Charles Augustus Goodrich Loomis Joseph Campbell.

A concise school history of the United States, based on Seavey's Goodrich's ... online

. (page 8 of 23)
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24. jQlve «Ti aoconnt of the operations of the oppoBin? armies, including the battle

of White Plains, and the retreat of the Americana to North Castle.

25. Giye an account of the capture of Fort Washington. Of the retreat and pur-

suit througrh New Jersey. Where is Trenton ? (See Map, p. 81.)

26. What is said about this period of the war ? What of New Tork and New

Jersey ? Of Washingfton's army ? Of Newport ? What other ii^jury to
the American cause is mentioned ? Where is Newport ? (See Map, p. 81 )



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90 THE IlEVOLUTiON. [1777.

the head of twenty-four hundred men he recrossed the
Delaware on the stormy night of Christmas, while the river
was full of floating ice, and in the morning of December

26. suddenly fell upon a body of Hessians at Trenton, and
took nearly a thousand prisoners. The Americans lost
only four men — two killed, and two frozen to death.

28. Events of 1777. — Late in the afternoon, a week
*later. Lord Comwallis reached Trenton with a large force.

The hostile armies were separated by a small stream when
the British general encamped for the night, intending to
crush his adversary in the morning. Being too weak to
risk an engagement, Washington, by a circuitous route,
made a rapid night-march to Princeton, where, early in the
morning, January 3, he surprised a detachment which was
on the way to join Comwallis, routed it, and took about
three hundred prisoners.

29. As soon as Comwallis heard the firing at Princeton,
and saw the deserted camp, he turned in pursuit ; but he
was unable to overtake the patriot army. Washington
encamped in a region difficult of access for an enemy, his
headquarters being at Morristown. By sending out detach-
ments to harass the British, he soon cleared New Jersey of -
hostile troops, excepting at New Brunswick andAmboy'.
The brilliant exploits at Trenton and Princeton gained for
Washington, both at home and abroad, great glory as a
prudent, daring, and skilful commander.

30. No very important enterprises were undertaken by
either army for about six months. Washington, meanwhile,
was reorganizing and disciplining his forces. The chief
expedition sent out by the British commander during this
time was led by General Tryon, late royal governor of New
York. This officer, near the end of April, went up Long
Island Sound with two thousand men, and landed in Con-

27. Give nn account of WashinsTton's victory at Trenton.

28. What can you tell of the bontile armieB a week later, and of Washington's

BnooeRs at Princeton ? Where is Princeton ? (See Map, p. 81.)

29. What can you tell of the pursuit of Washingrton bv Comwallie ? How was

most of New .Tersey recovered from the British r Where ie Morristown ?
(See Map, p. 81.) New Brunswick ? Amboy ?

30. How was washinsfton employed for some months ? What oan j<m teU of

Tryon'B expedition into Connecticut ?



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1777.] THE WAR. 91

necticut. Marching into the country, he destroyed the
public stores at Danbury, and set fire to the town. The
militia and a few continental troops bravely attacked the
invaders, and pursued them back to their boats.

31. In the spring of this year, the Marquis de Lafayette
(lah-fd-etf), a wealthy French nobleman, not yet twenty
years old, fitted out a vessel and crossed the ocean to
fight for American freedom. While many officers from
Europe sought "for high rank in the patriot forces, and for
money, this gallant Frenchman offered to serve as a volun-
teer, and without pay. Congress, however, soon appointed
him a major-general. He proved to be an able officer, and
became the trusted friend of Washington. He won the
hearts of the people whom he came to aid, and no native
of a foreign land has ever been held by the Americans in
so high honor. Lafayette brought with him the Baron de
Kalb, a German veteran, and several other officers.

32. Two brave and distinguished Poles, Thaddeus Kos-
ci-us'ko and Count Pulaski (pu-las'kl), served in the patriot
army, and left honx)red names in American history. The
German, De Ealb, and the Pole, Pulaski, both gave their
lives for the cause they had embraced. But perhaps no
one who came from abroad to help us gain our indepen-
dence, Lafayette excepted, did so important service as the
BAron Steuben (slu'ben)*, a Pi-ussian, who arrived in the
country near the close of this year. After he was ap-
pointed inspector-general, he thoroughly trained the Ameri-
can army, and by his rare skill and untiring efforts, soon
made its soldiers worthy to be ranked with veterans.

33. Near the end of May, Washington placed his main
army in a strong position so as to be ready to oppose the
British, should they attempt to advance towards Phila-
delphia. General Howe, after unsuccessfully manoeuvring
to entice the Americans from their strong post, suddenly

* German pronunciation stoi'ben.

81. What did the Marquis de Lafayette do in the sprine of this year ? What offer

did he make, and what dia Congress do f What more can you tell of
Lafayette?

82. What can yon tell of Kosciusko, Pulaski, and De Kalb ? Of Baron Steuben?

83. What did Washington do near the end or May ? What did Howe do?



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92



THE REVOLUTION.



[1777.




crossed over to Stat'en Island, and put to sea' with hi»
brother's fleet and about eighteen thousand men.

34. After a pe-
pi^Ri8T6vYS^illi!iii:nilk riod of suspense,
news came that the
British fleet was
ascending Chesa-
peake Bay, and it
was then certain
that the enemy in-
tended to march
upon Philadelphia.
Washington was
ready, though with
but eleven thou-
sand effective men,
to oppose the in-
vading forces. The
armies met at
Chad's Ford, on the Brandywine, September 11, and after
an engagement that lasted nearly all day, the Americans
retreated. Congress adjourned, first to Lancaster, and then
to York, Pennsylvania, where it remained while the British
held Philadelphia.

35. Near the end of September the British entered
Philadelphia. Their fleet now went out of the Chesapeake
and came round into the Delaware. Howe sent a detach-
ment of his troops to aid in reducing two forts which com-
manded the river below the city. The main body of the
royal army was encamped at Germantown, and here
Washington attacked it by surprise early in the morning
of October 4. It seemed at first as if the enterprise would
be s.uccessful ; but after a severe action the Americans
were repulsed with the loss of over a thousand men,
being double that of the British.

M. What can you tell of the battle of Brandy wine ? What of CongreBS ?

85. When did the British take possession of Philadelphia ? What^id the British
next do ? Give an account of the battle of Germantown. In what direction
is Chad's Ford from Philadelphia? Qermantown from Philadelphia? (Se«
Map above.)



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1777.] THE WAR. 03

36. Forts Mercer and Mifflin, on the Delaware, bravely
withstood the assaults of the land force and the ships sent
against them. An attack in October was repulsed with
great loss to the assailants ; but before the close of autumn
the garrisons were compelled to abandon these defences,
and the Delaware was thus opened to the British fleet.

37. In December, the troops under Washington went
into winter quarters at Valley Forge. While the British
were enjoying their comfortable quarters in Philadelphia,
the patriots at Valley Forge were crouching in their log
huts, where they suffered terribly from cold, disease, and
the want of food and clothing.

38. The success of the British in Pennsylvania this year
was more than balanced by disasters which befell them in
the north, through Burgoyne's invasion. A plan had been
formed to cut off New England from the other states by
means of an army from Canada, which should move up
Lake Cham plain and down the Hudson. To execute this
plan, General Burgoyne had in all near ten thousand men,
regulars, Tories, Canadians, and Indians.

39. Passing up the lake, he invested Port Ticonderoga,
July 1. General St. Clair, who was holding this post with
three thousand men, abandoned it, and, after suffering much
loss in the retreat, joined General Schuyler, the commander
of the northern army, who was then at Fort Edward.

40. Schuyler retired on the approach of Burgoyne, and
finally took post at the mouth of the Mohawk. By felling
trees and demolishing bridges, he had obstructed the route
of the invaders, and made their advance extremely slow
and difficult. It was the end of the month before Burgoyne
reached Fort Edward, whence, after stopping some days,
he advanced along the east bank of the Hudson. Dif-
ficulties soon began to thicken around him.

3rt. What is said of FortB Mercer and Mifflin ?

87. Where did Washington go into winter quarters, and what la said of the

patriot troops ? where is Valley Forge ? (See Map, p. 92.)

88. What plan was Burgoyne to try to execute ? How large was his army ?

39. What fort did he Invest ? What is said of St. Clair ?

40. Who was the commander of the northern army, and where did he finally take

post ? Whml is said of the advance or Burgoyne ?



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94



THE REVOLUTION.



[1777.



41. Just before mov-
ing forward from Fort
Edward, Burgoyne de-
spatched Colonel Baum
(boium), with five hun-
dred men, to seize some
stores collected at Ben-
nington, Vermont. This
detachment and another
sent to reenforce it were
totally defeated. August
16, by Colonel John
Stark, with New Eng-
land militia. Victory or
death was the resolve of
Stark, as he led on his
men. "There they are,''
he exclaimed ; "we beat
to-day, or Molly Stark's
a widow I "

42. The invasion re-
ceived another check.
Colonel St. Leger had

Burgoyne't Expedition. Saratoga and Vicinity. beCU SCnt with a dctach-

ment to sweep through the Mohawk Valley, from the west,
and join the main army at Albany. With a large force of
regulars, Canadians, Tories, and Indians, he laid siege to
Port Schuyler, where Rome now is. General Herkimer
hastened with a body of militia to the relief of the garrison,
but was stopped at Oris'kany, where he fell into an
ambuscade. In this bloody conflict Herkimer was mortal-
ly wounded. General Arnold then marched to the assist-
ance of the besieged. Hearing that Arnold was approach-
ing, the Indians fled, and St. Leger gave up the siege.
43. Reenforcements were pouring into the American

41. Olve an account of the battle of B«»nninsfton. Where is Benninjfton ?

42. For what purpose had an expedition been sent under St. I-esrer ? What of the

siesre of Fort Schayler, ana the battle of Oris'kany ? How was the earrison
relieved.' Where was Ft. Schuyler .» (See Map, p. 81.) Oriskany.'^




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1777.] THE WAB. 96

camp. Just as General Schuyler was in condition to con-
front the invaders with a good prospect of success, he was
superseded by General Gates. At length Burgoyne crossed
the Hudson and advanced down the river. On the i9th
of September the armies met at Be'mis's Heights, near
Saratoga, and an indecisive battle was fought. On the 7th
of the next month a second battle occurred near the same
place, resulting in a decided advantage to the Americans.
In these battles Colonel Daniel Morgan so skilfully led his
riflemen as greatly to increase his fame. General Arnold,
though without any regular command, was the animating
spirit in the last conflict, and displayed reckless daring.

44. The situation of the royal army had now become
nearly hopeless ; the troops were exhausted with toil and
watching; they attempted to retreat, but found that all
avenues of escape had been closed ; their provisions were
almost gone. On the Hth of October Burgoyne surren-
dered, at Saratoga, his whole army of near six thousand men.

45. Clinton had led a strong force some distance up the
Hudson to assist the army from Canada. But these troops
were too late to aid Burgoyne, and after his surrender they
returned to New York. They had captured two forts in
the Highlands, burned houses, and plundered property.

46. In November, 1777, Congress agreed upon Articles
of Confederation, which should form the constitution of
the new nation, after they had been approved by all the
states. In the spring of 1781 all the states had adopted
these Articles.

47. Events of 1778. — The loss of Burgoyne's army, and
fear that France was about to take part in the contest,
caused the British government, early in 1778, to offer to
concede all that the colonies had asked for at the begin-
ning of the controversy. Commissioners were sent over
from England to bring about a reconciliation, but the

43. By whom wns Schuyler superneded, and under what clrcumstancPB ? What

l« BR Id of the two bnttlen near Sarat.o$irA ? Of Morgan find Arnold ?

44. What can you t<»Il of Burgfoyne's Rituation, and of his Burrender ?

45. What Is aaid of a force sent from New York to relieve Burgfoyne?

46. What in Paid of Articles of Confederation ?

47. What offer was made by the British govemment early in 177S ?



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96 THE REVOLUTION. [1778.

offers came too late. Congress refused to treat unless
the independence of the states should be first acknowl
edged, or the British forces withdrawn.

48. Another event which
resulted from Burgoyne's sur-
render produced great joy in
America. Early in February
France acknowledged the in-
dependence of the United
States, and made treaties of
friendship, commerce, and al-
liance with the infant republic.
Before this the French gov-
ernment had secretly aided
the Americans with arms and
supplies. The distinguished
Benjamin Franklin. Dr. Franklin, thou ovcr seven-

ty years old, was the leading commissioner for the United
States at the French court. He managed affairs so wisely,
and was held in so high regard at the French capital, that
we may well believe no other American could have done so
much there for his country as he did.

49. Early in the summer, a French fleet was on its way
to the assistshice of the Americans. As Philadelphia could
not safely be held after the arrival of this fleet. Sir Henry
Clinton, who had lately superseded General Howe, evac-
uated the city, June 18, and crossed over into New Jersey,
intending to concentrate the royal forces iti New York.

60. Washington immediately followed, and oh the morn-
ing of June 28, overtook the enemy at Monmouth (mon^-
muth) Court House, where a battle was fought. At first
the Americans came near meeting with serious disaster
through the misconduct of General Charles Lee, who led

47. What reply did Congfreps make to the offers ?

48. What 8t4'p did Burffoyiie*8 nurrender cause France to take ? What is said of

Dr. Franklin at flie French court?

49. Why did the BritiBh evacuate Philadelphia, and when? Where was it In-

tended to concentrate the royal troops ?
60. Give an account of the battle of Monmoutli. Where was Monmouth ? (See
Map, " Part of New Jersey ,»» p. 81.)



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1778.] THE WAR. 97

the van of the pursuing army. But Washington arrived at
the critical moment, checked the retreat of Lee's troops,
and restored the order of battle. Night put an end to the
action, and, under cover of darkness, Clinton silently with-
drew his troops and marched for New York.

51. Washington crossed the Hudson, and encamped at
White Plains. The main army remained several months
on the east side of the river, not far from New York ; but,
during the winter, the troops were cantoned on both sides
of the Hudson, the headquarters being at Middlebrook, in
New Jersey.

62. In the summer of this year, the lovely valley of
Wyo'ming {vnro'ming), in Pennsylvania, was the scene of
a horrid massacre. A large body of Tories and Indians, led
by Colonel John Butler, made a descent into the valley, from
Western New York, butchered the inhabitants, and laid
waste the settlement. In the fall, Cherry Valley, in New
York, suffered almost a like fate from Tories and Indians.

63. Early in July, the French fleet, under Count
D'Estaing ((fes-toniy]),* sent to aid the Americans, ap-
peared in Delaware Bay. D'Estaing soon afterwards sailed
for Newport, then held by six thousand British troops. It
having been decided to make an attack upon the enemy here.
General Sullivan landed on the Island of Rhode Island, with
militia and continental troops, to cooperate with the French
ships off Newport. Just before the land and naval forces
were ready to begin the attack, the British fleet, under
Lord Howe, was seen coming to relieve the town.

64. D'Estaing sailed out to give battle, but a furious
storm prevented an engagement, and so crippled his ships
that he afterwards put into the harbor of Boston to refit.

* See note, p. ffS.

61. Wher« wan WAihlneton's main army for seyeral months ? Dnringp the winter >

Where it Middlebrook ? (See Map, " Part of New Jer«ey."p. 80.)

62. Giye an aoooant of the attack upon the yalley of Wyoming. The attack npon

Cherry Val ley. WTiere is the Wyoming Valley ? ( See Map, p. 81.) Where
is Cherry Valley ?

63. When and where did the French fleet arrive, and under whom ? What place

did the French intend to attack, and who oo(Sperated ? What happened jost
before the attack was to be made ?

64. What canted the attack npon Newport to be given np ?

t



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98 THE REVOLUTION. [1778.

The enterprise had now to be abandoned. Although Sullivan
was obliged to retreat, he was able to check the pursuit of
the enemy, in a sharp action which occurred in the northern
end of the island.

3* From the Invasion of Georgia to the Close of the
War. War chiefly in the South.

55. Events of 1778, continued. — Towards the close of
1718, the south began to be the principal theatre of the
war, and Greorgia, the weakest of the soutjaern states, was
the first to be attacked. Late in December, Colonel Camp-
bell,* with thirty-five hundred troops from New York,
landed near Savannah. They found there only about a
thousand men, under General Robert Howe, to oppose
them. These were surprised and completely routed, and
the town fell into the hands of the English, December 29.

66. Events of 1779. — T3ie year ITTO is distinguished
for nothing very decisive in the war of the Revolution.
A few days after the fall of Savannah, General Prevost
( pre-vost') arrived with royal troops that had been stationed
in Florida, and assumed the chief command. A detach-
ment which he sent out, captured Augusta, and soon the
subjugation of Georgia was completed, in spite of the
efforts of General Lincoln {ling' ban), the American com-
mander at the south.

57. Two encounters are worthy of mention. In the
first, a body of militia, led by Colonel Pickens, defeated
seven hundred Tories, as they were on their way to the
British camp ; in the second, a detachment of Americans,
under General Ashe (ash), was routed at Brier Creek.
Having conquered Georgia, Prevost marched against
Charleston, South Carolina ; but, as the town was prepared
to make a stout resistance and General Lincoln was coming

* Pronounced kam'hel or kam'el.

64. What did Sullivan do ?

66. When did the South he^n to be the principal theatre of the war ? What
state was first attacked ? Give an account of the fall of Savannnh.

66. What is said of the year 1779 ? Of General Prevost ? Of the subjugation of

Georgia ?

67. What is said of a victory gained bv Colonel Pickens ? Of the engagement at

Brier Creek ? Of the attempt of Preyost to capture Charleston r



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1779.] THE WAB. 99

with his army to its relief, the British general quickly gave
up his design. After some fighting the main body of the
enemy returned to Georgia. ^

68. When D'Estaing had repaired his ships in Boston,
he sailed for the West Indies, to operate against the Eng-
lish there. In September of this year, he appeared with a
large fleet before Savannah, and laid siege to the town,
General Lincoln cooperating. On the 9th of October, the
combined forces made an assault upon the enemy's works,
and were repulsed with great loss. In this assault the
gallant Count Pulaski was mortally wounded. The French
refimbarked, and the Americans retired to Charleston.

59. In the mean time Clinton, in the north, was mainly
employed in holding New York, and sending out expedi-
tions to destroy towns on the coast, and to pillage the
country. One body of marauders invaded Virginia, an-
other, led by the infamous Tryon, burned and plundered
towns in Connecticut.

60. About the beginning of summer, Clinton went up
the Hudson, and captured Stony Point and Verplanck's
Point, where he left strong garrisons. The American
forces were so small that Washington could only act on
the defensive ; but his vigilance prevented the British from
gaining command of the Hudson above these works, and
thus severing New England from the other states.

61. One of the most brilliant achievements of the
Revolution was the storming of Stony Point, and its re-
capture from the British by General Anthony Wayne, with
troops from Washington's army. Near midnight, July 16,
the assault was made, and the garrison forced to surrender
at the point of the bayonet. About a month later. Major
Henry Lee, with similar daring, surprised and captured a
British garrison at Faulns Hook, now Jersey City.

68. Where did D»E8taInsr sail after repairing his ships at Boston ? What can
you tell of the attempt to recover Savannnh ?

59. Meanwhile how was Clinton employed ? What is said of two marauding ex-

peditions ?

60. What posts had Clinton captured ? What is said of the American forces ?

61. What can you tell of the storming of Stony Point? Of the capture of the

British garrison at Faulns Hook r



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100 THE IffiTOLUnON. ttTWl

62. Late in tbe flummer of this yeat, Oeneral SulHTaa
led an army of about five thousand men to chastise Idw
Indians of Western New York for their atrocious deeds at
Wyoming, Cherry Valley, and other places. Sullivan routed
« body of Indians and Tories where Elmira now is, and then,
proceeding northward and westward, burned the Indian
villages, destroyed the fields of com and the orchards, lay-
ing waste the country to the Genesee {jenre-aee') River.

63. The Americans had made war on the sea as well as
on the land. In the first year of the contest, 1116, steps were
taken by Congress to ci-eate a little navy. Many privateers
were afterwards sent out ; and these took hundreds of Eng-
lish merchant vessels as prizes.

64. The most celebrated of the naval commanders in the
service of the United States was John Paul Jones. In
September, 1119, while cruising near the coast of England
with the Bon Homme Richard (biMiorn'reshar'), and other
ships fitted out in France, he captured two British vessels
of war, after one of the most desperate naval combats on
record. In the summer of this year Spain allied herself
with France in the war against England.

66. In the autumn, Clinton withdrew the troops from
Newport, which the British had held nearly three years.
The outposts on the Hudson were also given up, and their
garrisons called to New York. Leaving a strong force to
hold that place, Clinton, near the end of December, sailed
south with seven thousand troops and a large fleet.

66. Events of 1780. — Georgia having been subdued,
the war was now to be carried into the Carolinas. In the
spring, the land force under Clinton, aided by the fleet, laid
siege to Charleston. After a gallant defence of several
weeks, General Lincoln, still the commander at the south,

62. Give an account of Sullivan's expedition against the Indians of Western

New York.

63. What is said of war on the sea ? Of the American navy, and of privateers ?
Qi. What is said of .Tohn Paul Jones, and a naval victory which he gained ' What

did Spain do in the summer of 1779?
66. What posts did Clinton give up in the autumn ? After this, what did he do f
66. Where was the war to be carried in 1780 ? What can you teU of tbe tfiogpt

of Charleston ?



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1T80.] THB WAR. 101

was compelled, May 12, to surrender the town, with its
defenders, to the enemy.

61. Clinton next sent expeditions into the interior. A
detachment of mounted men, under Colonel Tarleton, over-
took and defeated a body of Ainerican troops at Waxhaw
Creek. This was one of Tarleton's bloody exploits. Most
of the Americans were killed or maimed after they had
begged for quarter. Having overrun South Carolina, and
stationed garrisons in various parts of the state, Clinton


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Online LibraryCharles Augustus Goodrich Loomis Joseph CampbellA concise school history of the United States, based on Seavey's Goodrich's ... → online text (page 8 of 23)