Charles Butler.

A connected series of notes on the chief revolutions of the principal states which composed the empire of Charlemagne, from his coronation in 814, to its dissolution in 1806: on the geneaologies [!] o online

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Online LibraryCharles ButlerA connected series of notes on the chief revolutions of the principal states which composed the empire of Charlemagne, from his coronation in 814, to its dissolution in 1806: on the geneaologies [!] o → online text (page 1 of 13)
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GENEALOGY COLLECTION



&&***



A

CONNECTED SERIES

OF

NOTES

ON

THE CHIEF REVOLUTIONS

OF

THE PRINCIPAL STATES

WHICH COMPOSED THE

EMPIRE OF CHARLEMAGNE,

FROM

HIS CORONATION IN 814,

TO ITS

DISSOLUTION IN 1806:

ON THE GENEA0L0GIES OF THE IMPERIAL HOUSE
OF HABSBURGH,

AND OF THE

SIX SECULAR ELECTORS OF GERMANY;

AND ON

ROMAN, GERMAN, FRENCH AND ENGLISH NOBILITY.



By CHARLES BUTLER, Esq.



LONDON:

PRINTED FOR J.WHITE, FLEET STREET,

BY T. BENS LEY, BOLT COURT.

1807.



?VJ X)V\c



tttfl



CflflM s \j*






**'



.tfi»



1512627

TO

Sir John Courtenay Throckmorton,

BART.



DEAR SIR,

It was my intention to dedicate
these Sheets to Mr. Fox : To whom, can I now
dedicate them with more propriety than You?
Your approbation of his political principles
and conduct, and personal attachment to him,
are generally known', — All his friends are
sensible of his high esteem of you. — I myself
heard that great man say, he scarcely knew a
person from whom it was less safe to differ,
than Sir John Throckmorton.

Permit me, therefore to inscribe the last,
as I did the first of these compilations, with
your name.

I am, dear Sir,

Your most obliged and

obedient humble Servant,

Lincoln's Inn,
1S07.

CHARLES BUTLER.



CONTENTS,



PART I.



Comprising the Period, from the General Division of
the Roman Empire between Arcadius and Hono-
rius, the Sons of Theodosius the first, to the Re-
vival of the Empire of the zvest, in the person of
Charlemagne.

395 800.

A.D. Page

395 i 1. 1 . Final Division of the Empire 3

476. 2. Conquest of Italy by the Herulians 4

493, 3 Ostrogoths ib.

553. 4 and Justinian ib,

568. 5. Conquest of Northern Italy by the

Lombards . ib.

6. And appointment of the Exarch of

Ravenna to the government of

the remaining part of Italy .... 5

II. Early History of the Germans .... 6

III. Francic Association 9

IV. 1. Rise of the Temporal Power of the

Popes 10



via CONTENTS.

A.D. Page

720. 2. Political Relations between them,

and Charles Martel and Pepin .... 13
800. 3. Extinction of the kingdom of the
Lombards ; — Charlemagne crown-
ed Emperor of the West 23

PART II.

Comprising the Period, during which the Western Em-
pire zoas governed by the Descendants of Charle-
magne.

814 911.

814. I. Extent of" Charlemagne's Empire,
and its Division, at his decease,

among his three sons 31

II. Origin of the Feudal Polity 35

III. Decline of the House of Charle-
magne 36

PART III.

Comprising the Period of the German Empire, during

the Saxon, Franconian, and Suabian Dynasties.

911 1254.

Emperors of the House of Saxony.
911. 1 . Limits and Principal States of Ger-
many 42

2. Origin of the House of Saxony. ... 43

3. First Cities 44

4. First Monasteries in Germany .... 47



CONTENTS. ix

A.D. Page

Emperors of the House of Franconia.

10£7. 1. Extent of the Empire of Germany

during this period 51

2. Christendom a Royal Republic, of

which the Emperors assumed to

be the head ib.

3. Increase of Feudalism, — its effects 53

Emperors of the House of Suabia.

1138. I. Contests between the Pope and

Emperors 68

. 1. On the right of Nominating to va-
cant Bishoprieks 69

2. On the mode of Investing the

Bishops with their Temporal
Possessions 72

3. Amicable Arrangements of the

matters in contest 75

II. 1 . On the Claims of the Popes to
hold their Antient Italian Ter-
ritories independent of theEm-

peror 77

III. And on their claims to Supreme

Temporal Power 81



CONTENTS,



PART IV.

Comprising the Period of the German History, between
the Extinction of the Suahian Dynasty, and the
Election of the Emperor Charles the fifth.

1254 1519.

A.D. Page

„,. „• ! Names of the Emperors during the Great
12o4 , * °
to Interregnum 8/

, and from the first to

the last Accession of the House of Habs-

burgh 88

I. Rise of the Italian Republics, Princes
of Savoy and Milan, and the king-
dom of Naples 90

II. Decline of the Pope's Temporal

Power 92

III. State of the City of Rome 98

IV. Boundaries and principal States of

Germany 100

V. Form of its Government 104

VI. 1. General Division of its Cities .... 10G

2. Hanse-towns 107

3. Netherlands 109



CONTENTS.



PART V.

Some account of the Rise and Progress of the House of
Habsburgh till its ultimate Accession to the Em-
pire of Germany in 1438.

A.D. Page

1438. I. Origin of the House of Habsburgh 115

Rudolph of Habsburgh elected Em-
peror 118

II. Six Fortunate Marriages of the

House of Austria 121

III. And its unsuccessful Contest with

the Swiss 125

TV. Invasion of Italy by Charles VIII. 128
V. Origin of the Rivalship between

Austria and France 130

VI. Division of Germany into Circles 1 3 1

VII. Final Settlement of its Political

Constitution 133

VIII. Imperial Chamber and Aulic Coun-
cil 135



CONTENTS.



PART VI.

Division of the House of Habsburgh into its Spanish

and German Lines, till the final Extinction of the

latter in the House of Lorraine.

1558 1745.

A.D. Page

1618. I. The War of Thirty years 140

1700. II for the Succession of Spain 143

1733. Ill for the Succession of Poland 149

IV. Attempts for a Reunion of Christians 151
V. Fall of the Pope's Temporal Power 157
1740. VI. War for the Succession of iVustria 165
1745. Marriage of Maria-Theresia, the heir-

ess of the House of Habsburgh,
with Francis Duke of Lorraine ; —
War for the Succession of Austria ib.

PART VII.

r lhe Period between the Marriage of Maria-Theresia,
and the Commencement of the French Revolu-
tion.

1745 1787.

I. The territories of Austria at this time,

and her Titles to them 17 1

1757. II. The War of Seven Years 173

1777. IH. War occasioned by the Extinction of

the House of Bavaria 178

1772,1

1793, >1V. The three Partitions of Poland ib.

1796.)



CONTENTS.



PART VIII.



Eftects produced in Germany by the French
Revolution.
A.D. , Pa S e

I. Former Revolutions of France during

the Capetian Dynasty

1. Reunion of the Great Fiefs to the

Crown 182

2. Rise of the Commonalty 134

3. Substitution of the States- General in

the Room of the Assemblies in the
Champ de Mars 185

4. Substitution of the Assembly of the

Three Orders of the State in the
Room of the Assemblies of the
States-General 186

5. Rise of the Parliaments, and the

Gens de Loi 187

6. Despotism of the Crown in the reign

of Lewis XIV 189

7. Attempts of the Clergy ib.

Nobility 190

and Parliaments to

regain their power ib.

8. Privileges retained by the Clergy and

Nobility 192

1787. II. Proximate Causes and Commence-
ment of the French Revolution 195
1787. III. Unsuccessful attempts to restrain it 200



xiv CONTENTS.

A.D. Page

1806. IY. Emperor of Germany's Abdication

of the Imperial Government of the
Germanic Empire 210



Some Proofs and Illustrations of different subjects, men-
tioned in the preceding sheets, are inserted in the
following Notes.
NOTE I. On the Dethronement of Chil-
tleric by Pepin, and Charle-
magne's Assumption of the Em-
pire of the West 215

II. On the Usurpation of Hugh Capet 223
HI. On the Genealogy of the Capetian

Dynasty 226

IV. On the Rise and Revolutions of

Venice 229

V Genoa 233

VI and Florence 234

VII. A Genealogical Account of the

Princes of Savoy 235

VIII Dukes of Milan 238

IX and Kings of Naples 239

X. And of the Electoral Families of

Bohemia 241

Brandenburgh 245

Saxony 248

Hanover ..... 25 1

The Palatinate 260

and Bavaria 262



CONTENTS. xr

Page
NOTE XI. On the Five Families whose pos-
sessions centered in Charles the

Bold of Burgundy 264

XII. On Roman, German, French, and
English Nobility ; — and the Six-
teen Quarters of Nobility 267

XIII. On the Reunion of the Great Fiefs

of France to the Crown 1S2

XIV. On the Tax, called the Taille. . . 282
XV. On the Republican Tendency of

the French Revolution 283

XVI. On the French Writers whose
works contributed to the French
Revolution 284



In illustration of what is said in the preceding sheets
the following Tables are inserted.

I. Emperors of the Francs 38

II. Kings of France of the Carlovingian Line 39

III. Emperors of the House of Saxony 41

IV Franconia .... 51

V and Suabia 67

VI. Six Fortunate Marriages of the House of

Austria 121

VII. Division of the House of Habsburgh into

its German and Spanish Branches 139

VIII. Pretendants to the Spanish Succession. . . 144
IX. General Table of the House of Habsburgh 167



xvi CONTENTS.

Page
X. Descendants of Maria-Theresia Empress

of Austria 172

XI. Genealogy of the Capetian Monarchs. . 228

XII. Sardinian Pretension to the throne of

Great Britain 229

XIII. Kings of Naples 242

XIV. House of Hohenzollern 247

XV. Four Fruitful Branches of the Witekin-

dian Trunk 248

XVI. Genealogy of the Dukes of Saxony 250

yStJH oftheGuelphs 260

XIX. And of the Palatine and Bavarian

Houses of Wittlesbach 264

- XX. The Sixteen Quarters of Nobility, ex-
hibited by the Due d'Angouleme,

Grand-Prieur de France 281

XXI. Principal Writers consulted in this com-
pilation 282



PART I.

Comprising the Period, from the General Division of
the Roman Empire, between Arcadius and Ho-
noriusj the Sons of Theodosius the first, to the
Revival of the Empire of the West, in the person
of Charlemagne.

395 800.



REVOLUTIONS



OF THE



GERMANIC EMPIRE.



I.

A.C.

1. On the Final Division of the 395
Roman Empire, between the Em-
perors Areadius and Honorius, the
sons of Theodosius the 1st, the Empire
of the East, comprising Thrace, Mace-
donj^i, Greece, Dacia, Asia Minor,
Syria and Egypt was assigned to the
former; the Empire of the West, com-
prising Italy, Africa, Gaul, Spain, No-
ricum, Pannonia, Dalmatia and Mae-
sia, was assigned to the latter.

Honorius was succeeded by Valen-
tinian the 3d : — nine usurpers followed :
Orestes was the last of the nine, and
was succeeded by his son Augustus. 474



4 REVOLUTIONS OF THE

2. In the following year, Odoacer, a.c.
King of the Herulians, conquered all
Italy, put an end to the Western Em-
pire, and was proclaimed King of
Italy. - - - - - 476

3, Theodoric, King of the Ostrogoths,
or Eastern Goths, murdered and suc-
ceeded Odoacer. He became the 493
founder of the Ostrogothic Dynasty of
Italian Kings. In 536, Beiisarius re-
covered Rome from Vitiges, the 4th 536
of their Kings; it was conquered by
Totila, their 7th King. 546

4. Narses, a general of the Emperor 553
Justinian, vanquished Teyas, the son

of Totila; and, with the title of Pro-
consul, ruled Italy for sixteen years.

5. Then Alboin, a Lombard Gene-
ral, conquered all" that part of Italy,
which extends from the Alps, to a sup-
posed line from the Macra to the
Rubicon, the Gallia Cisalpina of the
Romans, the Modern Lombardy. His



GERMANIC EMPIRE. 5

successors subdued the whole of Tus- A. c.
cany, the Neapolitan territory, and the '
Duchy of Beneventum. This formed
the Lombard Kingdom of Italy; the
usual residence of its Kings, was Pavia.
There were twenty-two Princes of this
dynasty. - - - - - 568

6. To preserve the rest of Italy from
the invasions of the Lombards, Justin,
the immediate successor of Justinian,
sent an officer, called an Exarch, with
imperial command, into Italy. Ravenna
was the seat of his government: and
his power extended over the whole of
that part of Italy, which remained sub-
ject to the emperor. It was divided into
different territories, subject to gover-
nors, generally called Dukes, who pos-
sessed, in their respective districts, both
civil and military authority; but all of
them were subordinate to the Exarch.
What was properly called the Exarch-
ate, consisted of the towns of Ravenna,



6 REVOLUTIONS OF THE

Boulogna, Imola, Farcnza, Forlimpoli, A.M.
Forli, Cesenna, Bobio, Ferrara, Com-
machio, Adria, Servia, and Secchia,
and the castles and lands which be-
longed to them. The towns of Arimini,
Pesaro, Cod jia, Fano,Sinigalia, Ancona,
Umana, Jessi, Fossombrone, Monfetto,
Urbino, the territories of Balni, Cagli,
Lnceoli, Ugubio, and the castles and
lands which belonged to them, were
called the Pentapolis. 3

a See the Dissertatio Chorographka de Italia Medit
Mvi, published by Muratori. Fol.

II.

Such were the revolutions of the
Empire of the West — The kingdom of
the Francs now came into notice; but
the principal events in the early history
of Germany should first be mentioned.

The Ocean, on the north, the Da-
nube, on the south, the Rhine, on the
west, and the Sarmatic provinces, on



GERMANIC EMPIRE. ;

the east, are the boundaries, assigned a.m.
by Tacitus, to Antient Germany. The
invasion of Italy by the Cimbri and
Teutones ; their defeat by Marius, in 39Q9
3909? the invasion of Gaul by the
borderers of the Rhine, under Ario-
vistus, and their defeat by Julius Cae-
sar, in 3950, are, almost, the only 3950
events of consequence in the history
of Germany, before the Christian aera,
of which we have any certain ac-
count.

When Caesar had completed the
conquest of Gaul, he divided it into
the Aquitanic, the Celtic, and the
Belgic provinces; and comprised, in
the latter, all the German provinces
on the left side of the Rhine. Au-
gustus separated from the Belgic Gaul,
the country between the Meuse, the
Scheld and the Rhine, and formed it
into a province called the Germania-
cis-Rhenana.



8 REVOLUTIONS OF THE

In 3995, the famous Arminius or A.M.
Hermann, at the head of the Cherusci,
a people in the neighbourhood of Gos-
lar, massacred Varus and his three
legions, at Windfelt, between the
Lippe and the Emms. - - 3995

The third century of the Christian A.c.
aera, is remarkable for different asso-
ciations of German tribes, in their
common defence, against the Ro-
mans.

That of the Alemanni, was formed
by the nations between the Rhine, the
Mein, and the Lech; — that of the
Francici, by the nations between
the Riiine, the Mein, and the Wescr;
— that, of the Thuringians, by the
nations between the Mein, the Da-
nube, and the Hartz; — and that of the
Saxons, by the borderers of each side
of the Elbe. b

fc See d'Anville's Etats formes en Europe apres la
chute de V Empire Romain en Occident, 4to.
Paris 1771.



GERMANIC EMPIRE. g

III.

Of these, upon every account, and a.c.
particularly for the present subject of
enquiry, the Francic Association is the
most remarkable.

Not long after the beginning of the
third century, a bod}' of the Francs,
under the command of Pharamond,
their leader, crossed the Rhine, and
founded a kingdom in that part of Mo-
dern France which lies between the
Rhine and the Scheld. Pharamond
was their first King ; and he gave birth
to a line of princes, called Merovin-
gian, from Merovaeus his second suc-
cessor. Clovis, the second in succession
to Merovaeus, by several victories, par-
ticularly that at Soissons, over the Ro-
mans, and that at Tolbiac, over the
Alemanni, conquered almost all Gaul,
and the whole of Alemannia. His im-
mediate successor conquered Bavaria.



10 REVOLUTIONS OF THE

Thuringia, and other parts of Germany, a. c.
But, in consequence of various parti-
tions, and the civil wars occasioned by
them, the kingdom was thrown into
confusion.

IV.

In the mean time, the Popes had
risen into consequence.

1. St. Peter, the first of the Popes,
had neither temporal estate, nor tem-
poral power. During the ten persecu-
tions, his successors acquired some
moveable and immoveable property,
for the support of the altar, and its
ministers, and for the purposes of cha-
rity. The donation of Constantine is
a fable; but his constitution of 321,
by which he authorized churches to
acquire and hold property of every
description, by gift, testamentary do-
nation, or purchase, is the real source
of the wealth of the church. From



GERMANIC EMPIRE. II

him and his successors, the Popes ob- a. c.
tained extensive possessions in Italy,
Sicily, Dalmatia, France and Africa.
In consequence of their descendible
quality from Pope to Pope, they were
called the Patrimony of St. Peter. Other
churches had their respective patrimo-
nies, to which they gave the name of
an eminent saint of the district. Thus,
the landed property of the church of
Ravenna, was called the patrimony of
St. Apollinaris; that, of the church
of Milan, was called the patrimony of
St. Ambrose; and that of Venice, was
called the patrimony of St. Mark.— In
this manner, the Popes became Own-
ers of Houses and Farms.

The laws of Constantine and his suc-
cessors conferred on them, something
like a right of civil jurisdiction. This
was increased by the circumstances
and temper of the times ; and thus they
acquired the Power of Magistracy.



12 REVOLUTIONS OF THE

After Justinian had reconquered a c.
Italy, Rome was governed by a duke,
who like the other dukes of Italy, was
wholly subordinate to the exarch of
Ravenna. Still, as the Popes con-
stantly resided at Rome, their spiritual
character, their talents, the use they
made of them, and particularly, the
sums of money spent by them in pub-
lic and private charities, in support of
the walls and fortresses of the city of
Rome, and in maintaining troops for
its defence, endeared them to the Ro-
man people. This gave them consider-
able political influence in the city of
Rome, and the adjoining parts of Italy.
Their exertion of it was always useful,
and sometimes necessary for answer-
ing the purposes of government; and
thus the Popes became possessed, in-
directly, of Temporal Power.

Such was the situation of the Popes,
when Leo the Isaurian, began his at- 720



GERMANIC EMPIRE. ]3

tack on Religious Devotion to Images, a. c.
He issued an edict, for the destruction
of them, in every pait of his empire.
It was received, with universal execra-
tion, and occasioned numberless tu-
mults. In Ravenna, it produced an
insurrection, of which Liutprand, the
king of the Lombards, took advantage,
to make himself master of the city;
but it was reconquered from him, by
the assistance of pope Gregory the 2d
and the Venetians; and they restored
it to the exarch. The emperor then
ordered his edict to be executed at
Rome; and, on its being opposed by
the pope, directed, that the pope should
be brought to him, dead or alive. Li-
utprand offered the pope his protec-
tion; besieged and took some towns of
the exarchate, and advanced towards
Rome. Equally averse from the em-
peror and the Lombard king, the peo-
ple formed themselves into a separate



14 REVOLUTIONS OF THE

government, under their magistrates, a. c
and placed the pope at their head.
This proceeding was alike offensive to
Liutprand and the exarch ; they agreed
to unite their forces, and possess .them-
selves of the city of Rome. - - - -729

In this distress, the pope made re-
peated applications to the emperor,
ursine him to abandon his iconoclas-
tic projects, which had alienated the
minds of his subjects, and pressing
him to send them succours against the
Lombards. These, the emperor often
promised, but never sent; and this
made it necessary for the Romans to
apply for them to another power.

2. France was the only state from
which they could hope for relief; but,
from Thierry the 3d, who reigned in
688, France had been subject to a suc-
cession of princes, to whom history has
given the appellation of the Sluggard
Kings.



GERMANIC EMPIRE. 15

i

They enjoyed merely a shadow of a. c.
royal authority. The mayors of the
palace, or, as they are called by the
writers of the time, the Majoresfdo-
musfregiae, from being chief officers of
the household, had insensibly grown
to such a degree of consequence, as to
possess the whole civil and military
power of the state. They are traced
to the reign of Clotaire the 2d; but
Pepin of Heristhall, of the family of
the counts of Ardenne, a country be-
tween the Moselle and the Scheld,
seems to have been the first of them,
who formed the project of usurping
the royal authority, and making it he-
reditary in his own family. The states
appointed him regent of the kingdom:
Charles Martel, his natural son, suc-
ceeded him in the regency; and as-
sumed the title of Duke and Prince of
the Francs.

To him, pope Gregory the 2d made



16 REVOLUTIONS OF THE

his application; but neither the nature A.c.
of the application, nor the answer it
received, is known. In effect, the pope
was left to his own genius to deliver
himself and the people, who relied on
his protection, from the dangers which
threatened them. He succeeded be-
yond his wishes ; he prevailed on Liut-
prand, not only to desist from his
enterprise, but to restore several cities,
which he had conquered from the
exarchate. Shortly after, he died,
leaving one of the fairest characters
recorded in history.

He was succeeded by pope Gregory
the 3d. During his pontificate, the
emperor and the kings of Lombardy
persisted in their respective projects,
against the pope and city of Rome;
and the Lombard king declared war
against them. Upon this, the pope
finding his applications, to the em-
peror, fruitless, sent a solemn embassy



GERMANIC EMPIRE. 17

to Charles Martel. It was accom- A.c.
panied by a deputation from the se-
nate and people of Rome ; conferring
on him the dignities of patrician and
consul. The deputies were honourably
received; but Charles Martel died
without giving the pope any effectual
assistance. His titles, dignities and ta-
lents, devolved to Pepin, his eldest son.
Pope Gregory the 3d died soon after,
and was succeeded by pope Zachary. 741

Matters were now brought to a cri-
sis. On the side of Pepin, the inglori-
ous existence of the Merovingian kings
had continued^ and the mayors of the
palace had exercised all the functions
of royalty so long, that, excepting the
right, nothing but the name of king-
was wanting to Pepin. On the side of
Zachary, it was evident, that, without
instant, powerful, and permanent pro-
tection, the pope and city of Rome
must fall a prey to the kingdom of
c



18 REVOLUTIONS OF THE

Lombardy. The protection which Za- A.c.
chary wanted, Pepin could grant: the
rii>ht to the kingdom and the name of
king, which Pepin wanted, Zachary
could not confer; but, to a general be-
lief, that Pepin possessed the former,
and to his obtaining the latter, Zachary
could contribute much. Their mutual
wants produced a treaty of mutual as-
sistance. In consequence of it, Pepin
sent two confidential agents to the
pope, proposing to him, as a case of
conscience, whether, as, in the empire
of the Francs, ah the Power of Royalty
had been so long held and exercised
by the famity of Pepin, it was not pro-
per, under the existing circumstances,
that they should also have the name of
king. The pope pronounced that he,
who had the power, ought to have the
name of king. On receiving the pope's
answer, Pepin called an assembly of
the states at Soissons; he was unani-



GERMANIC EMPIRE. lQ

mously proclaimed king and enthroned. A. c.
He was crowned and anointed king by
St. Boniface, the bishop of Mentz, a
prelate eminent for the holiness of his
life; and, from the extent and success
of his missionary labours, beyond the
Rhine, called the apostle of Germany.
—Thus ended the Merovingian dynas-
ty, after reigning two hundred and
seventy years from the accession of
Clovis. Chilperic, the reigning mo-
narch, was shut up in the monastery of
St. Bertin in the city of St. Omer in
Artois: Thierry, his only son, was shut
up in the monastery of Fontenelles, in
Normandy: the father died in 754, the
time of the son's death is unknown. 750

Pope Zachary did not long survive
this revolution; he was succeeded by
Stephen the 2d.

On the death of Liutprand, Astol-
phus his brother and successor, made
himself master of Ravenna, and all the



20 REVOLUTIONS OF* THE

the territories of the exarchate and 4be- A.c.
Pentapolis; and thus put an cud to
the power of the Exarch in Italy. . . 752

He then turned his forces against
the city of Rome; and avowed his in-
tention of making the Romans his sub-
jects and compelling them to pay him
a poll tax of a penny of gold. The
pope applied to Constantine, the em-
peror of Constantinople, for relief; he
granted him none, but ordered him to
wait, in person, on Astolphus, to soli-
cit the restoration of Ravenna, the
exarchate, and the Pentapolis. The
pope obeyed; but, being ill received
by Astolphus, hastened into France.
In his own name, and in the names of
the clergy, senate, nobility/ and people


1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Online LibraryCharles ButlerA connected series of notes on the chief revolutions of the principal states which composed the empire of Charlemagne, from his coronation in 814, to its dissolution in 1806: on the geneaologies [!] o → online text (page 1 of 13)