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taining any portion of the teachers' contributions, as is done in
most of the teachers' pension plans now in existence, is build-
ing up an insurance fund for a few old teachers, largely at the
expense of the vastly greater number of young teachers who
will never become pensionable.
Ill



APPENDIX

(3) If such withdrawal shall take place after ten
annual assessments have been paid the amount so
refunded shall be in the form of such annuity for life
based on the contributions of such member, together
with regular interest thereon, as may be determined
by the retirement board according to its annuity
tables, or in four annual instalments, as such member
may elect,

(4) If a member of the association withdrawing
and receiving payments in accordance with para-
graphs numbered (2) and (3) of this section, shall
die before the amount of such payments equals the
amount of his contributions to the annuity fund with
regular interest, the difference between the amount
of such payments and the amount of his contribu-
tions with regular interest shall be paid to his legal
representatives.

(5) Any member of the retirement association
who shall have withdrawn from service in the pub-
lic schools shall, on being re-employed in the public
schools, be reinstated in the retirement association
in accordance with such plans for reinstatement as
the retirement board shall adopt. ^^

(6) If a member of the retirement association shall
die before retirement, the full amount of his contri-
butions to the annuity fund with regular interest to
the day of his death shall be paid to his legal repre-
sentatives.

" While it may be good policy not to legislate in advance of
known conditions, this provision opens the way for some differ-
ences and possible litigation.

112



APPENDIX

TAXATION, ATTACHMENTS AND ASSIGNMENTS

Section 8. That portion of the salary or wages of
a member deducted or to be deducted under this act,
the right of a member to an annuity or pension, and
all his rights in the funds of the retirement system
shall be exempt from taxation, and from the opera-
tion of any laws relating to bankruptcy or insolvency,
and shall not be attached or taken upon execution
or other process of any court. No assignment of any
right in, or to, said funds shall be valid. The funds
of the retirement system, so far as invested in per-
sonal property, shall be exempt from taxation.

DUTIES OF THE SCHOOL COMMITTEE ^^

Section 9. (i) The school committee of each town
and city in the commonwealth shall, before employ-
ing in any teaching position any person to whom this
act may apply, notify such person of his duties and
obligations under this act as a condition of his em-
ployment.

(2) On or before October first of each year the

12 No penalty is attached for nonperformance of the duties
prescribed in this section. States having any considerable
amount of money to disburse as aid for schools will do well to
make the receipt of such money contingent upon the proper
discharge of these as well as other duties prescribed by law.
Compared with most other states, Massachusetts distributes
little and lacks this effective method of control. Experience in
Massachusetts justifies the prediction that considerable trou-
ble will arise in enforcing the provisions of this section, which
can be avoided in many other states.



APPENDIX

school committee of each town and city in the com-
monwealth shall certify to the retirement board the
names of all teachers to whom this act shall apply.

(3) The school committee of each town and city
in the commonwealth shall, on the first day of each
calendar month, notify the retirement board of the
employment of new teachers, removals, withdrawals,
changes in salary of teachers, that shall have occurred
during the month preceding.

(4) Under the direction of the retirement board
the school committee of each town or city in the
commonwealth shall furnish such other information
as the board may require relevant to the discharge of
the duties of the board.

(5) The school committee of each town and city
in the commonwealth shall, as directed by the retire-
ment board, deduct from the amount of the salary
due each teacher employed in the public schools of
such city or town such amounts as are due as con-
tributions to the annuity fund as prescribed in this
act, shall send to the treasurer of said town or city
a statement as voucher for such deductions, and shall
send a duplicate statement to the secretary of the
retirement board.

(6) The school committee of each town and city
in the commonwealth shall keep such records as the
retirement board may require.

DUTIES OF BOARDS OF TRUSTEES

Section 10. In administering this act for the
benefit of teachers in schools conducted in accord-
114



APPENDIX

ance with chapter four hundred and seventy-one of
the acts of the year nineteen hundred and eleven,
the boards of trustees of said schools are hereby
authorized and required to perform all the duties
prescribed for school committees under this act.



CUSTODY AND INVESTMENT OF FUNDS

Section n. (i) The treasurer of each town or city
in the commonwealth on receipt from the school
committee or board of trustees of the voucher for
deductions from the teachers' salaries provided for in
section nine shall transmit, monthly, the amounts
specified in such voucher to the secretary of the re-
tirement board.

(2) The secretary of the retirement board shall
monthly pay to the treasurer of the commonwealth
all sums collected by him under the provisions of
paragraph (i).

(3) All funds of the retirement system shall be in
custody and charge of the treasurer of the common-
wealth and the treasurer shall invest such funds as
are not required for current disbursements in accord-
ance with the laws of the commonwealth governing
the investment of sinking funds. He may, whenever
he sells securities, deliver the securities so sold upon
receiving the proceeds thereof, and may execute any or
all documents necessary to transfer the title thereto.

(4) The treasurer of the commonwealth shall make
such payments to members of the retirement associa-
tion from the annuity fund and pension fund as the



APPENDIX

retirement board shall order to be paid in accordance
with sections six and seven of this act.

(5) On, or before, the third Wednesday in Janu-
ary, the treasurer of the commonwealth shall file with
the insurance commissioner for the commonwealth,
and with the secretary of the retirement board, a
sworn statement exhibiting the financial condition
of the retirement system on the thirty-first day of the
preceding December and its financial transactions
for the year ending at such date. Such statement
shall be in the form prescribed by the retirement
board and approved by the insurance commissioner.



MEMBERSHIP IN OTHER RETIREMENT ASSOCIATIONS

Section 12. (i) No person required to become a
member of the association, under the provisions of
paragraph (i) of section three of this act shall be
entitled to participate in the benefits of any other
teachers' retirement system, supported in whole or
in part by funds raised by taxation, or to a pension
under the provisions of chapter four hundred and
ninety-eight of the acts of the year nineteen hundred
and eight, or chapter five hundred and eighty-nine
of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and eight,
as amended by chapter six hundred and seventeen
of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and ten.

(2) No member of the retirement association shall
be eligible to receive any pension as described in sec-
tion six of this act, who is at the time in receipt of a
pension paid from funds raised in whole or in part
116



APPENDIX

from taxation under the provisions of chapter four
hundred and ninety-eight of the acts of the year
nineteen hundred and eight, or chapter five hundred
and eighty-nine of the acts of the year nineteen hun-
dred and eight, as amended by chapter six hundred
and seventeen of the acts of the year nineteen hun-
dred and ten, or of any other act providing pensions
for teachers, providing that this paragraph shall not
be construed as applying to the Boston Teachers'
Retirement Fund Association.



REIMBURSEMENT OF CITIES AND TOWNS ^^

Section 13. (i) Whenever, after the first day of
July, nineteen hundred and fourteen, a town or city
retires a teacher who is not eligible to a pension under
the provisions of section six, paragraph (4) of this
act, and pays to such teacher a pension in accord-
ance with chapter four hundred and ninety-eight of
the acts of the year nineteen hundred and eight, or
chapter five hundred and eighty-nine of the acts of
the year nineteen hundred and eight, as amended by

1' The method of reimbursement here provided is modeled
on the law for reimbursement for industrial schools. It was
doubtless the best method for getting legislation in 1913, but
since, in connection with Section 15, it permits the indefinite
continuance of local pension schemes, it can be commended
only as a workable compromise. Such compromises have to
be made in the initial stages of social welfare legislation and
are justifiable as temporary expedients rather than permanent
solutions. Other states will do well to study carefully the work-
ings of this plan in Massachusetts.
117



APPENDIX

chapter six hundred and seventeen of the acts of the
year nineteen hundred and ten, and the school com-
mittee of said town or city certifies under oath to the
retirement board to the amount of said pension, said
town or city shall be reimbursed therefor annually
by the commonwealth: provided, that no such reim-
bursement shall be in excess of the amount, as deter-
mined by the retirement board, to which said teacher
would have been entitled as a pension, had he become
a member of the retirement association under the
provisions of section three, paragraph (2) of this
act.

(2) On or before the first Wednesday of January of
each year, the retirement board shall present to the
general court a statement of the amount expended
previous to the preceding first day of July by cities
and towns in the payment of pensions under the pro-
visions of the preceding paragraph, for which such
cities and towns should receive reimbursement. On
the basis of such a statement, the general court may
make an appropriation for the reimbursement of such
cities and towns up to such first day of July.

JURISDICTION OF COURT

Section 14. The superior court shall have juris-
diction in equity upon petition of the insurance com-
missioner or of any interested party to compel the
observance and restrain the violation of this act, and
of the rules and regulations established by the retire-
ment board hereunder.

118



APPENDIX



REFERENDUM AND REPEAL

Section 15. Upon the petition of not less than five
per cent of the legal voters of any city or town that
has adopted chapter four hundred and ninety-eight
of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and eight,
this question shall be submitted, in case of a city, to
the voters of such city at the next city election, and,
in case of a town, to the voters of such town at the
next annual town meeting, and the vote shall be in
answer to the question to be placed upon the ballot:
" Shall an act passed by the general court in the year
nineteen hundred and eight, entitled 'An Act to
authorize cities and towns to establish pension funds
for teachers in the public schools,' be repealed?"
and if a majority of the voters voting thereon at such
election or meeting shall vote in the affirmative, said
act shall be repealed in such city or town.

Section 16. So much of chapter four hundred and
ninety-eight of the acts of the year nineteen hundred
and eight as authorizes its submission to the voters
of a city or town for acceptance after the passage of
this act is hereby repealed.^'*

Section 17. This act shall take effect upon its

^ ^ * Approved June ig, 1Q13.

^* This refers to the permissive act of 1908, allowing towns
and cities by referendum vote to pension teachers. Although
in 1913 it had been adopted by eleven communities, it was
found to be an unsatisfactory method of retiring teachers even
in those places, and entirely unworkable in many sections of
the state.



EMS FOR TE



1911.
New York.



AH including eiiperinti
cities and union Ir
districts.

None.



No requirement.

l.i years for complete par

a years fur partial partii



5 years for complete
tion: I.j years for part
pation.



No pEovision.



No requirement if volu
tired after ■!."> years.

Incapacitated if less ths
of service.

One half annual salary



No minimum. Maxii
over flUI



Quarterly

1 per cent of salary.



CiiftR, legacies, inlere
ested funds.

ThreeappointedhyCon
of Education (1 supe
of schools. 1 principal.

Commissioner appoints



Continfrent on 25 years
1.J in state.



Contingent on 15 years
» in state.



acher on tsno peDsion i



APPENDIX B

COMPARATIVE TABLE OF STATE COMPULSORY INSURANCE SYSTEMS FOR TEACHERS IN THE UNITED STATES"





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APPENDIX G

A BRIEF BIBLIOGRAPHY

A GREAT amount of material on the subject of social
insurance has appeared during the last few years. Listed
herewith are the books and articles most useful in
preparing this monograph.
Reports —

Report on Teachers' Retirement Allowances, Massa-
chusetts Board of Education, 1913.

Workmen's Insurance Compensation Systems in Europe.
Two vols. Twenty-fourth Annual Report of the
Commissioner of Labor, 1909, Washington, D.C.

Workmen's Insurance and Benefit Funds in the United
States. Twenty-third Annual Report of the Com-
missioner of Labor, 1908, Washington, D.C.

Frankel and Dawson. Workingmen's Insurance in
Europe. Charities Publishing Company, New York.

Bulletin no. 97, Bureau of Labor, November, 191 1,
Washington, D.C.

House Document no. 732. 6 2d Congress, 2d Session.
(Retirement from the classified service of superannu-
ated employees.)

Bulletin no. 22, United States Department of Labor.
May, 1899. (Benefit Features of American Trade
Unions.)

Report of the Massachusetts Commission on Old-Age
Pensions, January, 1910. State Library, Boston,
Mass.

Reports of the United States Commissioner of Educa-
121



APPENDIX

tion, vols. I and ii, 1902, 1903, 1907, 1911, Wash-
ington, D.C.

Teachers^ Pension Laws in the United States and Europe,
1911. Senate Document no. 823, 6ist Congress, 3d
Session. (Contains text of laws, abstracts, and
tables showing essential provisions of existing sys-
tems of teachers' pensions.)

National Educational Association. Report of the Com-
mittee on Salaries, Tenure, and Pensions of Public-
School Teachers in the United States. 1905.
Good general treatises —

Charles R. Henderson. Industrial Insurance in the
United States. 1910. (Contains a mass of somewhat
ill-arranged information.)

Frank W. Lewis. State Insurance. 1909. (An excel-
lent brief treatise. Analytical rather than descrip-
tive.)

Henry A. Seager. Social Insurance. 1910. (A force-
ful argument for a radical plan of state insur-
ance.)
Supplementary special works —

Charles Booth. Pauperism and the Endowment of Old
Age. 1892.

Charles Booth. The Aged Poor; A Proposal. 1899.

John Graham Brooks. Compulsory Insurance in Ger-
many. (Special Report for United States Bureau of
Labor, 1893.)

N. P. Oilman. A Dividend to Labor. 1899.

Old- Age Pensions. (A collection of short papers, 1903.)

Lee W. Squier. Old-Age Dependency. 1912.

I^Iax Riebenack. Railway Provident Institutions in
English-Speaking Countries. 1905.

W. Sutherland. Old-Age Pensions. 1909.

W. F. Willoughby. Workingmen's Insurance. 1898.
122



APPENDIX

Selected magazine articles —

C. A. Prosser. Teachers College Record, November,
1910.

F. Spencer Baldwin. Quarterly Journal of Economics,
August, 1910; and in Publications of American
Statistical Association, March, 1909, no. 85, and
March, 1910, no. 89.

R. W. Child. Everybody's Magazine, September and
October, 1909.

S. H. Wolfe. Everybody's Magazine, December, 191 2.

Hen-ry W. Farnam. Yale Review, vol. xiii, 1905.

B. J. Hendrick. McClure's Magazine, December,
1908; also December, 191 2.

Frederick L. Hoffman. Publications of American
Statistical Association, March, 1909, no. 85.

Frederick L. Hoffman. American Journal of Sociol-
ogy, September, 1908.



APPENDIX D

EXTENDED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Teachers' Insurance

The Health Risks of the Teacher —

Pratt, Maria L. The Nervous Tone of the Teacher.
National Educational Association Report. 1890.

Frankenberg, H. Die Versicherungspflicht der Lehrer
Archiv f. Sozial Statistik, vol. 14, pp. 210-15.

Length of Teachers^ Service. United States Commis-
sioner of Education Report, 1904, p. 1277.

"Hygiene of Teachers," Pedagogical Seminary, vol. 11,
p. 488.

"Hardships and Rewards of Teachers," Cosmopolitan,
vol. 35, p. 92.

"The Pathology of the Teacher," American Journal of
Sociological Science, no. 43, p. 143.

Halle, A. S. Die Alters- mid Sterblichkeitsverhdltnisse
der Direktoren und Oherlehrer ini Prenssen.

"Woman and the Strain of Professional Life," Saturday
Review, vol. 96, p. 507.

"Woman in Marriage and Maternity," Independent,
vol. 60, p. 624.

BuRNHAM, Wm. H. "A Contribution to the Hygiene
of Teaching," Pedagogical Semi^iary, pp. 488-96.

Massachusetts State Board of Health Reports, 1896,
p. 870.

"Effect of Study upon Morbidity of Woman," Ameri-
can Journal of Obstetrics, 1900, vol. 42, p. 767.
124



APPENDIX

Wright, W. C. Female Life Mortuary Experience,
1863-92; prepared for New England Mutual Life
Insurance Company,

BiLLHARDT. Die Lclhrer Leipzigs. Leipzig.

BiNET. "Nouvelles Recherches sur la Consommation
du Pain dans ses Rapports avec le Travail Intellect-
uel." L'Ann6e Psychologique, Paris, 1900, vol. vi, pp.

1-73.

BocKH, Richard, und Klatt, Max. Die Alters- und
Sterblichkeitsverhdltnisse der Direktoren und Ober-
lehrer im Preussen. 1901.

See also studies in the hygiene of teachers, particu-
larly female, made by Lexis, Goldhahn, Siegel,
Wiehmann.

Jacobi, Dr. Mary Putnam. Rest during Menstruation.

Report of Committee of Association of College Alum-
nae. (On the health of college graduates [female].
1885.)

Hurty, Dr. J. N. "Tuberculosis and the Teaching
Profession," Educator Journal, April, 1909.

Report of the National Association for Study and Pre-
vention of Tuberculosis, 1907, pp. 108 _^.

A Handbook on the Prevention of Tuberculosis, pp. 45 f.

Swift, E. J. "Effect of Study upon Eyesight," Peda-
gogical Seminary, October, 1907, p. 202.

Reports for State Insane Hospitals, giving percentage
of inmates from various occupations. 1 898-1 908
inclusive, for Pennsylvania, New York, Connecticut,
Massachusetts, North Carolina, Indiana, and Michi-
gan.

United States Census Reports of 1900, giving for
teachers and for workers in competing industries,
deaths and death rates by sex, age, occupation, and
conjugal condition.

125



APPENDIX

Dyke, Charles B. Review of Dr. Shroeder's article
on "Teachers' Salaries and Length of Life and
Service," Educational Review, vol. 20, 1900, p.
90.
The Financial Risks of the Teacher —

Teachers' Tenure of Office : National Educational Asso-
ciation Report, 1899; United States Commissioner
of Education Report, 1904, 1277/., tables; Educa-
tion, vol. 25, p. 207; vol. 18, pp. 338-423; National
Educational Association Report, 1887,307; Dutton
and Snedden, Educational Administration, p. 256;
National Educational Association Report of Com-
mittee on Salaries, Tenure, and Pensions, 1905;
Indiana City Superintendents' Association, Report
on same, 1904; W. McAndrew, Eject of Better Sal-
aries on Teachers' Tenure.

Wages and the Cost of Living : Report of the Minnesota
Educational Association on Teachers' Salaries and
Living Expenses, 1906; Winona (Minnesota) Normal
Bulletin, ser. 3, no. 3; Report of the Wisconsin State
Teachers' Association on Ways and the Cost of
Living, 1904; Aldrich Report, vol. iii, pp. 62-92;
Report of the Massachusetts Educational Associa-
tion, Teachers' Salaries and Living Expenses.
"Wages of Teachers," World's Work, vol. 3, p. 1737;
National Educational Association, Report of the
Committee on Salaries. Tenure, and Pensions, 1905.
Indiana City Superintendents' Association, Report
on Salaries, Tenure, and Pensions, 1904.

Waite, Henry Randall. Civil-Service Reform in the
Public Schools, National Educational Association
Report. 1885.

Report of the Committee of Twelve on Rural Schools,

1897.

126



APPENDIX

Teaching as a Business for Man, National Educational
Association Report. 1885.

"Pedagogical Trades-Unions," editorial in Globe (New
York), December 28, 1906; National Educational
Association Report, 1904, p. 145.

The Disappearance of the Male Teacher. United States
Commissioner of Education Report, 1906, pp. x, 72;
1904-05, p. 9; Dutton and Snedden, chap, xv, p. 240.

Salaries of Teachers : University Quarterly, vol. i, p. in ;
Outlook, vol. 80, p. 805; Nation, vol. 80, p. 236;
Education Review, vol. 27, p. 375; vol. 21, p. 444;
Education, October, 1898; Columbia University
Quarterly, March i, 1899; United States Commis-
sioner of Education Report, 1905, p. 67; 1906, pp.

X, 303-

"The Relation of the Teacher to Trades and Profes-
sions," Educational Review, vol. 20, p. 217.

The Salary Question in European Countries : Education
1903-04, p. 1444; Reports of Bureau of Foreign
Commerce, 1893, vol. 41, p. 96; vol. 36, p. 161;
United States Consular Report from Kehl, May 15,
1908.

Dyke, C. B. "Economic Aspect of Teachers' Salaries "
(1899), Columbia University Contributions, vol. 7,
no. 2.

Harris, William T. "The Future of Teachers' Sala-
ries," National Educational Association Report,
1905, p. 67.
The Efficiency of Teachers —


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