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Charles Alfred Browne.

An introduction to the geography and history of India, and the countries adjacent; online

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GIFT OF




AN INTRODUCTION



TO THB



anir ^Cstotg ot



THE COUNTRIES ADJACENT.

EDITED BY

THE REV. A. R. SYMONDS, M. A.

WADHAM COLLEGE OXFORD.
Head Master of Bishop Corrie's Grammar School.



MADRAS:

PRINTED BY P. R. HUNT, AMERICAN MISSION PRESS,
FOR BISHOP CORRIE'S GRAMMAR SCHOOL.

1843.



nS'/fl '




PREFACE.



THE authorities, which have been chiefly made use of by the
able author of this work, are Hamilton, Murray, Elphinstone
and Burnes: but he has also brought to bear much valuable
research and practical knowledge of his own. The plan was
originally undertaken with a view to furnish Native students
with fuller information respecting their own country than can
be obtained in the books to which they have usually access,
but from want of leisure it remained a long time unfinished.
This the author was eventually induced to resume and to
enlarge, and having been re-written, it was given over to the
editor who made a few trifling additions and alterations, the
better to adapt it to school use, and has now conducted it
through the press. Whatever merit therefore on the one hand
this work possesses, belongs it will be perceived entirely to
the author, while on the other hand the editor fears he must
ask for much indulgence for many errors which have occurred
in the course of printing. These, however, have been remedied
as far as possible by supplying a copious list of corrigenda,
and in a second edition, to which he will immediately apply
himself, every pains will be taken to render the book as com-
plete as possible.

The editor would take this opportunity of earnestly request-
ing all who may make use of this work, particularly those
engaged in education, to furnish him with any hints that may
occur to them for improving the book in any respect what-
ever.

47623



IV. PREFACE.

It may be well to observe, that general utility has been kept
in view in the putting together of this work. To those inter-
ested in India, resident as well here as in England, it will be
found it is hoped a pleasing compendium of information. To
travellers also in India, and especially to young officers and
others who arrive newly in the country, and who generally
stand much in need of something of the kind, it may prove a
convenient hand book. To render it the more useful in this
respect, the travelling distances have been very generally given,
as well as glossaries explanatory of the Hindoostanee and other
words in common use, and of the terminations of names of
places. A copious Index also has been added, so as to make
the book serve in a considerable degree the purpose of a
gazetteer. It has been, however, above all with a view to
supply a desideratum so long felt, of a suitable school book
on India, that the present work has been brought out, and
most earnestly does the editor trust it will contribute to an
increasing study, as well as to an increased knowledge of the
Geography and History of India, about which there is so
general and lamentable an ignorance. To further this object,
a Map of India has been published of moderate size and price
to accompany the book. For the original design and drawing
of this map the editor is indebted to his friend the Rev. G.
W. MAHON, Chaplain of Fort St. George, to whom he would
take this opportunity of offering his best thanks, both in his
own name, and in that of the Committee of Bishop Corrie's
Grammar School, to whom the copyright of the Map has
been presented by him, as indeed has also the copyright of
the book by the author for the benefit of the school.

The editor has only to observe in conclusion that in the
arrangement of Provinces, Towns, &c- the principle has been
followed throughout, as far as practicable, of entering them in
order from west to east, commencing at the north of each
country or province.

BLACK TOWN, MADRAS, 1
August 15, 1843. J



CONTENTS.



CHAP.

I. Explanations.
IT. The World.
III. -Asia.

IV. Hindoostan or India.
V. Northern Hindoostan.
VI. Hindoostan Proper.
VII.Dekkan.
VIII. Southern India.
IX. Islands connected with

India.

X. Beloochistan.
XI. Afghanistan.
XII. Tartaiy.
XIII. Chinese Tartary.
XIV. Tibet.
XV.-China.



CHAP.

XVI Japan.

XVII. Bootan.

XVIII. -Assam.

XIX Arracan.

XX. Ava, including the Shan

Country.

XXI Cochin China.
XXII. Siam.
XXIII. Malaya.
XXIV. Eastern Islands.
Glossary of English words.
Glossary of Hindoostanee and

other words in common use.
Glossary of Terminations of

Names of Places.
Index.



CORRIGENDA.



Teachers and others are requested to make the necessary cor-
rections with the pen.



Page Line For


Read




20


22 each


Ooch




29


14 Kootbood


Kootb-ood




42


2 Mahrattee


Mahratee, and so wherever it Of curs.


47


18 Sirmorees


Sirmooreea




51


22 Sikhim


Sikkim




52


24 cardamuma


cardamoms




57


27 Utok


Utuk




58


18 Akbar


Akber




58


24 Juhun


Julian




59


9 Sikhs, Singhs


Sikhs or Singhs,




61


39 accidently


accidentally




63


1 work


word




65


13 beseiged


besieged




66


11 AHgurh


omit this Division.




er


14 Aligurh


omit.




68


8 Jumna


Jurrvma




68


35 Patan


Parthan, and so throughout.




69


omit Aligurh, which transfer to page 90,


73


6 Mainkoor


between Agra and Cowl.
Manikpoor




77


18 Tata


Tatta




77


30 150,000


15,000




87


24 Boonde


Boondee




89


14 Anoopshuhr, Cowl


Anoopshuhr, Aligurh, Cowl


>


91


8 7,000


70,000




92 3 &


21 seige


siege




93


26 1700. When


1700, when




95


3 Sind


Indus




100


5 Kattwar


Kattiwar




100


24 Kattwad


Kattivad




105


29 Johrejas


Jahrejas




108


21 party,


omit the comma.




112


12 Leronje


Seronje




117


21 Kasee rao


Kasee rao,




119


20 Tunsa


Tonsa




120


24 iron-diamonds


iron. Diamonds




122


29 Kusee


Kasee




124


33 KaiToje


Kanoje




128


13 Gunduh


Gunduk




128


21 Shajaood


Shuja-ood




128


22 Alikhan


Ali Khan




130


9 them


the latter




130


27 subdued. Several


subdued, several




132


9 aujiya


anjiya




135


3 Serajood


Suraj-ood




136


7 beseiged


besieged




136


8 Surajood


Suraj-ood




137


10 Bunya


Bunga




137


14 Bungalee


Bungalu




138


6 individual


individuals




338
140


32 Tipera
13 Akbar


Tippera
Akber




140


18 Jafteer


Jaifer




140


18 1576


1756




140


19 Surajood


Suraj-ood




142


31 Bijeeu


Bijnee





CORRIGENDA.



Vlll.



Page


Line For


Read


146


27 Cassey


Cassay


147


36 Doodputtee


Doodputlee, and so throughout.


148


28 Murjeet


Marjeet


154


9 savages


ravages


3f>:


29 Chuuteesgur


Chouteesgur


357


7 Byrgur


Byragur


36S


3 5 Balishwar


Balishwur


168


1 The town, &c.


omit this sentence.


168


29 Ooreas


Ooreeas


169


31 Khoonds


Khonds


170


3 Mukhum


Mukhun


370


34 Subadar


Soobadar


170


30 Zumeendaries


Zumeendarees


371


a 3 Aurungabad ; Bheer,


Aurungabad and Bheer


174


7 Kanneri


Kenneri


375


31 Shah-ginj


Shah-gunj


377
379


2 Bhamanee
24 Mahrattee. Goojrattee,


Bahmenee, and so throughout.
Mahratee. Goojratee


383


18 Kuramum-nait


Kummum-mait


389


18 Ooppoo-Ellore


Ooppoo-Elloor


192


18 district


districts


392


35 latter part


middle


394


20 Severudroog


Severndroog


395


31 Severudroog


Severndroog


397


34 island


islands


203


30 Jessave


Dessaye


201


34 Mahratta


Mahrattas


202


Balaghat,CededDistricts.


Balaghat Ceded Districts.


203




The heading of pages 203 and 205






should be Ceded Districts.


205


13 Karnatuk


Kurnatuk


205


34 Karnata


Kurnatu


218




Name to be inserted in margin.


225


29 3936


1(539


228


9 raja Sahib


Raja Sahib


229


7 Sadrungaputtanum


Sadrungaputtunmn


229


36 Nuli,


Buli,


230


3 the most splendid settle-


one of the most splendid settlement*




ment




232


25 Wynaad, Palghat


Wynaad and Palghat


233


35 bebee


beebee, and so throughout.


238


33 Beer and Veer


Beer or Veer


241


1 2 exceeding


amounting to


242


3 Trichinopoly


Trichinopoly,


249


29 Ekhojee


Ekkojee


254


34 Koochee


Kochee


262


2 chalk


chank


265


32 Kevetta


kwetta


268


21 climate


climates


274
274


5 porportion
27 Yahoodee


proportion
Yunoodee


279


27 Eyool


Eyoob


283


2 Khoosh


Koosh


283


3 Koondoor


Koondooz


283 5


& 8 Merue


Merve


286


Kohan


Kokan


293


Khoondooz


Koondooz, and so throughout.


298


8 Kalmuck


Kalmuk, and so throughoiit.


301


23 Lakdack


Lahdack


30.9


12 Peehelee


Peehelee


324


30 Debor


Debor


336


3 Keenduem


Kienduem


338


28 Merqui


Mergui, and so throughout.


353


20 these


the


357


8 moved


moored


359


30 which overflowed


which is OTerflowedi


363


26 Jahore


Johore



CHAP. I.

1-
Explanations.



GEOGRAPHY (from the Greek yij ge, earth, and
ypa<pc* graphs^ to write) is the description of the
earth which we inhabit.

In its fullest range it comprehends a descrip-
tion of the surface of the earth, its figure or shape,
formation, and extent, its divisions, natural and
artificial, its productions, animal, vegetable, and
mineral, together with a notice of its inhabi-
tants, as to their number, constitution, history,
politics, religion, manners, and customs. It also
treats of the earth as part of the solar system, and
explains the use of globes, charts and maps, &c.

The earth is also called the World, and the
Globe, both which words signify a round body ;
and the earth is so called because it is round like
an orange.

The earth is composed of two things, namely,
land and water. About one-third of the globe
is land, and all the rest is water. The land is
divided into various parts. The principal are
called continents, islands, peninsulas, isthmuses,
and promontories, or capes.

The name of Continent (from the Latin conti-
B



EXPLANATIONS,

neo, to hold together) is given to those large
portions of land which are not interrupted by sea.

There are two great continents viz. the Old
Continent, also called the Old World, because the
only one known to the ancients, comprising Eu-
rope, Asia and Africa ; and the New Continent, or
New World, consisting of America, which was
not known to Europeans until A. D. 1492 ; when
it was discovered by Columbus.

Europe, Asia, Africa, and America, are also
separately spoken of as continents.

An Island, or isle, is a portion of land smaller
than a continent, entirely surrounded by water,
as Ceylon, the Isle of France, Java, Britain.

A Peninsula (from the Latin pene, almost, and
insula, an island) is a portion of land almost but
not quite surrounded by water, as Malaya, Mo-
rea, Corea.

An Isthmus is a narrow neck of land by which
two other portions of land are joined together, as
the Isthmus of Suez, which joins Asia and Africa,
the Isthmus of Panama which joins North Ame-
rica to South America, and the Isthmus of Kraw
joining Malaya to the continent of Asia.

A Promontory (from the Latin pro, in front of,
and mons, a mountain) is strictly a tract of high
land stretching out into the sea, and its extremity
next the sea is called properly a cape (from the
Latin caput^ a head) or headland. This distinc-
tion, however, is not always observed, and these
names therefore are often used indifferently.
Thus the southern end of India is called a cape,
namely, Cape Comorin. The southern end of
Africa is called a cape, namely the Cape of Good
Hope, with many others.

The Water is divided into the following princi-



EXPLANATIONS. 3

pal parts, oceans, seas, gulfs, bays, straits, rivers,
and lakes.

An Ocean is the largest portion of water.

There are three great oceans, namely, the Pacific
Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Indian Ocean.

The Pacific Ocean (from the Latin pacificus,
peaceful) is so called because the Europeans who
first sailed there thought it was more quiet and
safe than the other oceans.

The Atlantic Ocean is so called because it runs
along the coast of Africa, the chief portion of
which was formerly known as the country of
Atlas. The Atlantic Ocean is also called the
Western Ocean.

The Indian Ocean is so named from India.

A Sea is a portion of water smaller than an
ocean, and more enclosed by land, as the Mediter-
ranean Sea, between Europe and Africa, the Red
Sea, between Arabia and Africa, and the Black
Sea, between Europe and Asia.

A Gulf is a portion of the sea, running up into
the land and almost surrounded by it, as the
Persian Gulf between Persia and Arabia, the Gulf
of Siam, the Gulf of Mexico in America.

A Bay is like a gulf, but when the mouth is
small, the name of gulf is generally used, and
when the mouth is broad and large, and the sea
does not run far into the land, the name of bay
is applied. Thus, the sea between India and
Ava is called the Bay of Bengal. When it is
very small it is called by different names such as
creek or cove, and when it affords shelter for
shipping, a harbour or haven.

A Strait^ or Channel, is a narrow passage of
water joining two other portions of water to-
gether, as the Straits of Ormus which join the
Persian Gulf to the Arabian Sea, the Straits of



4 EXPLANATIONS.

Babelmandel which join the Red Sea to the Ara-
bian Sea, the Straits of Gibraltar which join the
Mediterranean Sea to the Atlantic Ocean, the
Straits of Ramisserarn between India and Ceylon,
and the Dardanelles which connect the Grecian
Archipelago with the Sea of Marmora.

A River is a stream of water which begins at
some place in the land, and runs into the sea or
into some other river or lake, as the Ganges
which begins or rises near the Himalaya moun-
tains, and runs into the Bay of Bengal, after a
course of 1500 miles.

Sometimes a river, before falling into the sea,
spreads out into several channels, forming a trian-
gle. The land enclosed by these is often called
the delta of the river from its resembling the
form of the Greek letter A so named.

Thus the land enclosed by the several mouths
of the Nile in Egypt, is called the Delta of the
Nile. Thus too, the Ganges spreads out into
various channels beginning at about 200 miles
from the sea, and the space lying between the
eastern and western branches is called the Delta
of the Ganges.

A Lake is a large portion of water entirely sur-
rounded by land, as the Chilka lake near Jugga-
nath the Pulicat lake, near Madras.

Thus it will be seen that oceans in the water
correspond or are analogous to continents in the
land, seas and gulfs to peninsulas, straits to isth-
muses, lakes to islands, and bays and creeks to
promontories.

There are various other names given to differ-
ent parts of land and water, an explanation of
which may be found in the Glossary.

2.
The earth is, in its shape, spherical, (from the



EXPLANATIONS. 5

Greek trfaipa sphaira, a globe) i. e. round like an
orange, being slightly flattened at the top and
bottom. The top or upper end is called the
North Pole the bottom or lower end, is called
the South Pole.

The circumference of the earth, that is, its mea-
surement round the middle, is about 24,856 Eng-
lish miles. Its diameter, that is, its measurement
through from pole to pole, is about 7,917 miles.

In order to distinguish one part of the earth
from another, so as to know about what particu-
lar part of it we are speaking, we suppose a num-
ber of lines to be drawn on the face of the globe.

The first of them is drawn round the middle of
the globe and divides it into two equal parts, and
is therefore called the equator.

It is also known by the name of the equinoctial
line, (from the Latin equa, equal, and nox, night)
because when the sun arrives directly over it
there is equal day and night of twelve hours each
over the whole earth. It is often called, shortly,
the line.

The two equal parts into which the equator
divides the earth, are called the northern and
southern hemispheres.

Hemisphere (from the Greek t?/i< hemi, half, and
<r(f)aipa sphaira, sphere, or globe) means half
sphere, or globe.

The distance of any place from the equator
towards either pole is called its latitude.

From the equator to the north pole is north
latitude. From the equator to the south pole is
south latitude.

The supposed lines drawn on the face of the
globe are also called circles. Each circle is di-
vided into 360 parts, named degrees a half
circle is therefore 180, and a quarter circle 90
degrees.

B*



6 EXPLANATIONS.

Every degree is also divided into 60 parts,
called miles or minutes.

The degree is marked thus and the mile or
minute thus ' so that 54 31' will signify 54 de-
grees and 31 minutes.

From the equator to the pole is a quarter of a
circle, or ninety degrees.

Latitude is measured from any part of the
equator all round to either of the poles, and there-
fore there are ninety degrees of north latitude
and ninety of south latitude.

Places on the equator are not considered as
having latitude ; but are described as on the line,
as Siak in Sumatra.

The next great division is a line drawn round
the globe through the poles, which divides the
globe into two parts, called the eastern and wes-
tern hemispheres.

This line is called a meridian -(from the Latin
medius, mid, and dies, day) because when the sun
comes to the meridian of any place, not within
the polar circles, it is mid-day or noon at that
place.

In general each country chooses its own me-
ridian to count from thus, the English draw a
line through the poles, passing through their ob-
servatory at Greenwich, close to London, and call
that line the first meridian,

The distance of any place to either side of this
meridian is called its longitude.

As this meridian goes round the earth through
the poles, it cuts the equator into two half circles.
Each half circle has 180 degrees. Counting from
the first meridian at Greenwich round the globe
to the eastward, until we reach the same meri-
dian on the opposite side, we reckon 180, and
so far we count east longitude. Then, counting
from the first meridian round the globe to the
westward, until we reach the same meridian on



EXPLANATIONS. 7

the opposite side, we reckon again 180, and so
far we count west longitude.

Now it must be remembered,

1st. That the distance of any place north or
south of the equator is called its latitude, and is
counted as far as 90, which will bring us to the
poles.

2d. That the distance of any place east or
west from the first meridian is called its longi-
tude, and is counted as far as 180, which will
bring us to the first meridian again, on the oppo-
site side, where east and west longitude meet.

3d. As the equator is the line from which we
begin to count latitude, therefore, a place situated
on any part of the equator has no latitude.

4th. As the English meridian, commonly called
the Meridian of Greenwich is the meridian from
which we begin to count longitude, therefore, a
place situated on any part of that meridian has
no longitude.

Now, when a place is said to be in 15 42'
north latitude, 80 30' east longitude, we mean
that its distance north of the equator is 15 de-
grees and 42 minutes, and that its distance to
the east of the English meridian is 80 degrees
and 30 minutes, which two measurements show
us the exact situation of the place on the globe.

3.

In order to teach correct notions respecting the
earth, various representations of it have been con-
structed, which are called globes, and maps, or
charts.

A globe is a round ball representing the earth
according to its real shape as a sphere.

A map or chart is a representation of it upon



8 EXPLANATIONS.

i

a plane. It is a sort of picture of the surface of
the earth or of a part of it.

Upon these are drawn the various lines before
mentioned. Those drawn from pole to pole, or in
a map from the top of it to the bottom, mark the
longitude. The circles drawn above and below
the equator, or in a map the lines drawn from
side to side, mark the latitude, and are called
parallels of latitude because they are circles or
lines parallel to the equator from which latitude
is measured.

On a globe, or a round map, the figures for the
longitude are marked on the equator, in a square
map, at the top and bottom. The figures for
latitude are marked, for a globe, upon the brazen
meridian in which it is suspended, in a round
map, upon the outer circle, in a square map,
upon the sides.

In looking at a map, if the figures for longitude
count to the right then the longitude is east, if
they count to the left the longitude is west. If
the figures for latitude count towards the top the
latitude is north, if towards the bottom, south.

Sometimes maps are marked to show which is
the north, but when there is no such mark, then
the top of the map is the north.

These four, north, south, east, and west, are
the chief points of the compass. They are also
called the cardinal points.

The word compass means circle, namely that
circle which is made round any person by the
horizon.

The horizon (from the Greek optfa horixo, to
bound or limit) is that part where the view is
bounded or limited to the eye, and where the sky
seems to any person to join the earth all around
him.

If a person stand with the rising sun in a line
with his right arm, the north is straight in front of



EXPLANATIONS. 9

him, the south straight behind him the right hand
side, where the sun rises, the east, and the left
hand side, where the sun sets, the west.

These four cardinal points divide the circle into
four parts or quarters, each quarter is divided
into eight points in all, thirty-two points in the
compass or circle.

The middle point between north and east is
north east, between east and south, south east,
between south and west, south west, and between
west and north, north west.

There are four remarkable parallels of latitude.

1. The tropic of cancer.

2. The tropic of Capricorn.

3. The arctic circle.

4. The antarctic circle.

The tropics are 234 degrees from the equator,
the tropic of cancer on the north side of it, and
the tropic of Capricorn on the south.

The arctic and antarctic circles are 23<| degrees
from their respective poles. The former from the
north, the latter from the south pole. They are
also called the polar circles.

These four circles divide the globe into five
parts called zones, or belts ; which, in reference to
their respective degrees of heat or cold, are thus
named: One, torrid, i. e. hot, from the Latin torri-
dus two, temperate, i. e. moderate heat or cold,
and two, frigid, i. e. cold (from the Latin frigi-
dns.} The torrid zone is between the two tropics
and is therefore 47 in extent, the frigid zones
are between the polar circles and the poles, and
are each consequently 23^ in extent, the tem-
perate zones are between the torrid and the
frigid zones, and are 43 in extent.

These different degrees of heat and cold, as
also the changes of the seasons, and the succes-
sion of day and night, are the consequence of the
eartlv's relation to the sun. In the course of 365



10 THE WORLD.

days the earth performs a revolution round the
sun, during which at one part of its course, the
north pole, and at another, the south pole, is
turned towards the sun, and this produces spring,
summer, autumn, and winter. Situated as the
earth is in respect to the sun, the rays of the sun
must always fall more directly or vertically upon
the equator and the parts on each side of it, and
so cause greater heat in those parts than in
others. Hence the reason of the hot climate of
India. The course of the earth round the sun
is shown on the globe by the ecliptic circle. In
the course of 24 hours^also the earth performs
a revolution of its own, on its own axis^ as it is
called. Thus each side becomes in turn exposed
to the sun, and withdrawn from it, and this
causes day and night but for a full explanation
of these things, a book on Ast^Aomy must be
studied.



CHAP. II.

The World.

Divisions. THE world used generally to be di-
vided into four principal parts, called,
but not properly, quarters namely, Eu-
rope, Asia, Africa, and America. To
these, however, must be added two
other important divisions, viz. Australia,



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