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PUBLIC SCHOOL
METHODS



By the Following Authors, Editors and Reviewers

Charles A. McMurry, Ph. D.

Jessie Elizabeth Black, Ph. B., Ed. B.

Samuel Christian Schmucker, A. M., Ph. D.

Philander Priestly Claxton, M. A., Litt. D.
Waite a. Shoemaker, Pd. B.
Frederick E. Bolton, Ph. D.
Lottie L. Deneen
Emeua M. Goldsworthy
Wm. F. Rocheleau
P. W. Horn, A.M.
John H. Glotfelter, Pd. D.
Alfred Bayliss, M. S.
Grace Greves Truax



Gertrude Longenecker
Edward F. Worst
Lucy Dorrit Hale
Sarah C. Brooks
U. J. Hoffman
Mrs. E. E. Olcott. A. M.
Charles H. Sylvester
Anna E. McGovern, B. S.
Mary Reid Pierce



VOLUME THREE



SCHOOL METHODS COMPANY



CHICAGO



NEW YORK



Copyright, 1912: Hanson-Bellows Co.
All rights reserved



1 ^SS'
AUTHORS, EDITORS AND REVIEWERS



CHARLES A. McMURRY, PH.D.

Director of Training School, Northern Illinois State Normal

School; Superintendent City Schools, De Kalb, 111.

Type Studies



JESSIE ELIZABETH BLACK, PH.B., ED.B.

Critic Teacher, School of Education, University of Chicago
Dramatization, Games, Plays



PHILANDER PRIESTLY CLAXTON, M.A., LITT.D.
United States Commissioner of Education, Washington, D. C.

Geography



ANNA E. McGOVERN, B.S.

Professor of Primary Methods, Iowa State Teachers' College,

Cedar Falls, Iowa

Geography



FREDERICK E. BOLTON, PH.D.

Professor of Education, State University of Iowa, Iowa City
School Management and Discipline



CHARLES H. SYLVESTER

Formerly Professor of Pedagogy and Literature, State Normal

School, Stevens Point, Wis.

School Management and Discipline



P. W. HORN, A.M.

Superintendent of Schools, Houston, Texas

Reading






AUTHORS, EDITORS AND REVIEWERS— continued

MRS. E. E. OLCOTT, A.M.

Head of Teachers' Course, Central Normal College,

Danville, Ind.

Reading and Phonics

SAMUEL CHRISTIAN SCHMUCKER, A.M., PH.D.

Department of Biological Sciences, West Chester State Normal

School, West Chester, Pa.

Elementary Sciences and Agriculture

WM. F. ROCHELEAU
Former Director of Training School in Southern Illinois

State Normal University
Grammar, Elementary Science and Elementary Agriculture

WAITE A. SHOEMAKER, PD.B.

President State Normal School, St. Cloud, Minn.

Arithmetic

LOTTIE L. DENEEN

Primary Critic, State Normal School, LaCrosse, Wis.

Number

EMELIA M. GOLDSWORTHY
Director of Art, Western State Normal School, Kalamazoo, Mich.

Drawing

EDWARD F. WORST

Former Director of Graphic Arts, Chicago Normal School;

Superintendent Schools, Joliet, 111.

Construction Work

LUCY DORRIT HALE

Department of Drawing, State Normal School, Milwaukee, Wis.

Construction Work



AUTHORS, EDITORS AND REVIEWERS— continued

JOHN H. GLOTFELTER
Vice-President and Director in Training, Kansas State
Normal School, Emporia, Kansas
Language and Grammar



SARAH C. BROOKS
Principal Baltimore Teachers' Training School, Baltimore, Md.

Language



GRACE GREVES TRUAX

Formerly Primary Critic, Training Department, State Normal

School, Kearney, Neb.

Physiology



MARY REID PIERCE
Department of Music, American Book Company
Music



U. J. HOFFMAN
Assistant State Superintendent of Public Instruction,
Springfield, Illinois, in charge of the Depart-
ment of Country Schools
General Review



GERTRUDE LONGENECKER

Supervisor of Practice Work, State Normal School,

Kirks ville, Mo.

Use of the Senses



ALFRED BAYLISS, M.S.

Late Principal Western Illinois State Normal School,

Macomb, 111.

History and Civil Government



TWENTY-FIVE TYPE STUDIES

on READING, GEOGRAPHY,

HISTORY and SCIENTIFIC

AGRICULTURE



Prepared By
CHARLES A. McMURRY, PH. D.



Cinderella



In Volume III

Barefoot Boy



In \^oIume IV



Lake Michigan
Yellowstone Park
Erie Canal
New Orleans
Coast of Norway
Mount Shasta



Panama Canal
St. Petersburg
Steamship Voyage

from New York to

Hamburg



In Volume V



The Puritans
Burgoyne's Invasion
The American Flag
Steamboat Traffic on
THE Mississippi River
British Colonies
Cotton
Coffee



Iroquois Indians
George Washington
Andrew Jackson
Columbus

Louisiana Purchase
Corn
Roosevelt Dam



PREFACE

The chapters in volumes Three, Four and Five of Public
School Methods have been written for teachers in the grades
above the primary and for those rural teachers who have
classes that have been at least three years in school. The
chapters comprise a strong series for daily use in the school
room, a simple, practical guide in the various problems
which are found in every hour of recitation, in every class.

The work given in these last three volumes includes
a discussion of methods of teaching all the branches
required in the intermediate and grammar grades of the
public schools, and, in addition, chapters on methods in con-
struction work, drawing, domestic science and vocal music,
and a large number of helpful type studies. The outlined
work on each branch presents the methods of that branch
in each of the grades in which it is studied ; so whatever her
grade the teacher will find specific help in the pages of
these books.

Correlated subjects are tied together by cross references,
and a comprehensive index enables one to trace any subject
throughout the volumes. Much of the work is in the form
of type lessons, thus furnishing definite lesson plans which,
with such modification as is necessary to meet local condi-
tions, the teacher can use daily in her classes.

The style is plain and forceful ; technical terms have been
avoided, and the constant aim of the authors and editors has
been to make the work as practical and helpful as possible.

The chapters on management and on methods in common
branches were prepared by Mr. Sylvester, who, from his ex-
tended experience as instructor in a state normal school, and
as conductor of teachers' institutes and state inspector of
high schools, knows the teachers' needs. Able assistance
was rendered by the following prominent specialists: Miss
Emelia M. Goldsworthy, Director of Art, Western State
Normal School, Kalamazoo, Michigan, Drawing; Mr. Edward



vi Preface

F. Worst, Director of Graphic Arts, Chicago Normal School,
Construction Work; Miss Mary Reid Pierce, Department of
Music of the American Book Company, Music.

After the manuscript had been prepared and revised by
the writers, it was sent in sections, for review and criticism,
to the following eminent educators and specialists: Hon.
Alfred Bayliss, late Principal of the Western State Normal,
Macomb, 111., and for eight years Superintendent of Public
Instruction in IlHnois; Prof. Frederick E. Bolton, Ph.D.,
Professor of Education, University of Iowa; Hon. P. P.
Claxton, A.M., Litt.D., United States Commissioner of
Education, Washington, D. C; Prof. John H. Glotfelter,
Vice-President and Director in Training, Kansas State Normal
School, Emporia, Kan.; Supt. P. W. Horn, A.M., Super-
intendent of Schools, Houston, Texas; Prof. S. C. Schmucker,
A.M., Ph.D., Department of Biological Sciences, State Normal
School, West Chester, Pa.; President W. A. Shoemaker, Pd.B.,
State Normal School, St. Cloud, Minn. ; Hon. U. J. Hoffman,
Assistant Superintendent of Public Instruction for Illinois, in
charge of the Department of Country Schools. The specific
work of each of these reviewing editors is indicated on pages
i to iii, preceding the Preface.

Dr. Charles A, McMurry, Director of the Training School
of the Northern Illinois State Normal, the most notable
authority on type studies America has produced, Las contrib-
uted twenty-five strong type studies on the subjects of
reading, geography, history and scientific agriculture.

The editors are also indebted to Miss Mary Bellows, of
the public schools, Seattle, Washington, for carefully read-
ing the manuscript, and offering many helpful suggestions
from the viewpoint of the practical teacher.

In the publication of Public School Methods the editors
and publishers feel that they have produced the strongest
and most complete work on methods that has ever been
offered the teachers of the country, and that it is a work
which will be found remarkably helpful in lines along which
teachers have for a long time called for assistance.



CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE
Children and Their Environment

INTRODUCTION p^^g

1. The Scope of the Course i

2. The First Four Lessons 2



the children

As We Find Them 3

The Period of Change 4

Physical Characteristics 4

Rate of Development 5

Mental Characteristics 5

Character and Morality 6

Boy and Girl • 7

Abnormal Children 9



the environment

11. The Teacher's Position 10

12. Social Conditions 12

13. Bodily Comfort 12

14. Heating 13

(a) A Proper Temperature 13

(b) Method of Determining Temperature 13

(c) Methods of Heating 13

(d) The Teacher's Duties 14

15. Ventilation 15

(a) Proper Conditions 15

(b) Effects of Foul Air 15

(c) Tests for Foul Air 16

(d) Methods of Ventilation 16

(e) The Teacher's Duties 17

16. Light 19

(a) Proper Conditions 19

(b) The Teacher's Responsibility 19

17. Seats and Seating 20

(a) The Proper Type 20

(b) Faults 20

(c) The Teacher's Duty 20

vii



viii Contents



PAGE

18. The Teacher and the Authorities 21

ig. Cleanliness and Order 22

20. Beautiful School Rooms 23

21. Pictures 24

(a) Number and Character 24

(b) Framing 25

(c) Hanging 25

(d) Photographs 25

(e) Colored Pictures 26

22. Casts 27

23. Plants and Flowers 28

(a) Growing Plants 28

(b) Cut Flowers 28

(c) Care of Plants and Flowers 28

24. Temporary Decorations 29

25. Schoolgrounds 29

26. Beautifying the Playground 30

(a) Tidiness 30

(b) The Lawn 30

(c) Growing Plants 30

27. Outbuildings 32

28. Teachers' Aids 33

(a) Books 33

(b) Pamphlets 34

Test Questions 34

CHAPTER TWO
Hygiene and Discipline

hygiene

1 . Explanatory 36

2. The Skin and Its Functions 36

3. Care of the Skin 36

(a) Cleanliness 36

(b) Bathing 37

4. Clothing 38

5. Private Advice 40

6. The Eye and Its Care 40

7. Tests of. Vision 42

(a) Normal Conditions 42

(b) Nearsightedness 44

(c) Farsightedness 44

(d) Astigmatism 44

8. Wearing Glasses 44



Contents ix

PAGE

9. The Ear and Its Care 45

10. Defective Hearing 45

11. Tests and Treatment for Deafness 46

12. The Teeth 46

13. The Vocal Organs 47

14. Fatigue 48

15. Sickness 49

(a) Fainting 50

(b) Fits and Convulsions 50

(c) Headache 50

(d) Frost-Bite 51

16. Accidents 51

(a) Cuts and Bruises 51

(b) Bums 51

(c) Bleeding 51

(d) Nosebleed 52

(e) Fractures and Dislocations 52

17. Contagious Diseases 52

18. Prevention of Contagion 53

19. Water Supply 54

20. Exercise " 54

21. Gymnastics 55

22. Breathing Exercises 55

23. Play 56

24. Sports and Games 56

25. A Caution 58

26. The Teacher's Health 58

27. Instruction in Physiology and Hygiene 59

discipline

28. Good Discipline 61

29. The Teacher's Personality 61

30. The Teacher's Appearance and Manners 62

31. Essentials to Good Order 62

(a) Obedience 63

(b) Promptness 63

(c) Regularity 63

(d) Quietude 63

(e) Propriety 63

32. School Faults 63

(a) Tardiness and Absence 63

(b) Boisterousness 64

(c) Whispering , 64

(d) Restlessness 65



X



Contents



PAOS

(e) Negligence, Procrastination and Laziness 65

(f) Selfishness and Cruelty 65

(g) Deception and Lying 66

^^. Rules • 66

34. Punishment 67

35. Motives and Incentives 67

36. Habits 68

37. Morals 68

38. Personal Work 69

39. Common Faults of Teachers 70

40. Conclusion 72

Test Questions , 72

CHAPTER THREE

Psychology and Methods

1. Explanatory 74

2. Body and Mind -. 74

3. The Mental Powers 74

4. Order of Development 75

5. The Powers of Observation. . . 77

6. Training in Observation 77

7. Memory 78

8. Training in Memory 78

9. Imagination 79

10. Training in Imagination 80

11. The Thought Powers 81

12. Training in Conception 81

13. Judgment. . 82

14. Clear Judgments 83

15. Training in Judgment 84

16. Reason 85

17. Training in Reason 85

18. Development of the Feelings 86

19. Training the Feelings 87

20. Development of the Will 88

21. Training the Will 88

22. Mental States Complex 89

23. Consciousness 90

24. Attention 90

25. Training Attention 91

26. Interest 92

27. Exciting Interest 93

28. Growth of Knowledge 94

29. Maxims of Teaching 94



Contents xi

PAGB

30. Analysis and Synthesis 96

31. Objective and Subjective 97

32. Method. 97

;^;^. The Inductive Method 98

34. Merits of the Inductive Method 99

35. Limitations of the Inductive Method 99

36. The Deductive Method 100

37. The Combined Method 100

38. Classification of Studies loi

39. Special Methods 102

40. Valuable Books 102

Test Questions 103

CHAPTER FOUR

School Management

1. Organization 104

2. Classification and Grading 104

3. Reviews 106

4 Tests 107

5. Examinations 107

6. Promotions 109

7. The Daily Program no

8. Movement of Classes 112

9. Lessons 112

(a) Characteristics 112

(b) Assignment 113

(c) Teacher's Preparation 113

10. The Recitation 114

11. Manner of Conducting Recitations 115

(a) By Conversation 115

(b) By Topics 115

(c) In Concert 116

(d) By Lecture 116

(e) By Questions and Answers 116

12. Questioning 116

13. Kinds of Questions 117

14. Good Questions 118

(a) Clearness 118

(b) Conciseness 118

(c) Appropriateness 119

(d) Directness 119

(e) Difficulty 119

15. Answers 120



xii Contents

PAGE

10. Cautions and Suggestions 121

(a) Prompting 121

(b) Repeating 121

(c) Impatience 121

(d) Consideration 121

(e) Commendation 121

(f) Correction 122

(g) Criticism 122

(h) Distribution 122

(i) Variety 122

17. Drill 122

18. Oral and Written Work 123

19. Arrangement of Written Work 124

20. Study 125

21. Text-Books 127

22. Reference Books •. . 128

23. The Dictionary 129

24. Helpful Books 130

Test Questions 131



CHAPTER FIVE
Reading

introduction

1. Value 133

2. Purpose of These Lessons 133

3. Kinds of Reading 135

4. Purposes in Teaching Reading 135

5. Plan of the Lessons 136

thought-getting

6. Importance , 136

7. Conditions 137

8. Dependence op Oral Upon Silent Reading 137

9. Words 138

10. An Illustration 138

11. Ascertaining the Meaning of Words 139

12. Exercises for Grammar Grades 140

(a) Derivation 140

(b) Different Meanings 141

(c) Relation of Sound and Meaning 141

(d) Synonyms 141

(e) Fine Discriminations 142

(f) Intelligent Use 142



Contents xiii

PA6B

13. Grouping 142

(a) First Steps 143

(b) Other Exercises 143

(c) Rules 144

14. Continuous Thinking i45

(a) The Central Idea 146

(b) Subordinate Ideas 147

1 5. Figures of Speech 148

16. Simile 148

1 7. Metaphor 149

18. Metonymy and Synecdoche 150

19. Apostrophe and Personification 150

20. Teaching Figures of Speech 151

(a) Material 152

(b) Method 152

21. Allusions 153

22. Relation of Reading to Other Subjects 154

23. Silent Reading 154

(a) Classification i5S

(b) Methods of Procedure 15S

24. Home Reading i57

25. Book Tasting 158

Test Questions i59



CHAPTER SIX
Reading

ORAL reading

1. The Mechanics of Reading 161

2. Essentials 161

3. Articulation 162

4. Causes of Defective Articulation 163

(a) Physical Defects 163

(b) Imitation 163

(c) Foreign Language 163

(d) Youthfulness 163

5. Systematic Exercises 164

6. Method 164

(a) Consonants 164

(b) Th, Wh and Sh 165

(c) Special Cases 166

7. Pronunciation 166

(a) The Omission or Incorrect Articulation of Sounds

in Unaccented Syllables 166



xiv Contents

PAOB

(b) The Suppression of Sub- Vocals and Aspirates Near

the Ends of Words or of Accented Syllables. ... 167

(c) The Blending of the Last Sounds of One Word with

the First of the Next 167

(d) Slighting Difficult Combinations of Sounds 167

8. Obstacles to Pronunciation 167

(a) Syllabication 168

(b) Phonics 168

9. Emphasis 169

10. Determination of Emphasis 169

11. Breathing 171

12. Emotional Element 172

13- Rate 173

14. Time 174

15. Pauses. . .' 176

16. Pitch 177

17. Inflection 178

18. Teaching Inflections 178

19. Melody 181

20. Quality '. 181

21. Force 183

methods

22. Introductory 186

23. Special Lessons 186

(a) One Thing at a Time 186

(b) Use of the Reader 187

(c) Frequency 187

24. Assignment of the Lesson 187

(a) Selection of the Lesson 188

(b) The Setting 188

(c) Words 188

(d) Thought-Getting 189

(e) Difficult Passages 189

(f) Allusions 189

(g) Suggestions 189

25. The Recitation 190

(a) Purpose 190

(b) Division of Time 190

(c) The Reading 190

(d) Criticism 191

(e) Questions 192

26. Drills 192

27. Supplementary Reading 193

28. Sight Reading 193



Contents xv

PAGE

29. Obstacles to Expression 194

(a) The Book 194

(b) The School Tone 195

(c) Spirit of the Pupil 195

30. Reviews 196

Test Questions 196

CHAPTER SEVEN

Readincs — {Contintted)

Study of Complete Selections

literary interpretation

1. Explanatory 198

2. Description 198

3. Emotional Effects 199

4. Classification of Literary Selections 200

5. A Selection Interpreted 201

6. Study Outlines 205

reading stories

7. Characteristics 206

8. Enjoyment in Reading 206

9. Importance of Fiction 207

10. Elements in the Study of Fiction 207

11. The Plot 207

12. The Persons 208

13. Development of Character. 208

14. The Emotions 208

15. Scenes 209

16. Method of Instruction 209

17. Studying Plots 209

18. Studying Persons 210

19. Studying Character 211

20. Studying the Emotions " 212

21. A Simple Outline 212

22. A General Outline 213

reading poetry

23. Prose and Poetry 214

24. Structure of Poetry 21S

25. Meter 215

26. Scansion 216

27. Adaptation 216

28. Rhyme 217

29. Reading Poetry *i8



xvi Contents

PAGB

30. A Type Study 219

(a) The Assignment ; 219

(b) The Recitation 219

31. Comments and Cautions 224

32. Memory Gems 224

33. Virile Literature 225

34. A Patriotic Poem 226

(a) Assignment 226

(b) Interpretation 226

(c) The Plot 231

(d) The Scene 231

(e) The Persons 231

(f) Emotions 232

(g) The Lesson 232

(h) Word Study 232

(i) Memory Gems 232

WORK BY grades

35. Explanatory 232

36. Fourth Grade 233

37. Fifth Grade 234

38. Sixth Grade 235

39. Seventh Grade 236

40. Eighth Grade 237

41. Ninth Grade 238

42. Cautions 239

43. Children's Books 239

44. Teacher's Books " 240

Test Questions 240

45. Type Study on Cinderella 242

The Story 242

Studies on the Story 246

46. Type Study on "The Barefoot Boy" 251

Introduction 251

The Poem 253

Studies on the Poem 256

CHAPTER EIGHT

language

1. Value 258

2. Relation to Other Branches 258

3. Language and Reading 258

4. Conditions and Difficulties 259

(a) Early Habits of Speech 260



Contents xvii

PAGE

(b) The Foreign Element 260

(c) Sentiment 260

5. Purpose 261

(a) Securing a Vocabulary 261

(b) Correcting Errors 261

(c) Securing Oral Expression 262

(d) Securing Written Expression 262

(e) Interpreting Literature 263

(f) Acquiring a Knowledge of Principles and Rules ... 263

general plan

6. Explanatory 263

7. Unity 263

8. Material 264

9. Language Books 264

10. Oral Composition 264

11. How TO Proceed 265

(a) Assignment of Lesson 265

(b) Instruction 266

(c) Word Study 266

(d) The Recitation .... 267

(e) Criticism by Class 267

(f) Criticism by the Teacher 267

12. Written Composition. 268

13. Points to be Observed 269

(a) Quantity of Work 269

(b) Form 269

(c) Freedom of Expression 272

14. Material 272

15. Limiting the Subject 274

16. The Blackboard 275

17. Correction of Errors 275

18. Special Language Lessons 276

lesson plans for intermediate grades

19. Why Necessary 277

20. Drills 277

(a) Irregular Plurals 278

(b) Personal Pronouns 279

(c) Irregular Verbs 279

(d) Miscellaneous Errors 281

21. The Study op a Story 282

22. Letter Writing 284

(a) General Suggestions 284

(b) Parts of a Letter 284



xviii Contents



PAGE



(c) Capitals and Punctuation 285

(d) The Subject-Matter 285

(e) Folding 286

(f) The Envelope 286

23. Lessons from Pictures 287

Test Questions 287



CHAPTER XIXE
Language and Grammar
typical lesson plans for grammar grades

1. A Biographical Sketch 288

2. The Outline 293

(a) The Setting 293

(b) The Jesuits 293

(c) Marquette 293

(d) The Expedition 293

(e) The Mission at Kaskaskia 294

(f) Marquette's Illness and Death 294

(g) Importance and Influence of this Expedition 294

(h) Compare with Other Expeditions 294

3. Description 294

4. Study of a Selection 297

5. Brief Descriptions 300

6. A Picture Study 301

7. Literature and Language 302

8. Exposition 303

(a) Assignment 304

(b) Plan 304

9. Debates 306

(a) Knowledge of Argumentation 306

(b) Logical Arrangement 307

(c) Power of Expression 307

(d) A Broadening Influence 307

(e) Plan 308

10. Correspondence 309

(a) Omissions 309

(b) Letters of Application 310

(c) Other Letters 311

11. Telegrams 311

13. Original Composition 312



Contents xix



GRAMMAR PAGE

13. The Pupils' Preparation 31a

14. Reasons for Studying Grammar 313

(a) It Furnishes a Standard for Comparison 313

(b) It Provides a Course in Reasoning 313

(c) The Interpretation of Literature 314

(d) Understanding Other Languages 314

15. Dislike for the Subject 314

16. Plan 315

17. Analysis of Sentences 316

(a) Plan 316

(b) Diagrams 317

18. Parsing 317

19. Grammar and Language 318

20. Aids 318

work by grades

2 1. Fourth Grade 319

22. Fifth Grade 320

23. Sixth Grade 321

24. Seventh Grade 321

25. Eighth Grade 322

Test Questions 322

CHAPTER TEN

Domestic Science

introduction

1. Why Domestic Science Should be Taught 323

(a) Growth of Cities 323

(b) New Home Conditions 323

(c) Prevention of Waste 324

(d) Reduction of Living Expenses 324

(e) Connection of the School with the Home 324

2. Difficulties 324

(a) Lack of Knowledge 324

(b) Lack of Time 325

(c) Lack of Conveniences 325

3. What to Attempt 326

FOODS

4. Preparation of the Teacher 326

5. Classification of Foods 327

6. Protein 327

7. Fats. , ,,..., 328



XX Contents

PAGE

8. Starch 329

9. Sugar 330

10. Mineral Foods 330

II Water 331

12. Food Values 332

COOKING

13. Purposes 332

14. Applications ' 333

15. Applications of Heat 333

16. Milk 334

Experiments 335

17. Eggs 336

Exercises 336

18. Meats 337

(a) Broiling 338

(b) Roasting 338

(c) Frying 338

(d) Boiling 339

(e) Soups 339

(f) Experiments 339

19. Starchv Foods 340

(a) Vegetables 340

(b) Doughs 341

20. Other Exercises 342

household economics

21. Sanitation 342

(a) Outbuildings 342

(b) Drainage 342

(c) Water Supply 343

(d) Plumbing 344

(e) Warming and Ventilation 344

(f) Removing Dust 344

(g) Insect Pests 344

22. Furnishings 344

(a) Style and Location of House 345

(b) Means 345

(c) The Rooms 345



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