colonel Detroyat M. Maurice Pernot on
Italian politics Italy's financial position A conversation with
General Badoglio His views on the Greeks Talks with MM. Breski
and Gayda at the Me-ssagero office A visit to M. Bergomini of the
Oiornale < Italia Views of Dr. Malagodi, editor of the Tribuna The
Hellenic problem Italian policy A conversation with M. Barrere
on Italian and Greek affairs A visit to Count Sforza at the Consulta
The aims of Italian policy Emigration and commerce A story
from the Bosphorus Italian journals The Italian Embassy in
London Sir George Buchanan on his warning to the Tsar Leave
Rome for Athens.

Saturday, January 8, 1921. Left Victoria 8.10 A.M. A
calm crossing and a fine sunny day. Met Ian Malcolm on
board on his way to Egypt. We lunched at the famous
Gare Maritime Restaurant so long closed to us during the
war, and by dint of gossiping nearly missed the train.
Drove across Paris to the Gare de Lyon in the new taxi-
transport which might take on in London for station work.
Dined at the Palace Hotel in the Rue de Lyon near the
station and went on 9.30. No one in the sleeper whom I
knew except Prince Louis. 1 Reached Modane Sunday
10.30 A.M., and Rome about 1 P.M.

Monday, January 10, 1921. Not a very comfortable
journey, and a poor restaurant. After an enjoyable tub
and breakfast at the Grand Hotel went to the Embassy
and saw Sir George Buchanan, the pink of perfection
among Ambassadors. He does not think that Italy has
any annexionist ideas in the Eastern Mediterranean, but

1 The late Marquess of Milford Haven.
A



2 PERSONS AND POLITICS IN ITALY

he says that Italians dislike the Greeks and were pleased
when Venizelos was overthrown. It was owing to Italy
that the Allied Ministers were not withdrawn from Athens.
He is more anxious about the financial situation in Italy
than the political, and does not know how she will get
through the next two or three years, though M. Meda, the
Finance Minister, is very optimistic. He is going to see
Count Sforza, the Foreign Minister, to-night to make
sure whether Italy has or has not ratified the Treaty of
Sevres. I doubt whether he is kept well informed of
events by the F.O. He knew nothing of the Tripartite
Treaty of Guarantees for long after it was signed, and
though he believes that Giolitti met Lloyd George at
Lausanne, he has no knowledge of what was settled there.
He thinks that the position of an Ambassador is no longer
what it was, even when he was in Russia. This is a general
complaint on the part of all diplomacy, British and foreign.
The Supreme Council still usurps all serious diplomatic
functions, but on the other hand it hacks its way through
somehow.

Went on to see Lieutenant -Colonel Detroyat, the Mili-
tary Attache at the French Embassy. He says that Italy
still has three classes and some 400,000 men under arms,
but that nominally there is only eight months' service.
Everything seems to be provisional and temporary. He
thinks that Italy has no desire to initiate any military
operation and has no troops in Asia Minor. Went on
to find Maurice Pernot, correspondent of the Journal des
Debate. He is off to Paris to-morrow, but I may find
him again if I return through Rome. He is very critical
of Italian desegregation both in agrarian and industrial
troubles of recent occurrence, and declares that for a time
authority lapsed in the north and did not exist in the
south. He thinks that the King prevented Giolitti from
acting in the northern troubles, from a generous feeling
that if the dynasty had to go, it should go without blood-
shed. Neither the bourgeois nor the proletariat party are
organised, so they are nicely balanced. He fancies that



ITALY'S FINANCIAL POSITION 3

Italy is unable to act externally, and so withdraws into
' her island.' She has abandoned not only Albania, but
even Vallona. But he thinks she is working through com-
mercial banks and by other means to draw closer to Jugo-
slavia and Bulgaria, and hopes to dominate the Little
Entente and to prevent a Ha bs burg restoration. He is
pretty sure, as was our Ambassador, that there were secret
clauses in the Rapallo Treaty directed against a Habsburg
Hungary.

During my journey these last two days all the talk was
about want of work, unemployment, and the hardships of



Online LibraryCharles à Court RepingtonAfter the war; London--Paris--Rome--Athens--Prague--Vienna--Budapest--Bucharest--Berlin--Sofia--Coblenz--New York--Washington; a diary → online text (page 1 of 43)