Charles Alfred Browne.

An introduction to the geography and history of India, and the countries adjacent; online

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or the continent of the south, (from the
Latin Australis, southern) consisting of
New Holland and the adjacent islands,
and Polynesia, or the Many Isles, (from
the Greek TTOAA?? polle, many, and


island) consisting of those numer-
ous groups of islands in the Pacific

It is also to be observed that there
are in the Polar Seas several large
islands not included in any of the above

Population. The total number of inhabitants on
the whole earth is estimated to be about
eight hundred millions. Of these there
are in Asia, including Australia and Po-
lynesia, about six hundred millions. In
Africa about thirty millions, America,
thirty millions, and in Europe, one hun-
dred and forty millions.


Religion. Ther^ arett|j||k principal divisions of
the inhabitanfl|B ? the World as to reli-
gion, one consisting of those who pos-
sess a Revelation from God in His word,
the other of those who have none. The
first division is composed of Christians
and Jews. The second of all others.
There are supposed to be about two
hundred millions of Christians, three
millions of Jews, sixty millions of Ma-
homedans, and the remainder different
divisions of Heathens.

Varieties Originally the whole human race

of the . i i A j

human sprung from a single pair, namely, Adam
race, and Eve and after the destruction of
the world by the flood, A. M. 1656,
the earth was repeopled from only
three pairs, namely, the three sons of
Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japh.eth, and
their wives. Among the inhabitants of
our world, however, though thus de-


Varieties gcended from the same source, there
human exists an almost infinite variety, as to
jrace. colour, size, shape ; in short as to their
mental, moral, and physical construction
generally. These varieties have been in-
vestigated by many scientific men in
order to ascertain their nature and cause,
and the most eminent of them have come
practically to the same conclusion, name-
ly, that all the varieties of the human
race may be reduced to three primary
divisions the Caucasian, Mongolian, and
Ethiopian. Each of these indeed admits
of several subdivisions, but still every
one of the numerous differences in the
great family of man may be classed un-
der one or other of the above named
three branches of the human race.

The Caucasian race, whose original
seat is supposed to have been, as the
name implies, that lofty chain of moun-
tains between the Black and Caspian
Seas, is distinguished by a fair skin, red
cheeks, copious, soft, flowing hair, ge-
nerally curled or waving ample beard
small, oval, and straight face, with the
features very distinct, expanded forehead
large and elevated cranium narrow
nose and small mouth. These are the
prominent characteristics of the race, but
in proportion as its various branches,
which diverge in every direction from
the Caucasian Alps, recede from their
original seat, so do their peculiarities
become modified, altered, and finally
lost. In mental and moral qualifica-
tions this race stands first, and from
it have sprung the most civilized and
powerful nations of both ancient and


Varieties modern times, as for instance, the Greeks
human ar) d Romans in the former period, the
race. English and French in the latter.

To this variety four branches may be
assigned. 1st, The Pelasgic, extending
over the greater part of Europe and
Western Asia. 2nd, The Syrian, whicli
takes a southerly direction and includes
that portion of Asia formerly inhabited
by the Assyrians, Chaldeans, and an-
cient Egyptians. 3rd, The Indian, which
passes to the east and loses itself among
the Natives of Hindoostan. 4th, The
Scythian or Tartaric, spreading over
the more northern parts of Asia. The
Caucasian race becomes mingled with
the Mongolian in the inhabitants of
Finland, Lapland, and the central parts
of Tartary.

The Mongolian variety has these cha-
racteristics : Skin of an olive yellow
hair thin, coarse, and straight little or
no beard broad flattened face with the
features running together small and
low forehead square shaped cranium
wide and small nose very oblique eyes
and thick lips. In moral and intel-
lectual energies, as well as in stature,
this race is inferior to the Caucasian.
Its origin appears to have been in the
mountains of Altai, whence it has spread
over the whole of central and northern
Asia, losing itself among the Esquimaux
on the one hand, and the Caucasian
Tartars on the other. It further ex-
tends to the Eastern Ocean and in-
cludes the Japanese, the Coreans, and
a large proportion of the Siberians. Its
limits to the south do not appear to


V ^f u ies exten( i below Northern Hindoostan, the
human northern parts of Bengal, Bootan, and

race. Assam.

The third leading variety of the hu-
man race is the Ethiopian or Negro :
Skin black hair short, black, and wool-
ly skull compressed on the sides and
elongated towards the front forehead
low, narrow, and slanting cheek bones
very prominent -jaws projecting, so as
to render the upper front teeth oblique
eyes prominent nose broad and flat
lips, especially the upper one, particu-
larly thick. In point of intellect and
moral feelings, the African or Ethiopian
race is the lowest in the scale of man-
kind. Different branches of it spread
over the whole of the African conti-
nent, excepting those parts bordering
the north and east of the great de-
sert occupied by the Caucasian Syrians.

Under this head may be included two
other variations, which though their dif-
ferences are not so decidedly marked, as
in the three just described, have yet suf-
ficient peculiarities to deserve distinct
description, and are reckoned by some
as primary divisions. These are the
American and Malay. In the Ameri-
can variety, the skin is dark and more
or less red hair black, straight, and
strong, with the beard smalk face and
skull very similar to the Mongolian, but
the former not so flattened eyes sunk,
forehead low, nose and other features
somewhat projecting. In moral and in-
tellectual character, far inferior to the
Caucasian and Mongolian, though su-
perior to the African, This race, as its


Varieties name imports, extends over the whole of
human the New World, blending with the Mon-
ra^- golian at the north, the Esquimaux and
other Polar races appearing to unite in
themselves the characteristics of both
the Mongolian and American varieties.
The Malay varies in the colour of the
skin from a light tawny to a deep brown,
approaching to black hair black, more
or less curled, and abundant head ra-
ther narrow bones of the face large and
prominent nose full and broad towards
the tip. Under this variety are included
races of men very different in organiza-
tion and qualities, but still presenting
such general points of resemblance as
to forbid their being classed under any
of the former varieties. In point of
extent this variety includes the inhabi-
tants of Malaya, Sumatra, and of the
numerous islands in the Indian Archi-
pelago and Pacific Ocean.

Causes Q n the causes of these varieties much
varieties. nas been written, but no adequate cause
has been discovered. By some they
have been attributed to' the effect of
difference of climate, locality, food, man-
ner of life, and disease. But these upon
examination are found to be wholly in-
sufficient to produce such variations as
those just described. Climate for in-
stance will not account for the differ-
ence of colour, since those living in the
same latitude yet vary in colour. These
causes, combined with intermarriages be-
tween different races, undoubtedly ope-
rate in a considerable degree in produc-
ing modifications of the great primary


Causes varieties, and hence the numberless va-
riations of a stronger or slighter kind
existing in the earth. For instance in
India. Here we find the Caucasian
form, but, owing to climate and mode of
life, with less muscular development and
vigour, and presenting a colour approach-
ing the Ethiopian. Allowing however
the utmost influence to the above named
causes, it still leaves the reason of the
difference between the three primary
divisions unaccounted for ; nor do we
believe it can be accounted for upon
any secondary causes, and therefore, the
most satisfactory as well as the most
philosophical way is to resolve it simply
into the will of God. It was the will of
God that made the three sons of Noah
to be the progenitors of the whole race
of man, and by His immediate act one
hundred years after, their descendants
were caused to separate and disperse,
and to speak a diversity of tongues. Is
it therefore any thing unreasonable to
suppose, in the absence of all secondary
causes, that it was by God's immediate
will that an entire diversity of races was
caused to proceed from those three pro-
genitors, knowing too, as we do, that
there is no one feature more strongly im-
pressed upon the whole of God's creatioiii
than that of variety.

ASIA. 17


Kxtent. ASIA extends eastward from the twen-
ty-fifth degree of east longitude to the
hundred and seventieth degree of west
longitude and from the seventy-eighth
degree of north to the tenth degree of
south latitude.

It is about 6000 miles in breadth
from the Dardanelles on the west to the
eastern coast of Tartary and about
5500 miles in length from the most north-
ern Cape of Asiatic Russia to the most
southern part of Malaya.

Bound- It is bounded on the north by the

Arctic or Frozen Ocean north-east by
Bherring^s Straits, east by the Pacific,
south by the Indian Ocean west by the
Indian Ocean, Red Sea, Mediterranean ,
Black Sea, and Russia in Europe.

The principal countries of Asia are
Tartary, which includes Asiatic Russia,
Chinese Tartary, Tartary, and Tibet :
Turkey in Asia, Persia. China, Arabia,
Hindoostan, or India, Burma, or Ava,
Si am, Cochin China, Malaya, and some

The people of Asia are called by the
general name of Asiatics. All religions
exist among them, the Heathens being
the most numerous.



Mindoostan or India.

Extent, HINDOOSTAN is situated in the southern
part of Asia, and lies between the eighth
and thirty-fifth degrees of north lati-
tude, and the sixty-eighth and ninety-
second degrees of east longitude. The
extreme length from north to south is
about 1,900 miles, and from east to west
about 1,500.

Bounda- Jt i s bounded on the north by the Him-
alaya Mountains, on the east by Assam,
Arracan, and the Bay of Bengal, south
by the Indian Ocean, and west by the
Arabian Sea and the river Indus, separat-
ing it from Beloochistan and Afghanistan.

Hindoostan is divided into four large
portions, called, Northern Hindoostan,
Hindoostan Proper, the Dekkan, and
Southern India.

the country which lies along the south side
of the Himalaya Mountains. Its chief
divisions' are 1. Cashmeer, 2. Sirmoor, 3.
Gurwal, or Sreenuggur, 4. Kumaoon, 5.

Northern Hindoostan and the river Nur-
budda, by which it is bounded on the
south. It is divided into the provinces
of I. Lahore, or the Punjaub, 2. Mooltan,
Sv Delhi. 4. Oude, 5. Sind, 6. Ajmeer, or
Rajpootana, 7. Agra, 8, Kuch, 9. Guze-


Divisions, rat, 10. Malwa, 11. Allahabad, 12. Bahar,
13. Bengal.

THE DEKKAN is bounded on the north
by the Nurbudda, and a line, drawn from
the source of that river, eastward to
the mouth of the Hoogly on the south
it is bounded by the rivers Kistna and

It is divided into the provinces of

1. Khandesh, 2. Gondwana, 3. Berar, 4.
Orissa, 5. Aurungabad, 6. Beder. 7. Hy-
derabad, 8. the Northern Circars, and 9.

SOUTHERN INDIA, the last division of
Hindoostan, includes all the country to
the south of the rivers Kistna and Mal-
purba, and ends at Cape Comorin.

Its chief provinces are the 1. Dooab,

2. Ceded Districts, 3. Northern Carnatic,
4. Kanara, 5. Mysore, 6. Baramahal, 7.
Salem, 8. Central Carnatic, 9. Malabar,
10. Koorg, 11. Coimbatoor, 12. Southern
Carnatic, 13. Travancore.

" The Sea Coast on the west, from
Bombay to Cape Comorin is usually
called by Europeans the Malabar Coast,
from the province of that name which
was the first visited by European Navi-
gators ; and the coast on the eastern side,
from the mouth of the river Kistna to
Cape Comorin, the coast of Coromandel,
from the ancient Hindoo kingdom of
Tanjore, formerly called the Chola de-
sum, that is the Chola country, or Chola
tnundul, the Chola sphere or circuit.

Rivers. There are many large rivers in Hin-
doostan, the principal of which are the
following :


Rivers. 1. The INDUS, called by the Natives,
the Sind, and by Mahomedan writers,
the Hind. It has not yet been ascer-
tained with certainty where this river

It enters Hindoostan through the
mountains of Cashmeer, passes along the
western side of Lahore, and running to
the south through Mooltan and Sind
falls into the Arabian Sea. It is said
to be navigable for vessels of 200 tons as
far as Lahore. Including its windings
the course of this river is supposed to be
not less than 1,700 miles in length.

2. The SUTLUJ, called by the Greek
writers, the Hyphasis. This river issues
from two lakes on the north side of the
Himalaya mountains in about lat. 31
46' N. and long. 80 43' E., passes along
the eastern side of Lahore and through
Mooltan, and falls into the Chenab, a
short distance to the northward of each,
after a course of between four and five
hundred miles.

3. The JUMNA. This river rises in
the Himalaya mountains, to the west of
the Ganges and not far from it.

It flows through the province of Sree-
nuggur, and enters Hindoostan Proper
in the province of Delhi. It proceeds
southward through Delhi and Agra, and
falls into the Ganges at Allahabad.
From its source to its joining the Ganges,
the length of its course is about 700

4. The GANGES. This river rises
on the south side of the Himalaya
mountains. It is first seen in about
lat. 31 N. and long. 79 E. where it


Rivers, issues from under a very low arch, at
the bottom of a great mass of solid
frozen snow, about 300 feet high. Its
breadth at this place is about 30 feet,
and the depth about one foot. It enters
Hindoostan Proper near Hurdwar in the
province of Delhi, about 120 miles dis-
tant from the city of Delhi. It passes
through the provinces of Delhi, Agra,
Oude, Allahabad, Bahar, and Bengal,
and falls into the Bay of Bengal. About
200 miles from the sea, taking a straight
line, or 300 miles taking the windings of
the river, the Ganges sends out a num-
ber of branches. The two western-most
branches, called the Kasimbazar and Ju-
lingy rivers, join together at Nuddea, 60
miles from Calcutta, and form the river

Near the sea, the number of branches
increases, occupying from the Hoogly to
the eastern mouth of the Ganges a space
of about 200 miles in breadth, forming a
great many islands, called Sundurbunds.
The whole course of this river, following
its windings, is about 1,500 miles.

5. The BRAHMAPOOTRA. This is the
largest river in India. It rises on the
north side of the Himalaya mountains,
about lat. 32 N. and long. 82 E.
It runs eastward through the coun-
try of Tibet, arid after winding for
a great distance through the moun-
tains which divide Tibet from Assam,
turns to the westward into Assam,
and enters the province of Bengal near
Rungamutty. It then passes round the
western point of the G arrow mountains,
after which it turns to the south and


Rivers, joins the river Megna in the district
of Dacca. It then takes the name of
Megna, and uniting with the Ganges
near the sea, flows with it into the Bay
of Bengal. The whole course of this
river, following its windings, is about
1,600 miles.

In 1822, this river overflowed its
banks in the district of Bakurgunj, and
deluged the surrounding country. About
37,000 men and women were destroyed
by the flood.

6. The NUIIBUDDA. This river rises
in the province of Gondwana, in about
lat. 23 N. and long. 82 E. It runs
westward, through the provinces of Gond-
wana, Malwa, Khandesh and Guzerat,
and falls into the sea below Baroach.
Including its windings, its course is about
750 miles.

7. The TcnpTEE. This river rises near
the village of Batool in the northern
mountains of Berar. It runs westward,
through the provinces of Khandesh and
Guzerat, and falls into the sea, below
Surat, after a course of about 750 miles.

8. The MUHANUDDEE. This river
rises in the province of Gondwana, it is
supposed near Kyragur. It runs east-
ward, in a very winding course, of 550
miles through Gondwana and Orissa, and
falls into the Bay of Bengal, in the dis-
trict -of Kuttack. Diamonds of good
quality are found in this river.

9. The GOD A VERY. This river has its
source in the Western Mountains about
70 miles to the north east of Bombay.
It runs eastward through the provinces
of Aurungabad and Beder, and turning


Rivera, to the south east fiows between the pro-
vinces of Orissa and Hyderabad, which
it separates, and through the northern
Circars into the Bay of Bengal. Its
whole course is about 850 miles.

10. The KISTNA. This river has its
source near the Western Mountains not
far from Sutara, in the province of Be-
japoor, and about 50 miles from the
western coast of India. It flows south-
easterly as far as Merrich, where it turns
eastward, forms the southern boundary
of Beder and Hyderabad, and flows
through the northern Circars, by the
district of Kondapilly, into the Bay of
Bengal. Its whole course is about 700

11. The TOOMBUDRA. This river is
formed by the junction of two other
rivers, named the Toonga and the Budra.

The Toonga rises in the Western
Mountains a little to the south of Bed-

The Budra rises in a chain of hills,
called the Baba Boodun Hills, situated
to the eastward of the Western Moun-
tains, nearly opposite to Mangalore.

The two rivers join at Koorlee, near
Hoolee Oonnoor in the province of My-
sore, and form one river, called the
Toombudra. J?rom this, the Toombu-
dra winds to the north, and north east,
and falls into the Kistna, a little beyond

12. The PENNAR. This river rises in
the Hills near Nuridydroog in the pro-
vince of Mysore. It runs northward
until near Gooty, in the Ceded Districts,
when it runs to the eastward and flows


Rivers, between Northern and Central Carnatic
into the Bay of Bengal, near Nellore.

13. The PALAR. This river also rises
in the hills near Nundydroog, not far
from the Pennar. It flows southerly
through Mysore and Central Carriatic
into the Bay of Bengal, which it reaches
near Sadras.

14. The C A VERY. This river rises in
the western hills of Koorg, near the pro-
vince of Malabar, and runs eastward
through Mysore, Coimbatoor, and South-
ern Carnatic.

At Trichinopoly it divides into two
branches the northern branch is named
the Coleroori, and flows into the Bay of
Bengal at Devicotta.

The southern branch retains the name
of the Cavery, and flows through Tan-
jore by a number of channels into the
Bay of Bengal.

Mountains. The most remarkable mountains in
Hindoostan, are the following.

1. The HIMALAYA. These moun-
tains, which are believed to be the
highest in the world, form the northern
boundary of India, separating it from
Tibet. Their greatest height has not
yet been determined. The highest peak
which has been measured is 27,000

2. The Mountains of Kumaoon be-
tween Kumaoon and Sreenuggur.

3. The SEWALICK mountains, which
separate Delhi from Sreenuggur.

4. The VINDHYA mountains which
extend through Bahar, Allahabad, and
Malwa, along the north side of the


Mountains. Nurbudda, almost as far as the west-
ern coast of Hindoostan.

tern Ghats. These extend from the Tup-
tee to Cape Comorin. The highest part
of the range is about 6,000 feet above
the level of the sea,

tern Ghats, which extend from the Kistna
to near the Cavery. The highest part of
the chain is about 3,000 feet above the sea.

The word ghat signifies a pass or
ford. It is commonly used by the Eng-
lish in speaking of these two ranges of
mountains, though properly meaning only
the passes through them.

7. The NEILGHERRY mountains, form-
ing a connecting range between the East-
ern and Western Mountains, through the
province of Coimbatoor. Their highest
point is estimated at 8,800 feet above the

Produc- There are many large forests in In-
dia. In the Western Mountains the trees
grow to a very great size, particularly
the Teak.

Of the various kinds of trees in In-
dia, the principal are the Teak, Banyan,
Cocoanut, Palmyra, and Bamboo. The
chief fruits are the Plantain, Mangoe,
Lime, and Guava. The principal grain
produced is Rice.

The wild animals of India, are princi-
pally Elephants, Rhinoceroses, Tigers,
Bears, Leopards, Panthers, Lynxes, Hy-
enas, Wolves, Buffaloes, Bisons, Hogs,
various species of Deer, Apes, Monkeys,
Jackals, and Foxes.


Produc- The tame animals are Camels, Horses,
Asses, Oxen, Sheep, Goats, and others.

There are various kinds of birds, of
which the Peacock, Vulture, Crow, and
Kite are the chief.

Reptiles of almost every kind abound
in India. The Cobra and the Alligator
being the most formidable.

The mineral productions of India are
diamonds and other precious stones, gold,
in small quantities in some of the rivers,
iron, and a little copper and lead.

Climate. Situated as India is in point of lati-
tude, and varying in height from the level
of the sea to the summits of the Hima-
laya, it cannot but have very different
degrees of heat and cold. On the gene-
ral level of India, however, and within
the great northern chain the climate is one
of heat, especially for three months at
least in the year, when hot winds pre-
vail. In India the rain falls periodically
at certain seasons called monsoons, and
at those times with such violence as to
exceed in quantity all that falls in Eng-
land during the course of the whole year.
On the Malabar Coast the rain is brought
up from the Indian Ocean by a south-
west wind, which prevails between June
and October. On the Coromandel Coast
the rain is brought from the Bay of Ben-
gal by a north-east wind, during October
and November,

The Natives of India are commonly
divided by Europeans into two classes,
Hindoos and Mahornedans.

Under the former appellation are in


Inhabi- eluded all who are not Mahomedans,
tants - whether followers of the Brahminicai
system, or of the Jain or Booddhist, and
of whatever caste. European writers
also frequently designate the Hindoos of
Southern India by the names of Gentoos
and Malabars, meaning by the former the
Telingas or Teloogoos, and by the latter
the Tamil people. Throughout India,
taking one country with another, it may
be estimated that there are about seven
Hindoos to one Mahomedan.

The total population is believed to be
about one hundred and forty-one millions,
of which about one hundred millions are
subjects of the British Government.

Besides the Hindoos and Mahome-
dans, there are a number of tribes who
inhabit the hills and forests, and who ap-
parently belong to a distinct race. They
are in a very rude state, and are suppos-
ed to be descended from the aborigines
of the country, who were driven into the
mountains and woods by the Hindoos.

They are noticed in connection with
the several provinces in which they are
now principally found.

It is also to be noticed that there is
in India a numerous class consisting of
those who are called East Indians, or
Indo-Britons, descendants of European
and Native parents. Also a large num-
ber of the descendants of the Portuguese,
who are closely intermingled with the

Besides the British there are also many
French, American, Dutch, German, and
Danish residents in India. On the Ma-
labar coast there are many Jews.


History. Of the early history of India little is
known with any certainty, the Hindoos
having no historical record that deserves
the name, and such records as they do
possess are mixed up with so many mon-
strous fables that it is difficult to ascer-

Online LibraryCharles Alfred BrowneAn introduction to the geography and history of India, and the countries adjacent; → online text (page 2 of 26)