miles to the south-eastward of Mooltan,
near the left bank of the Sutluj, here
named the Garra, is a large and flourish-
ing town, and the capital of the Khan of
the district. It has an extensive manufac-
ture of silks, which are in much re-
Ooch is situated at the junction of the
Sutluj and Beya with the Chenab. It
stands in a fertile plain four miles from
the left bank of the river. It is an an-
cient city, much noted during the first
invasions of the Mahomedans. It has
now about 2000 inhabitants.
Name. The name Mooltan is a corruption of
the two words Mali, the name of the
tribe by which the place was originally
inhabited, and than, signifying place, viz.
the place of the Mali.
inhabit- Principally Juts, \vith Beloochies,
Sikhs, and Hindoos. The inhabitants of
Buhawulpoor style themselves Daood-
pootras, or descendants of Daood, from a
celebrated chief of that name.
History. Mooltan was, in early times, the seat of
History. a Hindoo sovereignty, the country of the
Malis being noticed by the Greek histo-
rians. It was one of the first provinces
of India invaded by the Mahomedans,
who entered it as early as the year 644,
and entirely subjugated it by the year
711. In 750, a general insurrection took
place, and the Rajpoot tribes succeeded in
entirely expelling their Mahomedan con-
querors; who do not appear to have re-
gained their footing in the province, until
the time of Mahmood of Ghuznee, who
beseiged and took the capital in 1005, at
which period it was under the govern-
ment of a rebel Afghan chief, whose
grandfather, in return for the cession of
the province, had joined 'the Hindoos in
their confederacy against Subuktageen,
From this time Mooltan continued gene-
rally subject to Mahomedan rulers, until
it became a regular province of the
Mooghul empire. In the disorders which
followed upon the death of Aurungzeb,
Mooltan suffered greatly from the con-
tending parties, and was, for some years
afterwards, in the course of which it was
overrun and ravaged by the Mahrattas,
in a very unsettled state. The Mah-
rattas were driven out about the middle
of the eighteenth century, by Ahmed
Shah Abdallee, and the province con-
tinued tributary to Cabool until 1816,
when it was finally conquered by Runjeet
Singh, and annexed to the kingdom of
the Punjab, with the exception of the
district of Buhawulpoor, which still re-
mains a distinct principality, under a
Mahomedan chief, who is styled the
Khan of Buhawtilpoor.
66 . H1NDOOSTAN PKOPER.
Religion. Principally Mahomedanism.
Language. Generally the dialect spoken in Lahore,
and called the Punjabee.
North, Sirmoor, Gurwal, and Ku-
maoon ; east, Oude, and Agra ; south,
Agra and Ajmeer ; west, Ajmeer and
This province is divided into a num-
ber of districts, of which the principal
are the following : Sirhind, Suharunpoor,
Meerut, Delhi, Aligurh, Rohilkhund.
Jumna, and Ganges, with several
On its northern and western frontiers
this province is hilly, but otherwise it
is generally level and open. In former
times it was fertile and well cultivated,
but having subsequently been for a series
of years exposed to the ravages of numer-
ous armies, the means of irrigation were
destroyed, and large districts became
almost desert from the prevalence of
moving sands blown over the surface by
the winds. During the last twenty years,
however, the attention of the British
Government has been given to the res-
toration of the canals, of which there
were formerly three, much celebrated
in this part of India, viz. Ali Murdan
General Khan's, constructed during the reign of
l tlon! P ' the Emperor Baber, Sooltan Feroz Shah's,
and Zabita Khan's. All Murdan Khan's
canal, running from Kurnal to Delhi, 180
miles in length, was restored in 1820,
after a labour of about three years, and
has produced the most beneficial effects
over a large extent of country.
Produc- Its principal productions are wheat,
bajra and other grains, sugar, and cotton.
Towns. The principal towns are Ferozepoor,
Loodiana, Kurnal, Suharunpoor, Delhi,
Meerut, Mooradabad, Rampoor, Bareilly,
Aligurh, and Shahjuhanpoor.
Ferozepoor and Loodiana are noticed
chiefly on account of their being the
principal stations of the British Terri-
tories on the north-western frontier, both
on the bank of the Sutluj, the former
in lat. 30 55' N. long. 74 35' E. and
the latter in the same latitude, long. 75
Kurnal, situated about 70 miles N.
W. from Delhi, is a large town, and one
of the principal military stations in the
Delhi, the ancient capital of the Ma-
homedan empire in India, is situated on
the bank of the Jumna, in lat. 28 41'
N. long. 77 5' E. Long before the Ma-
homedans invaded India, Delhi appears
to have been a city of considerable im-
portance and the capital of ore of the
most powerful of the Hindoo Sovereigns.
Under its Mahomedan sovereigns it be-
came one of the most splendid cities in
Asia, and in the time of Aurungzeb, had
68 HINDOOSTAN PROPER.
Towns. a population estimated at not less than
two millions. The ruins of numerous
buildings, extending over a space of near-
ly twenty square miles, remain to attest
its former magnificence, and there are
still many beautiful mosques and other
edifices in good preservation, particularly
the Jumna Musjid, built by the Emperor
Shah Julian, and the Mausoleum of Hoo-
mayoon. The Kootb Minar or Minaret
of Kootb, which stands at a few miles
distance from the city, is also a very re-
markable object. This column, which is
two hundred and forty-two feet in height,
was built by Kootb-oodDeen, the founder
of the first Afghan sovereignty of Delhi,
and was intended with another, which
was never completed, for the entrance of
a grand mosque, parts of which may be
seen around. Under the British Govern-
ment, Delhi has again become a thriving
town, and is one of the principal marts
for the interchange of commodities be-
tween India and the countries to the
north and west. Its present population
is believed to^be about 250,000. Travel-
ling distance' from Calcutta, 900 miles,
from Madras 1372.
Fifty miles to the northward of Delhi
stands the town of Paniput, celebrated in
history as the scene of two of the great-
est battles ever fought in India. The
first was in A. D. 1525, between the
army of Sooltan Baber and that of the
Patan Emperor of Delhi, Ibraheem Lodi,
when the latter was totally defeated and
his kingdom overturned. The second
was in A. D. 1761, between the Maho-
medans under Ahmed Shah, the King of
Towns. Cabool, and the Mahrattas. The Mahrat-
tas were routed with dreadful slaughter,
nearly half a million, including women
and children, being killed or made cap-
Meerut is a large and ancient town,
about 40 miles north-east from Delhi,
and one of the principal civil and mili-
tary stations of the British.
Mooradabad stands on the western
bank of the river Ramgunga, in lat. 28
51' N. long. 78 42' E. It is one of the
most populous and flourishing commer-
cial towns in the province.
Rampoor is situated about 20 miles
to the eastward of Mooradabad. It is
the residence of a Rohilla chief, styled
the Nabob of Rampoor, and is celebrated
on account of a severe action which took
place a few miles from it in 1794, between
the Rohillas and the British troops.
Bareilly, a large town, and formerly
the capital of one of the Rohilla chiefs,
is situated in lat. 28 23' N. long. 79 16'
E. Amongst other manufactures it is
noted for brass water-pots, and cabinet
Aliffurh is a strong fortress, situated
about 50 miles to the north of Agra.
In 1803 it was one of Dowlet Rao Scin-
dia's principal strongholds, and was storm-
ed by the British troops under Lord
Lake. The town is called Coel.
Name. The present name of the province has
its origin in that of the ancient Hindoo
city Delhi, or as it is often called by the
Hindoos, Dillee. It is said to be derived
70 HIXDOOSTAN PROPER.
from the name of its founder, Raja
inhabit- Hindoos of various tribes, and a large
proportion of Mahomedans ; of the latter
class, there are considerable numbers in
the district of Rohilkhund, called Rohil-
las or Patans. They are the descen-
dants of Afghans, and retain much of
the Afghan manners and appearance.
History, This province appears to have been
at a very early period the seat of a Hin-
doo kingdom, of considerable extent and
power ; it was invaded by the Mahome-
dans under Sooltan Mahmood in A. D.
1011, when the city of Delhi was taken
and plundered, but it was restored to
the raja as a tributary of Ghuznee, and
it continued under a Hindoo government
until 1193, when it was taken posses-
sion of by Kootb-ood Deen, who estab-
lished the Afghan or Patan sovereignty
of Delhi. The Patan dynasty continued
till 1525, when the King Ibraheem Lodi
was defeated at Paniput by Sooltan Ba-
ber, who the same year captured Delhi,
and founded what has since been desig-
nated the Mooghul empire, or the em-
pire of the Great Mooghul. Under his
successors, particularly the celebrated
Akber, who reigned from 1556 to 1605,
and Aurungzeb from 1658 to 1707, the
Mooghul empire was extended on all
sides until it embraced nearly the whole
From that period, however, it rapidly
declined. A series of weak princes fill-
ed the throne of Delhi, the provinces
History, became independent states under their
several Soobadars or Viceroys, and the
Mahrattas made such progress that in
1735 they burned the suburbs of Delhi
itself. In 1739 the province was invaded
by Nadir Shah, who plundered Delhi, af-
ter a terrible massacre of the inhabitants.
In 1756 the province was again invaded
by Ahmed Shah, the founder of the Doo-
ranee kingdom of Cabool, In 1761, Shah
Alum, the second, the ninth monarch
from Aurungzeb, succeeded to the throne,
and commenced his reign by a very un-
provoked and foolish attack upon the
British in Bengal and Bahar. He was
entirely defeated, and subsequently came
over to the British camp. He remained
for some years under the protection of
the British Government, who settled up-
on him a pension of twenty-six lacks of
rupees, with a considerable tract of fertile
territory; but in 1771 he decided upon
returning to Delhi, where he immediately
fell into the hands of the Mahrattas, who
had shortly before got possession of the
city. In 1788 Delhi was suddenly cap-
tured by a Rohilla leader, named Ghoo-
lam Kadir, who seized the unfortunate
emperor, and after exposing him for
many weeks to every kind of insult and
degradation, at last deprived him of sight
by piercing his eyes with a dagger.
Ghoolam Kadir was shortly after driven
out and killed by the Mahrattas, and
the emperor again became their prisoner.
In 1803, the city was taken by the Bri-
tish troops under Lord Lake, and Shah
Alum was once more placed under their
protection. Delhi became from that pe-
History, riod a province of the British empire, and
though Shah Alum and his family con-
tinued to retain their usual titles, their
authority may be considered as having
terminated, and they have since resided
at Delhi supported by an annual allow-
ance from the British Government.
Religion. Hindooism and Mahomedanism.
Language. Principally Hindoostariee.
North, Nepal ; east, Bahar ; south, Al-
lahabad ; west, Agra and Delhi.
Khyrabad, Baraitch, Luknow, Fyza-
bad, Gorukpoor, Manikpoor.
Ganges, Goomtee, and Gogra, all flow-
ing through the province south-easterly.
The whole surface of this province,
excepting upon the northern and north-
eastern frontiers, is perfectly level, well
watered, and very fertile. It is one of
the smallest provinces of Hindoostan
Proper, but has always been one of the
richest and most populous. Its length,
from west to east, is about 250 miles, by
100, the average breadth from north to
Wheat, barley, peas, rice, and other
grains; sugar, indigo, opium, and to-
Broduo- bacco; saltpetre is abundant, and lapis
lazuli is amongst the mineral produc-
Towns. Khyrabad, Baraitch, Luknow, Roy-
Bareilly, Fyzabad, Tanda, Sooltanpoor,
Luknow, the capital of the province, is
situated on the south side of the Goom-
tee, in lat. 26 51' N. long. 80 50' E.
It is a large and populous town, di-
vided into three distinct quarters. The
first, consisting of the old native city, is
extensive but meanly built and very dir-
ty ; the second, containing the king's
palace and the residences of his court,
is of modern origin, and the houses are
for the most part in a mixed style of
European and Eastern architecture ; the
third consists chiefly of palaces and re-
ligious edifices, erected by the former
Travelling distance from Calcutta 650
miles. On the opposite side of the river,
a few miles distant, is a large English
Fyzabad stands on the south side of
the Gogra, about eight miles to the east-
ward of Luknow. This was formerly
the capital of the province. It is still of
considerable extent, and contains a nu-
merous population, but chiefly of the
lower classes ; the bankers, merchants,
and others of the higher orders having
removed to Luknow.
>;ame. The English name of this province,
Oude, is a corruption of the Hindoo
name Uyodhya, by which it is mention-
74 HINDOOSTAN PROPER.
ed in the earliest records of Indian his-
The inhabitants of this province are,
generally, remarkable as a fine robust
race, of an intelligent and manly charac-
ter ; particularly the Rajpoots, who are
commonly superior in stature and ap-
pearance to Europeans. A large propor-
tion are Mahomedans, of Afghan and
Persian origin, the province having been
for many centuries under a Mahomedan
Government. The Bengal Army pro-
cures a considerable number of its best
sepoys from this province.
History. Oude is much celebrated in Hindoo
history as the kingdom of Dasaratha,
the father of Rama, who is supposed,
according to the Ramayana, to have ex-
tended his dominions as far as Ceylon.
The distance of this province from the
western frontier of India preserved it
from attack by the Mahomedans, during
their first invasions, but very soon after
the time of Sooltan Mahmood, of Ghuz-
nee, it was subdued by them, and thence-
forward continued to form a part of the
empire of Delhi, until its dissolution after
the death of Aurungzeb. About the year
1730, the government of Oude was con-
ferred by the Emperor Mahomed Shah
upon one of his chiefs, named Sadut
Khan, who had originally been a merchant
of Khorasan ; and it has ever since re-
mained with his family. A treaty hav-
ing been made with the British Govern-
ment in the year 1765, Oude has been
preserved from all external enemies, and
History, j^g consequently enjoyed a long con-
tinuance of peace and prosperity. The
Governor of Oude was originally styled
the Soobadar, and afterwards the Nabob.
This was changed in 1814 to Vizier,
(Wuzeer,) and in 1819 to Padshah, or
king, by which he is now recognised.
Religion. Mahomedanism and Hindooism, the
fromer the most prevalent.
Bound- North, Afghanistan, and Mooltan ;
east, Ajineer ; south, Kuch and the sea ;
Divisions. Upper Sind, or the northern part of
the country down to Shikarpoor, and
Lower Sind, extending from Shikarpoor
to the sea.
Rivers. T^liQ Indus, including its various
General East of the Indus, the province is al-
Descnn- n. , . , T n , i
tion. most a pertect level, and is for the great-
er part, except in the immediate vicinity
of the river, a barren waste. West of
the Indus, the face of the country varies,
and on the western and north-western
frontiers becomes mountainous. The
climate of Upper Sind is temperate, but
76 HINDOOSTAN PROPER.
that of Lower Sind oppressively hot and
produc- Upper Sind produces wheat, barley,
tions. j it IT c ' J
and other grams ; and Lower hind, rice
and bajree in great abundance, sugar,
and indigo, saltpetre, and potash. Cat-
tle and sheep are numerous ; as also a
small breed of horses and camels of a su-
Towns. Shikarpoor, Sukkur, Khyrpoor, Lark-
hanu, Sehwun, Hyderabad, Omerkote,
Tatta, Kurachee, and Meerpoor.
Shikarpoor is situated a little distance
to the westward of the Indus in lat. 27
36' N. long. 69 18' E. It is the most
populous town in Sind, and carries on an
extensive commerce with the adjacent
countries. The inhabitants are almost
all Hindoos, termed Shikarpoorees, and
speak a dialect of Hindoostanee, distin-
guished by that name.
Sukkur is chiefly noticed on account
of its position on the right bank of the
Indus, opposite Bukkur, a fortress built
upon a rock in the middle of the river
lat. 2-7 42' N.
A few miles from Sukkur are the
ruins of Alore, in early times the capital
of a mighty kingdom, which extended
from the ocean to Cashmeer on the
north, and from Candahar on the west, to
Kanoje on the east ; arid mentioned by
the Greek Historians as the kingdom
Khyrpoor is the capital of one of the
three Arneers of Sind. It is a place of
Towns. some trade, and is noted for the dyeing of
cloth. It has about 150,000 inhabitants.
Hyderabad, the modern capital of the
whole country, and the residence of the
principal Ameer, stands on the bank of
the Fulalee, a branch of the Indus, in
]at. 25 22' N. It contains about 20.000
inhabitants. The armourers of this
place are noted for the excellence of their
workmanship, as also are the artificers
who embroider in leather.
Omerkote is ^situated on the eastern
frontier, about 85 miles to the eastward
of Hyderabad. This was formerly the
residence of an independent Rajpoot
Chief, and is noted as the birth-place
of the Emperor Akber.
Tata, the ancient capital of Sind,
stands on the right bank of the Indus,
about 130 miles from the sea, in lat. 24
44' N. It is believed to be the Pattala
mentioned by the Greeks, and was a place
of considerable importance before the
Mahomedan invasion. During the ex-
istence of the Mooghul empire it con-
tinued to be much celebrated as a city of
considerable commerce, and was famous
for its manufactures of silk. It has since
greatly decayed, and does not now con-
tain more than 150,000 inhabitants.
It is still visited by numbers of Hin-
doos, being on the high road to Hinglaj
in Beloochistan, a place of pilgrimage
much resorted to by the people of the
Kurachee is noted as being one of the
principal seaports, and a British station.
It is at the western-most mouth of the
Indus, in lat. 24 51' N. long. 67 16' E.
78 HIKDOOSTAN PROPER.
Name. r f\ lQ province derives its name from
that of the river Indus, which by the
Hindoos is called the Sind.
1 ?us it " Hindoos, Juts, and Beloochees. The
Juts are Mahomedans, the descendants
of the original Rajpoot inhabitants of the
province, converted at an early period to
the Mahomedan faith, and they compose
the chief military force of the country.
It is believed that the total population
does not exceed one million, although in
early times the province appears to have
been very thickly peopled.
History, I n ancient times this province appears
to have formed part of a very extensive
kingdom, which embraced nearly the
whole of the north-western provinces of
India, governed by a raja who had his
capital at Alore, near Sukkur. This
kingdom still subsisted, though not with
the same extent of territory, when it
was first invaded by the Arabs, about
the year 664. It was entirely subju-
gated by the Arabs in 711, and con-
tinued under their rule until 750, when
a general insurrection broke out, and
the Mahomedans were expelled by the
Rajpoot tribe of Soomra. It then ap-
pears to have fallen under the govern-
ment of two chiefs, one a Rajpoot and
the other a Mahomedan of Hindoo de-
scent, who both ruled under the title of
the Jams of Sind. Hardly any thing
further is known of its history from this
period until the next invasion by the
Mahomedans, under Mahmood of Ghuz-
nee, in the early part of the llth century,
History, when it was again subdued ; and after
many years of conflict and disorder be-
came a regular province of the Mooghul
empire. In 1737 India being then in a
state of great alarm from the expected
invasion of Nadir Shah, a chief of Sewis-
tan, named Mahomed Abassee Kalooree,
succeeded in persuading the soobadar or
viceroy of Bind to resign the govern-
ment into his hands. Nadir Shah enter-
ed the province and drove out the Ka-
looree family, but afterwards allowed
them to resume their authority as his
tributaries. The province continued un-
der their rule until 1779, when a tribe of
the Beloochies, named the Talpooree, re-
belled against the Kalooree Nabob, as
he was then styled, and expelled him
from the country, which was then di-
vided amongst the Talpooree chiefs, and
eventually formed into the three princi-
palities of Hyderabad, Khyrpoor, and
Meerpoor, under three brothers, styled
the Ameers of Sind, under which dynas-
ty it has ever since remained. In 1839,
a British army entered Sind upon its
route to Afghanistan, a treaty having
been concluded with the Ameers for the
passage of the troops through their ter-
ritories, and cantonments have since been
formed in Upper Sind and at Kurachee.
Religion. The prevailing religion of the province
is Mahomedanism, generally of the Soon-
nee division, though the Ameers them-
selves are Shiahs.
Language. The language is termed Sindee, and
resembles the Hindee dialects of Hin-
SO HINDOOSTAX PROPER.
Ajmeer, or Rajpootana.
North, Mooltan and Delhi ; east,
Delhi and Agra; south, Malwa, Guze-
rat and Kuch ; west, Sind.
Divisions. The Bhattee Country, Bikaneer, Jus-
sulmeer, Marwar or Joudpoor, Jeypoor,
including Skikawuttee, Ajmeer, Mey-
war or Odeypoor, Boondee, and Kota.
Rivers. This province is destitute of rivers,
except in the southern and eastern parts.
The only streams of any note are the
Banass, which rises in the district of
Odeypoor, and flows south-westerly until
it is lost in the Run of Kuch ; and the
Chumbul, which enters the district of
Kota from Malwa, and flows northerly
into the province of Agra, to the Jumna.
General ] n its south-eastern districts this pro-
vince is fertile, well watered, and hilly ;
but westward and northward, with a few
exceptions, it js absolutely desert, the
whole surface of the country being either
covered with loose sand, which in some
places is driven by the wind, into mounds
and hillocks, some of them a hundred
feet in height ; or else composed of hard
flat salt loam, wholly destitute of vege-
tation. In the midst of these burning
plains, the \vater melon, the most juicy
of all fruits, is found in astonishing pro-
AJMEER, OR KAJPOOTANA.
fusion, and of large size. Water is pro-
cured, but in small quantity, and brack-
ish, from wells which are frequently three
hundred feet deep, though not more than
three or four feet in diameter. During
the hot season the passage of the desert
cannot be attempted, without great risk
of suffocation, from whirlwinds of driving
Produc- The productions of the cultivated parts
of this province, are wheat, barley, rice,
sugar, cotton, indigo, and tobacco. Ca-
mels are numerous, and bullocks of a
superior description. Salt is abundant,
and the Odeypoor districts yield copper,
lead, sulphur, and iron.
Towns. Bhatneer, Bikaneer, Jussulmeer, Na-
gore, Joudpoor, Jeypoor, Ajmeer, Chi-
tore, Odeypoor, Neemuch, Boondee,
Bhatneer is the principal town of the
Bhattee tribe, and is a place of some an-
tiquity, as it is mentioned as having been
taken by Tymoor in 1398. It stands on
the eastern border of the great desert.
Bikaneer is situated in the midst of a
very desolate tract, in lat. 27 57' N.
long. 73 2' E. It is a fortified town and
the capital of the raja.
Jussulmeer stands in lat. 26 43' N.
long. 70 54' E.
Joudpoor is situated in lat. 26 18' N.
long. 73 E. It is the capital of the Dis-
trict, and is said to be a well built town.
Travelling distance from Oojein 260
Jeypoor, the capital of the principality.