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add and ^ ? What change is necessary before add-
ing them? Why not add them in the same way as
the others? How can you add one bushel and one
peck ? Change the bushel to pecks. Add two yards
and one foot. What change was necessary in both

Add I and J. J= f. f + j = f . Illustrate this
with a square divided into fourths and eighths. Add
-| and -j 4 ^. Add ^ and f . What was done in all these
cases before adding ? How shall we add ^ and -| ?
How can you change the two fractions so that they
will be alike, that is, have the same fractional unit?
Change them to twelfths. One-third equals how
many twelfths ? One-fourth equals how many
twelfths ? + -| = 1*2 + 1% = i^. Illustrate this with a
sheet of paper folded into thirds, fourths, and twelfths.

Add f and ^. What is the common fractional unit ?

Notice, now, what was done in each of these prob-
lems : ^ + \, | + |-, and f + 3^5 - The fractions in the
first were changed to twelfths, in the second to tenths,
and in the third to twentieths. Was the value of the
fractions changed ? But in each example the frac-
tions were changed to a common fractional unit, or a
common denominator. What was done to the numer-
ators? In each fraction they were changed to cor-
respond with the change in the denominator. Then,
in adding, the numerators were added,


Make a rule for adding fractions that will cover all
the cases so far worked :

"To add these fractions, change the fractions to
equivalent fractions having a common denominator.
Add the numerators for a new numerator and use
the common denominator for the new denominator."

To acquire skill and accuracy in this kind of addi-
tion :

1. Add oral problems as follows :

m- i+i- i 9 2+t- *+&

2. For written work add such as these :

tt+H+l = ? T 9 o+A + H=?

3. Add mixed numbers as follows :

Trade Centre in the Northwest Minneapolis as a Type

This topic may be treated in two ways, briefly, as
in the geographies, or in a fuller inductive manner.
One of our grammar school geographies says :

" Minneapolis, which adjoins St. Paul, so that the
two are called the 'Twin Cities,' manufactures more
flour than any other city in the world, its capacity
being 40,000 barrels a day. The two cities have had
a remarkably rapid growth."

Tilden's "Commercial Geography," which is very
much fuller on this topic than the regular geogra-
phies, says:

"Minneapolis, on the Mississippi at the Falls of
St. Anthony, is the greatest flour-milling city in the


world, and one of the greatest lumber markets and
lumber-manufacturing centres in America. The
yearly output of the flour mills is nearly 10,000,000
barrels. Of this about one-third is shipped to foreign
countries, constituting about one-fourth of the total
flour export of the United States. In manufactur-
ing this flour the Minneapolis mills grind about
45,000,000 bushels of wheat annually. The Pills-
bury ' A ' mill is the largest flour mill in the world,
having a daily capacity of 7500 barrels. The saw
and planing mills of Minneapolis have an annual
output of the value of $10,000,000, and the lumber
is manufactured into barrels, boxes, cars, wagons, and
many other products, aggregating a value twice as
great. In the decade 1880-1890 the population of
Minneapolis increased nearly fourfold."

The following is a much fuller treatment of Min-
neapolis in its important relations to the Northwest,
such as would require several recitations :

We will inquire into the causes which make Min- Minneapolis,
neapolis an important city.

Where is it and what have you heard about it?
Why is it sometimes called the flour city ? What is
meant by the " Twin Cities " ? Recall Hennepin's
trip on the upper Mississippi and what you know of
the Falls of St. Anthony. Can you tell something of
the wheat fields and pineries of Minnesota ?

St. Paul was an important trading-point and the
capital of the state before Minneapolis had a begin-


ning. Why should Minneapolis spring up only ten
miles away and soon become larger even than St.
Paul ? The great water-power of the Falls is the first
answer. How can water from a river be used to run
a mill ? Where have you seen a mill run by water-
power? Describe the water-wheel, the dam, and
mill-race. At Minneapolis the water is carried by a
channel on the west side of the falls under the great
mills where it drops forty feet to the large turbine
wheels at the bottom, turning them and with them all
the machinery of the mills.

Along the upper Mississippi and its branches in
northern Minnesota are large pine forests. How
could the pine logs be brought to the sawmills at
Minneapolis? Some of the early settlers moved
northward into the pineries, cut down the trees in
winter and sent them floating down the streams to
the sawmills at Minneapolis. Soon large lumber
companies were formed with big sawmills at the
Falls, and owning extensive pine lands in the North.
In the winter time they sent scores of men to the log-
ging camps to get out the logs and float them down
in springtime to the mills. With the mills at Min-
neapolis came the families of the mill companies and
of the workmen, and thus a flourishing town sprang
up at the Falls. Great lumber yards with their stacks
of boards stretched along the river.

Some of this lumber would be used in building
up Minneapolis, but where would most of it be sent ?


The farmers were rapidly settling up the prairie
regions of the Northwest. Locate these prairies on
the map. In what directions from Minneapolis would
most of the lumber be sent ? For two or three hun-
dred miles to the west, southwest, and northwest from
Minneapolis the whole prairie land was rapidly taken
by settlers. How could this lumber be gotten best
to the new farms and villages ? At first wagons were
used, but soon railroads were built across the prairies,
from St. Paul and Minneapolis, and car-loads of lum-
ber were sent out to the towns and distributed by
merchants to the farmers. As the lumber business
grew the whole upper Mississippi with its tributaries
became a network of streams and logging camps,
collecting logs for the mills at Minneapolis. Closely
connected with the sawmills were the planing mills
for preparing dressed lumber, sash, doors, moulding,
etc. Factories were also built for the manufacture
of furniture, barrels, wagons, and agricultural imple-
ments. All these products were distributed by the
railroads over the broad prairie regions of southern
and western Minnesota, Iowa, the Dakotas, and Ne-
braska. In short, Minneapolis, by reason of its favor-
able position on the river and its water-power, soon
became the chief centre of the lumber business of the
Northwest, collecting logs from the pine lands of the
North, working them up into lumber, furniture, etc.,
and distributing them to the broad area of prairie states.
How would the prairie farmer pay for the lumber


wheat and and other goods coming from St. Paul and Minne*
apolis ? What is the leading crop of the Northwest ?
It was soon found that the prairies were well adapted
to the growth of wheat and other small grains. In a
few years the prairies, with the rich valley of the Red
River of the North, became one of the largest wheat-
producing districts in the world. How would the
farmers get their wheat and other grains to Minne-
apolis? The water-power at the Falls was soon found
to be more valuable for flour mills than for sawmills.
In the lumber mills the sawdust supplied abundance
of fuel for the furnaces, so that they did not need the
water-power, and hence the latter was used for run-
ning the great flour mills that were now built at the
Falls. The same railroads which distributed lumber
to the prairies collected the wheat. In 1871 only
two car-loads of wheat were received in Minneapo-
lis. In 1887 the Great Western road alone brought
33,000,000 bushels of wheat to the elevators at Min-
neapolis. In 1896 250,000 barrels of flour were
ground here in a single week. In what directions
would this immense quantity of flour be shipped and
marketed ? What lake ports would receive much of
it for shipment by water ? Notice on a railroad map
the important railroad lines from the Twin Cities to
Duluth, Mihvaukee, and especially to Chicago. Much
of this flour is shipped to Illinois, Ohio, etc., much to
Pennsylvania, New York, and New England, and
whole cargoes to Liverpool and Hamburg.



Minneapolis has become a centre for the collec-
tion of enormous quantities of wheat from the wheat
regions of the Northwest, for its manufacture into
flour, and for its distribution by railways and water-
ways to the large populations of the Middle and
Eastern states and to Europe. The flour business,
like lumbering, has brought a large population and
increase of business to Minneapolis.

There is still a third line of business in Minne- Whoiesai
apolis as important as the two already mentioned.
What goods from the Eastern states are shipped
into the two cities for sale and distribution over
the Northwest ? Dry-goods, wholesale groceries, ma-
chinery, drugs, china and porcelain, glass, hardware,
tools and instruments, books and paper, and hun-
dreds of other products of Eastern factories and mills,
as well as those from Europe, are shipped to the
Twin Cities to be distributed over the Northwest.
Sum up, in a single statement, the three important
lines of traffic which have given Minneapolis its
importance as a trade centre.

Passing down the Mississippi in a steamboat from similar cities
St. Paul, we notice at Wabasha, Winona, and La
Crosse, at Dubuque, Davenport, and Rock Island,
great sawmills and lumber yards even as far as St.
Louis. An inquiry into the causes will show that the
St. Croix, the Chippewa, and the Black rivers are
lumber streams, bringing from the pineries of Wis-
consin great numbers of log rafts to the mills of all


these cities. The railroads extending westward into
Iowa, Minnesota, and other states carry the lumber
from these river cities to the prairies. Large flour
mills are also found at most of these cities where
wheat is received from the regions of the West, is
milled and sent eastward as flour.

Compare now these cities along the upper Mis-
sissippi from Minneapolis to St. Louis ; note how they
differ in size, location, and importance. Note also
whether they are alike. Compare them as (i) to
having sawmills, and as to where the logs come from.
(2) Compare them as to the manufacture of flour
and the sources of the wheat. , (3). Compare them as
centres for the wholesale trade in goods manufac-
tured in the East, and (4) as to advantages for river
trade north and south, and railroad traffic east and


As a result of this comparison sum up the char-
acter of all the cities of the upper Mississippi as
trade centres. Like Minneapolis, they are all centres
for the lumber business, receiving logs from the
pineries, working them up into lumber, and distribut-
ing them to the prairies. They collect wheat from
the West, mill it, and distribute it to the East. They
are also centres for the wholesale trade in manufac-
tured goods. In short, the whole upper Mississippi
River, with its cities, forms one great link of com-
munication between the pineries of the North and
the prairies of the West, and also, by means of rail-


roads and lakes, between the populations of the East
and of the Northwest. Minneapolis is the chief
representative and type of this whole series of cities
on the upper Mississippi River.

But let us inquire if there are other important other manu-
centres of the lumber trade besides the cities of the
Mississippi. Locate such cities on the Great Lakes
as Chicago, Milwaukee, Saginaw, Detroit, Buffalo,
Cleveland. Show where they get lumber and in
what directions it is sold and delivered. The Great
Lakes are found to be in the midst of extensive
pineries, while the cities mentioned are the trading-
points for collecting and distributing lumber south-
ward to the large populations of the Middle states.
What advantages has the city of Albany, N.Y., for
the lumber trade ? Canals connect the upper Hud-
son at Albany with Lake Champlain, Lake Ontario,
and Lake Erie. What advantages do these canals
offer for the lumber trade ? What cities of Maine
and New Brunswick are noted for lumbering?
Where do they get the logs, and how and whither
is the lumber distributed ? What other cities of the
United States are important for trade in wheat and
flour? What other cities of the United States are
located, like St. Paul and Minneapolis, at the head
of steamboat navigation on important rivers? Are
any of them noted for their water-power? What
raw products are collected at Pittsburg ? What are
its factories? Compare Pittsburg and Allegheny


with St. Paul and Minneapolis, in advantage of
location, as trade centres for great staple products,
in manufactures, and in population.

In future geographical study the city of Minne-
apolis and the group of cities on the upper Missis-
sippi, of which it is the special type, may serve as a
standard of comparison in measuring the commercial
importance of other large trade centres.

Wisdom better than Gold

In bringing moral and religious ideas to the at-
tention of children, many teachers begin with some
general statement or proverb which serves as a text
for the lesson. If the teacher's purpose is to bring
out the idea of a selfish love of money and its evil
effects, such a proverb as "How much better it is
to get wisdom than gold," or "The love of money
is the root of all evil," is selected. Remarks are
made upon the truth of the proverb, and simple illus-
trations of the evil effects of the excessive desire for
money are presented. According to the same
method we have a number of books designed for
moral instruction, which contain short treatises or
sermons on points of moral conduct. These are
read to the school, commented upon, and perhaps
further but briefly illustrated. This plan seems to
many persons a short and easy way of presenting
moral truths to children.

Quite a different process of getting at a moral


truth is illustrated by the use of the story of the
Golden Touch, in Hawthorne's "Wonder Book." Here
we have simply a story full of interesting personal
detail, with no prominence at first given to the moral.
Toward the end of the narrative the moral idea may
be keenly felt, though not expressly stated in words.
The contrast in these two methods of bringing out
a generalization is striking. The first method de-
scribed above gives at the start dogmatic statement
and prominence to the moral truth, while the method
of the story gives only a hint at the beginning of
the moral involved, but allows it to be developed
incidentally in the course of the narrative. A few
questions at the end of the story will bring out the
moral idea with great clearness. This narrative is
in its nature inductive, and its presentation to chil-
dren might take place as follows :

How a King loved Gold and what came of it

Having so many things, why should kings wish
for anything more ? If you were a king what would
you wish for most ? What would you wish for now
if you had your choice ? We shall see in this story
that a certain king was given his choice of the thing
he most desired and what came of it.

Tell the story as given in the "Wonder Book"
(pages 55-6o), which narrates how Midas came into
possession of the Golden Touch. Let the children
ask questions. Let the teacher answer as well as


she can and ask others to bring out the significant
thoughts. The children should tell the story again
till they acquire skill and ease in its reproduction,

The following questions are suggested :

What opinion have you of Midas, in the dungeon,
counting over his money ? How might he have spent
his time better? When Quicksilver gave him his
choice, did Midas stop to think whether his wish
was wise or not?

Tell the story of Midas while he had the Golden
Touch (pages 60-70).

When Midas found that he had the Golden
Touch, how did he feel and act ? When did he first
discover that the Golden Touch was not entirely
pleasant? How many times did he find out later
that it was a cause of trouble ? What were the
worst things that happened to him because of the
granting of his wish ? How did Midas feel when he
found out just what the magic touch meant? Could
he help himself in any way ? Did he have exactly
what he had wished for? What had he that he
didn't wish for and had not counted on ? What
could he have wished for better than the Golden
Touch ? How did he come to make such a mistake ?
If Quicksilver understood Midas's mistake at the
first, why did he not tell him of his foolish choice ?
What would have happened if Midas had not been
able to get rid of the Golden Touch ? Was he really
anxious to get rid of it ? What reasons had he for


being more anxious to be rid of it than he was in
the first place to have it ?

Tell the last part of the story (pages 70-74).

Did Midas waste any time in waiting to rid him-
self of his gold ? How much gold did he throw
away ? When he had sprinkled his little Marigold
and the roses back into life, in what respect was he
worse off or better off than at the beginning of the
story ? Do you think he would spend much time
in the future in the dungeon counting over his
money? What lesson had he learned? He was
a much wiser man than before.

Have you read stories before in which persons
were given a choice of anything they might wish?
Recall the story of Baucis and Philemon.

If the children are familiar with this story, let
them compare the choice of Midas with that of Bau-
cis and Philemon, and give reasons for thinking their
choice a better one.

Why did they not choose gold as did Midas ? By
choosing wisely, what other good fortune did they
receive ? Recall also the story of Solomon and his
choice. What did Solomon get besides what he
asked for ? Why was his choice more sensible than
Midas's ? Did Solomon have any reason for regret-
ting his choice ? How was it with Baucis and Phile-
mon ? Is it a good thing in choosing to prefer money
or wealth before other things ? What things are
more valuable than money ? In the stories referred


to, what things prove most valuable in the end ?
What least? Recall Proverbs xvi. 16, "How much
better it is to get wisdom than gold."

Do you know what a miser is ? Of what value is
money to such a person ? What are some of the
most valuable things that boys and girls may choose
to-day ? In the choice of friends and companions, is
there much danger of making a mistake? Should
wealth have much to do with it ?

The usual social life of the school offers many
opportunities for illustrating and applying such les-
sons as are found in the Golden Touch. The lessons
in reading and history may also supply good com-

The Metamorphosis of Butterflies The Milkweed
Butterfly as a Type

One of the older zoologies gives the following
description of the order Lepidoptera, to which the
butterfly belongs :

"This well-known and most beautiful of all the
orders of insects comprises the butterflies and moths,
the former being active by day (diurnal) and the
latter mostly by twilight (crepuscular) or at night
(nocturnal). In all the Lepidoptera the mouth of the
adult insect is purely suctorial and is provided with a
spiral trunk fitted for imbibing the juices of flowers.
The wings are four in number, and are covered more
or less completely with modified hairs or scales, which


are pretty objects under the microscope, and from
which the wings derive their beautiful colors. The
larvae of the Lepidoptera are generally known as
caterpillars. They are wormlike, provided with mas-
ticatory organs, fitted for dividing solid substances,
possessing false legs in addition to the three pairs
proper to the adult, and having attached to the under
lip a tubular organ or spinneret, by which silken
threads can be manufactured." (Nicholson.)

In the above lesson we have a verbal description
of the whole class of butterflies to be studied and
learned by the student.

The following treatment of the milkweed butterfly
is based upon the idea of observation by the children,
questions, comparison of data, collections, and con-
clusions drawn from direct experience with the objects
studied. The method of question and discussion can
be indicated only in part :

In your previous observations in the fields and
roads, tell of the habits of those butterflies which you
have seen, their peculiar flight, whether they have
been noticed on flowers or in damp places. What
butterflies are you most familiar with ? What is their
food ? Do you know what the butterflies come from ?
Have you seen the chrysalis of a butterfly and
watched its change ? What was its form before it
became a chrysalis ? Does it seem possible that a
butterfly could come from a caterpillar ? Have you
noticed that certain butterflies prefer a certain kind


of plants, and what the caterpillars feed upon ? Do
caterpillars grow larger and change ?

For a closer understanding of the changes that
take place in a caterpillar and in other forms we
will follow the life and changes of the milkweed but-
terfly from the laying of the eggs to the full-sized
insect in its later life. (Samuel H. Scudder's " Life
of a Butterfly " will be very helpful to teachers in
telling where and when to look and in explaining
many facts derived from fuller scientific studies,
published by Henry Holt & Co., New York.) The
principal facts, many of which can be observed by
teacher and children, are briefly told as follows :

As early as April or later in summer the butterfly
deposits its eggs (shaped like a sugar loaf, one-
twentieth of an inch in height) on the under or pro-
tected side of the upper and tender leaves of the
milkweed. The eggs hatch out in from three to five
days, depending on the warmth of the weather. As
soon as the little caterpillar gets out of the egg it
turns and eats the shell, and then begins to feed on
the green leaf of the milkweed. It is a great eater,
and as its food is always at hand it spends most of its
time eating and resting, day and night. (Let the
children notice these facts as far as possible, and
observe whether it is careful to stay on one side of
the leaf.) In a day or two after hatching, the cater-
pillar makes its first moult, or sheds its skin. It
grows so fast that its skin splits off and it comes out


in a new, shining coat. Three other moults follow
before it reaches its full growth, lasting in all at least
eleven days, but usually longer. When full grown
"the caterpillars are striking objects, cylindrical,
plump, naked worms, growing to the length of nearly
two inches, with transverse bands of yellow and
black." (Scudder.)

" Then comes the change to the chrysalis, to seek
a good place for which the caterpillar usually leaves
the plant (though I have found the chrysalis hanging
pendant from the leaf) and seeks some such stable
place as the under side of a fence rail, or a jutting
rock, from which to suspend. Here it hangs for a
variable period two to fourteen days, according to
the season and temperature, and perhaps the expos-
ure." "At last the golden spots (on the chrysalis)
begin to lose their brilliancy, and the beautiful green
disappears; the orange wings of the imprisoned
butterfly now become visible through its temporary
sarcophagus, which it bursts open on the following
day, and the liberated insect soon takes wing to join
its comrades, select its mate, and pass the happy
hours of a brief existence in revelling in the sweets
of the flowers among which it sprang into being."
(Peale, quoted by Scudder.)

The milkweed butterfly is one of the commonest
and most widely distributed of our butterflies. Col-
lect two or three specimens from the meadows,
noticing meanwhile their flight, places of lighting,


size, and color. It measures four or five inches from
tip to tip of its wings. It has two pairs of large
orange-colored wings trimmed in black. But the
margins are dotted with white. The veins on the
wings and the body of the insect are black dotted

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Online LibraryCharles Alexander McMurryThe method of the recitation → online text (page 2 of 21)