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CuBBERLY, E. P. The Certification of Teachers, Fifth
Year Book of the National Society for the Scientific
Study of Education.

Dutton and Snedden. Educational Administration,
chap. XV, on the "Teaching Staff."
127



APPENDIX

Felmley, David. The Next Step in the Salary Cam-
paign, National Educational Association Report,
1906, p. 183.

Jackson, William R. The Present Status of the Certi-
fication of Teachers in the United States, United States
Commissioner of Education Report, 1903, p. 463.

McAndrew, William. "Some Suggestions on School
Salaries," Educational Review, vol. 23, p. 152.

Venable, B. Higher Standards in the Employment of
Teachers, National Educational Association Report,
1904.

Legal Provisions of the Various States relating to Teach-
ers' Examinations and Certificates, United States
Commissioner of Education Report, 1897-98, p.
1659.

The Margin of the Unprepared. See Dexter's History of
American Education, p. 391.

ScHEERMAN, Pres. "The Preparation of Teachers."
Forum, vol. xxi, pp. 174-79-

Salmon, Lucy M. "Civil-Service Reform Principles
in Education," Educational Review, vol. 25, p. 348.

Button, S. T. Expediency of Importing Teachers of
Apparent Merit. National Educational Association
Report, 1904, p. 322.

Cook, J. W. Providing Better Teachers, National Edu-
cational Association Report, 1905, p. 180.

Seaver, E. p. "Teachers and their Standing," Educa-
tional Review, vol. 16, p. 295.

LowRY, C. D. Professional Training and Improvement
of Teachers. In Seventh Year Book of the National
Society for the Scientific Study of Education
(Chicago).

Edson, a. W. "Professional Improvement," Educa-
tion, vol. 20, p. 129.

128



APPENDIX

Pleas for Teachers' Pensions —

Clark, J. E. Should Teachers be Pensioned? National

Educational Association Report, 1896, pp. 988-95.
EJ'ect of Pensions on Stability of Employment, Bulletin
of the United States Department of Labor, vols. 1-7,

PP- 257, 358-59-

"Supply of Teachers." Fortnightly, vol. 71, p. 853.

Keyes, Charles H. Teachers' Pensions. National
Educational Association Report, 1907, p. 103.

Ayers, Dr. Samuel. The State and the Teacher. Num-
ber 13 of a volume of pamphlets, Should the State
Provide a Retirement Fund for the Teacher, no. 4.

Retirement Fund for Teachers. Annual address delivered
April 27, 1906; in the Aimual Report of the Teachers'
Provident Society.

Allen, Elizabeth. Teachers' Retirement Fund. Phila-
delphia Teachers' Association, pamphlet.

Button and Snedden. School Administration, p. 270.

McAndrew, William. "Some Suggestions on Teach-
ers' Salaries," Educational Review, 1904, p. 27.

Tindell, Mrs. Emma. The Economy of the Retirement
Fund. Philadelphia Teachers' Association; pamphlet.

Best, Lyman A. Retirement Fund and Tenure of Office.
Bound pamphlets. New York City Schools.

Long Tenure and Efficiency. National Educational Asso-
ciation Report, 1885; Seventh Year Book, National
Society for the Scientific Study of Education, p. 15.

Rogers, Howard J. Pensions of Teachers. National
Educational Association Report, 1903, p. 297.

Manley, E. "Compulsory Insurance for Teachers,"
Educational Review, vol. 23, p. 152.

Smith, Anna T. "Teachers' Salaries and Pensions,"
Educational Review, vol. 2, p. 335.

Nelson, C. A. "Bibliography of Salaries and Pen-
129



APPENDIX

sions," Educational Review, vol. s3j PP- 24-35,
January, 1907.
Teachers' Compulsory Insurance in the United States —
Teachers' Pensions in the United States: United States
Commissioner of Education Report, 1902, vol. 2, p.
2369; 1906, p. 215; 1907, vol. I, p. 448; Report of the
Committee of Indiana City Superintendents' Asso-
ciation, 1908, p. 8; United States Bureau of Educa-
tion Bulletin, no, 7, 1908; Digest of Recent Pension
Legislation, pp. 147-70; United States Commis-
sioner of Education Report, 1895, pp. 1079, 1343;
Educational Review, vol. 2, p. 335.
State systems: —
New Jersey: School Law, art. xxv, sec. 213.
Rhode Island: National Educational Association

Report, 1907, p. 107.
Virginia: School Laws, chap. 1468; quoted in Bureau

of Education Bulletin, no. 7, p. 164 (1908).
Maryland: chap. 4755, art. 58.
Illinois: House Bill 843, p. 529, 1907; Bureau of

Education Bulletin, no. 7, p. 147 (1908).
Indiana: School Law, chap. 170; Bureau of Educa-
tion Bulletin, no. 7, p. 151 (1908).
Ohio: State Laws, sees. 3897 _^. See also Rules of the

Cincinnati Board of Education.
Utah: School Laws, chap, in; Bureau of Educa-
tion Bulletin, no. 7, p. 165 (1908).
City systems: —
See last reports giving School Rules and Regulations
for New York, Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Balti-
more, Indianapolis, San Francisco, Cincinnati,
Cleveland, St. Louis, Washington, Philadelphia;
"The Boston Teachers' Retirement Fund,"
Education, vol. 20, p. 414. .

130



APPENDIX

On Foreign Teachers^ Pension Systems —

Italy: — United States Commissioner of Education
Report, 1898-99, p. 846; 1902, vol. i, p. 750; vol. 2,
p. 2369; 1906, p. 81.

Germany: — United States Commissioner of Educa-
tion Report, 1905-06, p. 209; 1904-05, p. 209; 1894-
9S; 1902, pp. 2369-71; 1907, vol. I, pp. 456-61.

Great Britain: — School Teachers. Superannuated
Rules (Scotland). In British Parliamentary Papers,
1899; Papers by Command, 9262, p. 62; Rules and
Tables of Teachers' Provident Society, London,
1903; British Red Code, 1908; Hughes, The Making
of Citizens ; United States Commissioner of Educa-
tion Report, 1894-95; 1902, pp. 2369-71; 1905, p.
209; 1907, vol. I, pp. 456-61.

France: — Hughes, The Making of Citizens; United
States Commissioner of Education Report, 1905,
vol. I, p. 67; 1902, pp. 2369-71; 1894-95; 1905, p.
209; 1907, vol. I, pp. 456-61; 1104.

Norway: — United States Commissioner of Education
Report, 1889-90, vol. i, p. 499.

Sweden: — United States Commissioner of Education
Report, 1888-89, vol. i, p. 267; 1889-90, vol. i, pp.
99-532; 1890-91, vol. I, p. 2X6.

Austria: — United States Commissioner of Education
Report, 1894-95, p. 1 103.

Holland: — United States Commissioner of Education
Report, 1894-95, P- II03-

Belgium: — United States Commissioner of Education
Report, 1894-95, p. 1 104.

R-ussia: — United States Commissioner of Education
Report, 1890-91, p. 216.

Denmark: — United States Commissioner of Educa-
tion Report, 1889-90, vol. i, p. 532.



APPENDIX

Hungary : — United States Commissioner of Educa-
tion Report, 1894-95, P' 1 103.
Old- Age Pensions —

The Case against Pensions, Report of Royal Commis-
sion on Aged Poor. Parliamentary Papers, 1895, vol.
14, p. 15.

Clarke's Labor Movement in Australia.

Lloyd's Country without Strikes.

Brooks, John Graham. Workingmen's Compulsory
Insurance.

Drage, Geoffrey. The Problem of the Aged Poor.

Booth, Hon. Charles, Report. The Aged Poor; Old-
Age Pensions and the Aged Poor; The Endowment of
Old Age.

Strachey, John M. The Manufacture of Paupers.

Burt, Thomas. "Old-Age Pensions," The Nineteenth
Century, September, igo6, p. 377.

Effect of Old Age on Pauperism, Journal of the Royal
Statistical Society, 1891, vol. 54.

Locke. Old- Age Pensions.

Blue Book. Parliamentary Papers, 1907.

Sutherland, W. Old Age Pensions in Theory and
Practice. 1907.

Spender, Harold. "The Government and Old-Age
Pensions," Contemporary Review, 1908, nos. 93, 94,
p. 107.

Metcalfe, John. The Case for Universal Old-Age Pen-
sions. 1899.

Jones, G. "Old-Age Pensions in England," Review of
Reviews, 1908, vol. 38, pp. 345-46.

Hoffman, F. L. "The Problem of Poverty and Pen-
sions and Old Age," American Journal of Sociology,
1908, vol. 14, pp. 182-96.

Henderson, C. R. Indtistrial Insurance, 1909. Sum-
132



APPENDIX

mary of European Laws on Industrial Insurance,

Chanties, 1907, vol. 19, pp. 1191-1203.
Hatschek, J. Das englische Pensionsrecht der Staat-

beamten, Jahrhuch fiir Gesetzgeburg. 1906, vol. 30,

pp. 687-93, 30, 267-73.
Dawson, W. H. The German Workman, chap, xv,

1906.
Bellom, Maurice. Les Lois d' Assurance Ouvrihre d,

VEtranger, livre ni (2 tomes). 1905-06.
Encyclopedia of Social Progress. Bliss, 1908. Funk &

Wagnalls.
Insurance of Workingmen. Report of Massachusetts

Bureau of Statistics of Labor, 1900, Part n.
Old- A ge Pensions. (A collection of short papers) , 1 903 .
"Old-Age Pensions," Quarterly Review, 1908, vol. 209,

pp. 144-67-
"Old-Age Pensions in France," Independent, 1908, vol.

64, pp. 661-62.
Report of the Departmental Committee on Old-Age

Pensions. British Parliamentary Reports (sessional

papers), 1898, vol. 45.
Report of Select Committee on Aged Deserving Poor,

British Parliamentary Reports, 1899, vol. 8.
Report of Select Committee on the Aged Pensioner's

Bill. British Parliamentary Reports, 1903, vol. 5.
The Economic Aspects of Compulsory Insurance —
See list of references given under Old-Age Pensions.
Davidson's Bargain Theory of Wages.
"The Theory of Wages." Chapter XLix in Neanry and

Watson's Economics.
"Economic Aspect of Teachers' Salaries," Columbia

University Contributions, Philadelphia, vol. 7, p. 2.
"The Relation of the Teacher to Trades and Profes-
sions," Educational Review, vol. 20, p. 217.

133



APPENDIX

McAndrews, W. a. "Theories of Salaries Discussed,"

New York Education, October, 1898.

Willoughby's Workingmen's Insurance.

Brooks, John Graham. German Workingmen's Com-
pulsory Insurance. Special Report of the United
States Commissioner of Labor, 1896.

Seligman. Principles of Economics.

Ely, R. T. Introduction to Political Economy (1889);
Outlines of Economics (1893).

GuNTON, George. Principles of Social Economics.

Cairnes. Some Leading Principles of Political Econ-
omy.

McCuLLOCH, J. R. Principles of Political Economy.

Mill, J. S. Principles of Political Economy.

Walker, F. A. Political Economy.

MacLeod, H. D. Dictionary of Political Economy.

Commons, J. R. Trades-Unionism and Labor Problems.



APPENDIX E

The Wisconsin Teachers' Pension Law of 191 1 has
not been discussed in this monograph, because of the
uncertainty that prevails regarding the final outcome
of that act. The writer is informed that "a strong
effort is being made for the repeal of the law."

When the system was established, all teachers
except teachers in the city of Milwaukee were per-
mitted to join the retirement association. On and
after June 12, 191 1, all new teachers were compelled
to join. There is no requirement as to age, but
twenty-five years' service, eighteen of which must

134



APPENDIX

have been in the state, are required for retirement.
A teacher may retire if incapacitated any time after
eighteen full years' service in the state. Quarterly
pajonents are made on an annuity at the rate of
$12.50 per year for each year of service, not exceed-
ing S450. Teachers of less than ten years of service
pay one per cent of their salary into the annuity
fund. Teachers of over ten years' service pay two
per cent. The state annually adds, from the school
mill tax, ten cents for each person of school age in the
state. The fund may be augmented by gifts, legacies,
and accumulated interest. Management is vested in
a board of five trustees, consisting of three members
elected by prospective beneficiaries, the state treas-
urer and the state superintendent of instruction.
No retirement age is prescribed. The annuity con-
stitutes a service pension. If the teacher withdraws
from service, he receives one half the amount paid
in. No provision is made for any refunds in case of
death.



OUTLINE

I. PRESENT EXTENT OF TEACHERS' PENSIONS

AND ANNUITIES!

1. The extent, method of support, and amount of
teachers' retirement allowances in foreign
coimtries i

2. The protection afforded, and method of dis-
tribution to beneficiaries 2

3. Methods established to insure beneficial results
from teachers' retirement allowances, and rea-
sons therefor 3

4. The extent of teachers' retirement systems in the
United States 4

5. State retirement systems for teachers:

(a) Supported entirely by the state 6

(b) Supported partly by teachers 6

6. Amounts paid under the several state plans . . 7

7. Conditions of retirement under these plans . . 8

8. The management of the retirement funds . . . 11

9. The extent, method of operation, and results
from certain "permissive pension laws" ... 12

10. City or local pension plans for teachers:

(a) Extent 13

(b) Method of support 13

(c) Effects 14

II. Criticisms regarding the scope and general char-
acter of teachers' pension systems in the United
States 14

» The reader should keep clearly in mind the distinction between " an-
nuity " and "pension."

136



OUTLINE

12. Conclusions in regard to present tendencies in
teachers' pension legislation

II. ANNUITIES AND SOCIAL INSURANCE



17



1. Explanation of the phrase "social insurance" . 19

2. The place of teachers' pensions in the develop-
ment of social insurance plans 19

3. The extent of social insurance in Europe . . 20

4. Changes in the scope of teachers' pensions,
growing out of the development of social insur-
ance * 20

5. Protection offered under certain European
plans 21

6. The German method of insuring wage-earners . 22

7. The fundamental principles underlying foreign
plans for social insurance 22

8. A comparison of the extent and scope of social
insurance in Europe and the United States . . 23

9. The position of Massachusetts in regard to
social insurance 25

10. The extent of social insurance in Massachusetts 26



III. RETIREMENT ALLOWANCES

1. Arguments for state teachers' retirement sys-
tems based upon social insurance principles . . 30

2. Certain unsound reasons that have been ad-
vanced in favor of teachers' pensions .... 34

3. Equitable principles of teachers' insurance . . 37

4. "Contributory" versus "non-contributory"
plans 38



OUTLINE

5. The obligation of the state to supplement the
teachers' contributions 41

6. "Withdrawal equities" and the teachers' rights
therein 43

7. Annuities versus "lump sums" as a method of
distribution 44

8. The law for Massachusetts state employees cited
as embodying correct principles. (Compare this
discussion with the Massachusetts Teachers'
Retirement Law, Appendix A) 45

9. Retirement plan for all employees of school
systems 49

10. The place of state certification of teachers in a
retirement plan 50

11. The question of tenure of teachers in a retire-
ment plan 53

12. The advantages of state retirement systems for
teachers over local or municipal plans • • • 55

13. Cost of a state retirement system 60

14. Conclusions regarding state pensions for teachers:
(o) for teachers entering the service after a fixed

date; 65

(&) for teachers in the service prior to that
date 67

IV. A MODEL RETIREMENT LAW

1. Fundamental principles regarding teachers' pen-
sions asserted by the Carnegie Foundation . . 70

2. Certain points of dissent from the Seventh
Report of the Carnegie Foundation 71

3. Risks of life from which the teacher needs finan-
cial protection 72

138



OUTLINE

4. Plan for securing such protection — An old-age
pension act 74

5. The necessity for exact definitions 75

6. Time between enactment and the inauguration

of the system 76

7. Membership in a retirement association ... 76

8. The Retirement Board, method of its selection,
and duties 77

9. The necessary funds and method of securing
them 78

10. The retirement age 80

11. Method of computing pensions, and guarantee-
ing to all teachers a pension on the same basis . 81

12. An annuity " option " 81

13. Methods of safeguarding the savings of the
teacher 83

14. Duties of local school oflficials in administering a
pension system for teachers 84

15. Duties of the state treasurer 85

16. The merging of local pension plans into a state
system 85

17. Court jurisdiction 87



V. GETTING LEGISLATION

1. Need for careful investigation before legislating 88

2. Ideal method of legislating 88

3. Opposition to this method 90

4. Complete state system a fundamental principle gi

5. Need for cultivating public sentiment ... 92

6. Actuarial advice needed 92

7. Difficulties to be encountered in merging local
into state systems 93

139



OUTLINE

8. A commission and its duties suggested ... 96

9. Conclusions regarding adjustments that can be
made in merging local into state systems . . 97

10. Conclusions regarding taxation and reimburse-
ment 98



APPENDICES

A. The Massachusetts Teachers' Retirement Law 99

B. Comparative table of state compulsory insur-
ance systems for teachers 120

C. A brief bibliography 121

D. Extended bibliography 124

E. Statement of the terms of the Wisconsin Teach-
ers' Pension Law 134



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Online LibraryCharles A. (Charles Allen) ProsserThe teacher and old age → online text (page 8 of 8)