Charles Chapman Grafton.

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gracious the Lord is." It Lives in another than a
mere material world. To it there is no joy like the
peace of God "which passeth understanding." Filled
with love it desires to work for others. It hears the
cry of humanity lying in darkness. It feels the weak-
ness of the Church, wounded and stricken by divisions.
It may be able to do a little, but it must not wrap its
talent in a napkin and bury it. If we cannot go
forth as priests or sisters, yet in every parish and in
every department of society there is work to be done.
The principle of the Incarnation, which God brought
down from heaven to save us, must be our example.
The soul on the rock, saved from the angry, raging



waves, must not be content with its own safety, but
must stretch down its hand to some fellow-creature
still struggling in the waves for life. Why hold back
the sacrifice of the things of this earth, when looking
down from heaven is seen the face of the Blessed
Lord? Why let our human fears conquer us, when it
is the omnipotent word of the Master that bids us

We are living in days when the last great battle
between Christ and His foes is on. Let us not be like
the children of Ephraim, who, being harnessed and
carrying bows, turned themselves back in the day of
battle. There is no cause for which a man can live
so worthy of efforts as the cause of Christ. Nothing
is so worth knowing as the will of God in our regard;
nothing so worth doing as obedience to His will. Let
us be up and doing most happy if we can lay down
our lives for Christ's dear sake.

As love becomes the ruling principle within us, it
fills our whole nature. The soul, being emptied of
self-love, attains to a heavenly calm and assured
peace. As we become one with God, God puts Him-
self at our disposal, for our wills are His. Secured in
the love of God, the soul passes safely through the
purifying desolation which may beset it. Even here
God fills it with the sweetness and light of joy and
transformation, and becomes the life of its life and the
soul of its soul.

O Lord, in Thy tender mercy give me an emptied
heart, a heart emptied of all worldly desire, ambition,
and all self-seeking and self-love.


Give me a detached heart, made free, even by Thy
discipline, from all inordinate affections. May it be
set on Thee as the supreme Lover and Governor of
my soul.

Give me, O Blessed Lord, a humble and lowly heart
like unto Thine own. Hide me, Dearest, in Thine
own hiddenness and fill me with Thy peace. Give
me, O Jesus, my King, my God, a resigned heart.
May Thy will be done in me and by me, and may I
have my joy in that Thou hast Thy will. Give me, O
Lord, ever present in Thy Church and people, a recol-
lected heart. May I guard Thine indwelling as a
sacred trust. Give me the chivalry and the loyalty
of a true knight of Thine. Clothe me with the
heavenly armor. And grant me perseverance unto
the end!


" Pray for the peace of Jerusalem I "

I EVER labored for a restoration of outward union
between all Christian bodies. When the Asso-
ciation for the Promotion of Christian Unity was
founded, I became an active member of it. It has
always been my custom in consequence to say daily a
prayer for a united Christendom.

I have desired to see the restoration of Christian
fellowship between the separated portions of Apostolic
Christianity. It would be a great benefit to Christ
and the extension of Christ's Kingdom if the Eastern
Orthodox Churches and the Western ones, the Latin
and the Anglican, could cease their warfare and work
harmoniously together. Nor should we of the An-
glican Communion withhold our sympathy from those
sectarian bodies that have gone out from us, but pray
that the breaches may be healed. I have always
been kindly received by the latter. When a priest
serving in Boston, I was asked by the Baptist
denomination to address their clergy on the subject
of Church work. I have taken part in services with
them which were of a national character. I have
been asked to address their congregations on the
position and teaching of our Church. On one occa-
sion quite a number of the ministers, belonging to the


various denominations in the heart of one of our
large cities, asked me to conduct a retreat for them.
They had heard about retreats as means of spiritual
progress, and desired that I should give one to them,
leaving all arrangements in my hands and making me
its sole conductor.

I do not think any union with the sects can be
brought about by dealing with them in their cor-
porate capacity. The ties which now bind them to-
gether are too strong to allow of an absorption or
confederation. They regard their prosperity as a
token of God's blessing on their organizations. Nor
would a better state of feeling be produced by what
is called an "open pulpit." This would not only
more surely convince them of the rightfulness of their
separation and sectarian theology, but would be at the
expense of the disruption of our own communion.
But possibly separate congregations might be brought
into union with us by the allowance of a temporary
use of a service approved by the Bishops of a Province,
and a continuance of the administrations of the former
pastor, for a time, as a lay reader. When a body or
a congregation should desire union with us, they
might wait for a time before receiving the Sacraments,
which, until their own minister was ordained, would
be supplied by a priest of the Church.

Concerning restored communion between the Apos-
tolic Eastern, that is Russian and Greek, Churches,
and the Western, that is Roman and Anglican, we
must note a distinction between unity and union.

Our Lord prayed that His Church might be one as


He and the Father are one. Now He and the Father
are one by unity of possessing a common Nature.
It is an organic and indestructible unity. It is this
kind of unity that He prayed should be that of His
Church. This unity of the Church is secured by
those gifts of sacramental grace which, uniting all
the members to Christ, make them partakers of His
nature, and brothers and sisters of His one family or
flock. By this union with Christ an indestructible
unity is secured. So that all members of these vari-
ous branches of the Church, united to Christ and
having His life flowing, as it were, in their veins, form
one body in His sight. Christ also prayed for union.
He prayed for such a visible union as that the world,
seeing all nationalities united together by the tie of
Christian charity, should have therein a witness of
His divine mission. What has happened has been
that this union or intercommunion has been dis-
turbed. As Christ prayed for union we should also
pray for its restoration.

But we must always pray in submission and con-
formity to the will of God. How do we know that
it is His will that the separated portions of Chris-
tendom should be united? Is there any intimation
of it in Holy Scripture? Did He desire the reuniting
of Israel and Judah after their separation? Did He
not forbid the conquering of one portion by the other?
How is it in respect to the Christian Church? It
fell into the same sin as Israel in desiring a visible
head, and, as in the case of Israel, disunion was the
result. What is to be, according to the divine will,


the course of His Church on earth? It is not to
conquer the world and to make the world good. It is
to gather out of the world those who are to form the
Kingdom of Righteousness, which is to last forever.
The world is in opposition to Christ, and will become
more so as time goes on. The world will treat the
Church, which is the coming Bride of Christ, as it
treated Christ. It will gradually reject orthodox
Christianity for some rationalized theology of its
own making. It will gain a foothold within the body
of the Church itself, which will be the source of its
division. Christianity, as a world's victor, will be a
failure. Its true victory will be found in its faith in
Christ, which will not thereby be disturbed.

Now it is this that Christ prophesied of His Church.
His Gospel will be preached first of all as a witness to
all nations. But as the end draws nigh the powers of
the Church will be shaken. The glory of Christ's
Deity, who is the Sun of Righteousness, will be ob-
scured. The stars of heaven, that is, the Bishops and
priests of the Church, will fall away. The sign of
the Cross, that is, persecution, will be seen. The out-
ward garment of Christ will be rent by divisions.
While the bones of the mystical Body of Christ cannot
be broken, for the unity of the Body is indestructible,
yet all the bones, as symbolical of the union and co-
ordinate working of each part, will be out of joint.
The outer framework of the Church, like the ship in
which St. Paul sailed, will suffer shipwreck. It is of
those in this Gospel Ship that the angel said to Paul:
"Lo, God hath given thee all them that sail with thee."


Christ never made such promise, we may note in pass-
ing, to St. Peter. He only preached out of Peter's
boat as representing the Old Dispensation, and brought
Peter to confession of his sinfulness. But no security
was pledged to the Old or the New Dispensation
organization. Peter's boat began to sink and St.
Paul's went to pieces. The Church must thus calmly
look on to the end. There will be, it is true, at the
second coming of Christ, a deep religious movement
within the Church, just as there was at His first
coming. But Christ has promised no triumph of the
Church over the world.

While then we may pray for outward union, we
must be content with the real unity of the Body of
Christ. We cannot say that it is God's will that the
different portions of disunited Christendom will ever
be united. We must not say, as if we knew with
absolute certainty, that outward union is what God
wants. There are reasons why it may be otherwise.
The prophecies, at least, do not point that way.
While for a long portion of my life I hoped for the
reunion in Western Christendom of the Anglican and
Latin Communions, after the Roman rejection of our
orders, which was in itself, I believe, a great blessing,
the union seemed a practical impossibility. The Holy
Spirit in the last century has been striving with the
Anglican Communion to regain its full heritage of
faith and worship. And, in some degree, the An-
glican Church has made a loving response to God.
She has done penance for her sins. She has made
acknowledgment of her faults. She has extended her


love to her separated brethren. Her sons and
daughters have given themselves with heroic devo-
tion to the cause of Christ. The Faith as taught from
the beginning throughout the ages, and as announced
by all portions of Christendom, has been held with
revived energy. The Holy Sacrament and Sacrifice
of the Eucharist has been largely restored as the one
great worship for the Lord's Day. Responding to
the Spirit's call, she has put on her glorious cere-
monial as an expression of her faith and love. She
has aroused herself from her Erastian slumber like a
giant refreshed with wine.

On the other hand the same Holy Spirit has been
pleading with the Latin Communion; pleading with
her, through the Anglican Church, through the
Eastern Synods, by the Old Catholic Movement, by
the stirring call of the Modernist, by the movement
in favor of a liberal Catholicity, and by those whom
Rome itself would call her loyal and faithful children,
to cease to be papal and to become more Catholic.
The modern monarchical absolutism of the papacy,
which makes the Pope the source of all jurisdiction,
gives him an exclusive legislative power, makes him
the judge of all controversies, the doctor and teacher
of the Church apart from the Councils, is a papacy
different in kind from the honour, precedence, and
lawful influence given by tradition and canon law to
the Pope as the first Bishop of Christendom. He
refuses our acknowledgment of his primacy, demand-
ing a submission to his supremacy. He claims, on
the non-Patristic interpretation of three texts, the



Forged Donation of Constantine, and the Forged
Decretals, a power as of divine right which the ancient
Church knew not of, and the Eastern and the Angli-
can Churches, without faithlessness to their Lord,
cannot acknowledge. But the question between the
Anglican and Roman to-day is not that of the six-
teenth century. While the Church of England, with
some mistakes it may be admitted, sought in legal
fashion and by appeal to the ancient faith to reform
herself by conforming to Apostolic traditions, the
teaching of the Fathers, the doctrines of the Councils,
and by common consent; Rome, repudiating an appeal
to history, has widened the breach in Christendom
by adding doctrines, like those of the Immaculate
Conception of the Blessed Virgin and Papal Infalli-
bility, to her Creed. In her claim to a temporal
sovereignty she has surrounded herself with the pomp
and splendor of an earthly court. By her love of
power, her worldliness, centralized dictatorship, and
her Italian policy, she contravenes the injunction of
our Lord: "My Kingdom is not of this world." We
may pray for Rome's conversion, but only a moral
earthquake, as terrible as the physical one which
destroyed Messina, can shatter the papacy and make
possible a reunion with her.

We turn gladly and more hopefully to the Eastern
Churches. Rome's one term of union is summed up hi
the word " submission. ' ' We must submit and be incor-
porated in her. We must submit and become papali?ed.
Now the Eastern Church does not ask us to submit.
In her great love she only asks: "Are we of the same


faith? " Have we kept the faith of the Fathers, as she
certainly has? If we are one with her in faith, then
she opens her heart and says: "We are brethren."

A way, then, to union with the East is first of all to
develop union within ourselves. The different schools
in the English Church do agree, we believe, in the same
creed, the same great principles of the faith, and use
the same Book of Common Prayer. Whatever tends
to the minimizing of party spirit, to the better under-
standing of one another, tends to the unity of Christ-
endom. It is at home that the effort of union must
first be made. We must be practically one amongst
ourselves, and this unity is consistent with a diversity
of allowed ritual and ceremonial. Let this be brought
about, and union, we believe, in Christian fellowship
with the Eastern Churches will not be far distant.

It may be interesting here for my readers to read a
letter of mine sent to the Most Reverend Archbishop
Antonius; also a report I made after a visit to Russia
to the Bishops and members of our Commission on
Ecclesiastical Relations; also a letter addressed to
Antonius, the presiding member of the Holy Govern-
ing Synod of Russia, and to the Synod through him:




"Having been brought into personal and friendly relations
with some of the members of the Russian Orthodox Church,


including the Right Reverend Bishop Tikhon and the Most
Reverend Antonius, Metropolitan of St. Petersburg, I was
urgently requested by some, among whom was the Russian
Consul General Lodygenski in New York, to visit St. Peters-
burg hi the interest of Christian fellowship. At the same tune,
as a member of our Commission, the Right Rev. Bishop Hunt-
ington, our chairman, gave me a letter, accrediting me as a
member of our body, to the Russian Church.

"I was also honored by the following letter, given under the
hand and seal of our late Right Reverend Presiding Bishop,
Dr. Clark:

"'To the Most Reverend Antonius, Archbishop and
Metropolitan of St. Petersburg :

" ' Will you allow me to introduce to you the Right Reverend
Charles Chapman Grafton, D.D., Bishop of Fond du Lac, in
the United States of America, who is visiting in Russia hi order
to learn all that he can of the Church in that country, and also
to give information, wherever it is desired, of the condition of
the Church in this part of the world? It is his wish, and that
of many others, to establish and continue fraternal relations
between the Eastern Church in Russia and the Church in

"'Any attentions, therefore, which may be shown him, or
any aid that he may receive in his investigations, will be warmly
reciprocated by the Church in this country.
I am, with great respect,

Your affectionate brother in Christ,


Presiding Bishop of the Episcopal Church in the United

States of America,'
August 18, 1903.

"The object of my visit, as stated hi this letter, was to ob-
tain information concerning the Orthodox Church and to give
any information of the condition of the Church in this part of
the world. The Presiding Bishop also stated that it was the


wish of many here to establish and continue fraternal relations
between the Eastern Church in Russia and the Church in

"Our Secretary, Father De Rosset, also wrote and requested
me to prepare a report on the question of the rapprochement of
the Anglican and Eastern Communions to present to the Com-
mission at the coming Convention. It is in consequence of
this request that I lay this report before you.

"I sailed from New York on the twenty-second of August
last, returning on the eighth of November. I was accom-
panied by the Rev. Sigourney W. Fay, Jr., who acted as my
chaplain, and was joined in England by W. J. Birkbeck, Esq.,
who also accompanied me to Russia. Mr. Birkbeck is prob-
ably well known to you by his writings. His knowledge of
the Russian language and his many years of intercourse with
Russian ecclesiastics and with persons of high social position,
made his assistance in obtaining our desired information most
valuable. He had also accompanied the Archbishop of York
when he visited Russia as a representative of the English
Church at the coronation of the Czar.

"During my stay in Russia I visited St. Petersburg, Mos-
cow, and the Troitsa Monastery, not far from the latter

"On arrival at St. Petersburg, it being the Feast of the Holy
Cross, I attended the service at the Lavra, or Monastery, of
the Alexander Nefsky. It was on a Saturday evening. There
were about three thousand persons present in the congregation,
a large part of whom, as I found was the case in almost all
their services, were men.

"On Sunday, accompanied by the Hon. Vladimir Sabler,
Senator, the assistant to the Procurator-General of the Holy
Synod, I attended the liturgy at the great Church of St. Isaac's,
and was received within the Iconastasis, during the service,
and afterwards was welcomed by Bishop Constantine, one of
the Coadjutor Bishops of St. Petersburg and the Dean of the

"During my stay in St. Petersburg I saw Alexius, the



Exarch of Georgia, who is a member ex officio of the Holy
Synod. The Holy Governing Synod consists, we may say, ex
officio of the Metropolitan of St. Petersburg, who is the Presi-
dent, the Metropolitan of Moscow and Kief, the Exarch of
Georgia, and other temporary members, among whom was my
friend, Bishop Tikhon.

"During my stay in St. Petersburg I had many conversa-
tions with General Kereef, who has taken such a deep interest
in the union of the Churches. He has published several
pamphlets concerning the relations of the different commun-
ions to each other. From him I obtained a great deal of in-
formation as to the attitude of the Russian laity towards their
Church, and on the subject of restored intercommunion.

"My own impression of the laity corresponds with that of
the late Bishop Creighton, that the Russians are the most
religious nation in Europe. While it may be said that the
English are the most practical, the French the most logical,
the Germans the most learned, the Italians the most artistic,
and the Americans the most freedom-loving, of Russia it may
fairly be said that, as a nation, she is the most religious. It is
certainly one proof of this to see the enormous congregations,
composed so largely of men, assembled in their churches. At
St. Saviour's, Moscow, the great church built in thanksgiving
for Russia's deliverance from Napoleon, I saw on an ordinary
Sunday a congregation of eight thousand or ten thousand
persons. In every railroad station, public building, in every
private house are to be seen icons, or sacred pictures, which
not only remind persons of sacred subjects, but bring forth
in most public places acts of devotion. Nor is this a mere
matter of external piety; the religion reaches into their
business affairs. It is common for the great merchants of
Moscow to hold religious services in their places of business once
a year, to offer thanks to God for the way in which they have
been prospered, and to make substantial acknowledgment of
it by offerings to the Church. The popular idea with us, that
the Russians are given excessively to drink, is disproved by
statistics, which show that, since the Government has abolished


saloons, the amount of liquor consumed per capita in Russia is
less than that taken in England or America.

"I was also honored by a visit from that holy priest, Father
St. John Sergieff. The simplicity, earnestness, and piety of
this remarkable and wonder-working man was most striking.
One could not but be drawn to him by his deep evangelical
spirit, nor, when one came to know him and learn of his life,
doubt of the many wonders God has seen fit to work through
his prayers. He was a living witness to the truth that in all
ages and in all portions of the Catholic Church God is raising
up persons to a supernatural degree of holiness and sanctity.

"It would be interesting, if I had time, to enter into the great
missionary spirit of the Russian Church, their missionary
societies, and the evangelical work which is done throughout
Siberia, Japan, and elsewhere. In examining their training of
their clergy for the priesthood, I noticed that there was an
ecclesiastical school and seminary in every diocese, and in
addition there were three or four academies. In these academies
the higher grade of students, selected from the others, received
a higher education and were trained for professors and the
higher walks of the ministry.

"On my arrival the Metropolitan of St. Petersburg was
absent, and upon invitation of the Archbishop and Metropoli-
tan of Moscow, I went thither, proceeding first to the famous
Monastery of the Troitsa, where I spent the Feast of St.
Sergius, with his Excellency Vladimir. It was a wonderful
sight to see the many thousands of pilgrims who had assembled
thither to keep the feast; and the blessing of them by the
Metropolitan, from the parapet overlooking the great court-
yard, was a touching spectacle.

"Here I made a visit to the Ecclesiastical Academy and the
Seminary, where I was entertained and where I had many
speeches of welcome made me by the professors. On my
return to Moscow I was the guest, with the others of my party,
at the Monastery of St. Michael, in the Kremlin. We received
every attention from the prior Innokenti, who has since been
consecrated Bishop of our Pacific Coast and Alaska.


( The portrait is inscribed, in Russian: " /poj, September 28th.
To the Most Reverend Charles Grafton, Bishop of Fond du Lac, in
remembrance of f'ladimir, Metropoleet of Moscow."}


"It would be tedious and unnecessary to mention the vari-
ous visits made to different ecclesiastics and the Church's
institutions, where we were everywhere most warmly received.
On my return to St. Petersburg I was entertained by the Dean,
Bishop Sergius, and the professors at the Academy. Here the
students met me with the usual hymn of salutation, and in
my progress through the institution I was addressed at different
points by the students in speeches in Latin, Greek, and Eng-
lish. Subsequently I had interviews with His Eminence
Antonius, and dined with him and the Exarch of Georgia,
the Archbishop of Novgorod, Bishop Tikhon, and others of the

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