Charles Chapman Grafton.

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of the ancient Church, in resorting to General
Councils in time of need, and not to the supposed
infallibility of a Pope, shows that it did not know
it to exist. I do not know of any Father for the
first six hundred years who explicitly says that the
Pope is infallible. How modern this doctrine is,
may be shown from an extract from Keenan's
Roman Catholic Catechism, put forth by authority
of Archbishop Hughes. "Is the Pope Infallible?"
is the question. The answer given is, "No, this is a
protestant invention." This was the authorized
teaching of the Roman Church in 1850. Believing
that the Holy Spirit was given to the Church to
enable it to preserve by definitions the revelation
given in Christ, but not to add to the Faith once
delivered, in the interests of a true Catholicity we
reject as dogmas that of the Immaculate Concep-
tion of the Blessed Virgin and the infallibility of the
Pope.



242 COUNCIL ADDRESSES

Again believing that Christ made on Calvary a
full satisfaction to God for sin, we also reject the
popular doctrine of a penal and suffering purgatory
where souls for forgiven sins must pay a penalty to
satisfy a debt still due to the Justice of God. Our
Heavenly Father's justice does not need any further
satisfaction than Christ made, and man is incapable
of making any. The souls of the Faithful, having
knowledge of their acceptance, are in peace and
felicity, but as imperfect, they need a remedial
purification for their attainment to the life of Glory
and the Beatific Vision.

In our discipline, we allow of married clergy, and
believe it has tended to godliness, and while offering
the blessing of personal absolution to every one, we
leave it to the conscience of each person to use it
as he finds best.

In our worship, we give the Blessed Sacrament
after the method of the ancient and undivided
Church for the first one thousand years, in both
kinds, and we use in our Liturgy a language under-
stood by the people. Thus we keep, while admitting
our own imperfections, the ancient way.

THE ANGLICAN COMMUNION'S REVIVAL

While in the last century the Holy Spirit has pre-
sented the issue to our Communion whether it would
recover its true Catholicity or sink back into a
rationalizing Protestantism, our Church, under God's
guidance, has progressively, with emphasis, declared
its choice of Catholicity. She has again put on her



COUNCIL ADDRESSES 243

beautiful garments, reordered her worship, developed
her saintly life, and gone forth with an enthusiastic
missionary spirit. While, on the other hand, the
Holy Spirit, having presented to Rome, through her
own children, the issue whether she would return to
ancient Catholicity or continue Papal, she has more
and more rejected that Catholicity in favor of a
temporal power, a monarchial papalism which has
been obviously the development of forgeries, a
worldly spirit, the love of power, and been the
chief cause of the loss of unity and the division of
Christendom.

Why should American Catholics be called to sup-
port the papal court, when the Italian government
guarantees its independency and grants it six hun-
dred thousand dollars a year?

UNION WITH ROME IMPOSSIBLE

It is as foolish a conception that the Anglican
Bishops would ever give up their recovered freedom
and place themselves again under the tyranny of
the Papacy, as that our blacks would vote them-
selves back into slavery; or England's free people
tear up their Bill of Rights and go back to Tudor
despotism. The Anglican Church and Rome can
never be united so long as the Papacy continues as it
is. Reunion is impossible. Individual secession,
involving as it does the denial of our most certain
Orders and sacraments, and the desertion of our
posts, is the resort only of faithless souls and the
most grievous of spiritual sins.



244 COUNCIL ADDRESSES

Say not, the struggle nought availeth,

The labor and the wounds are vain,
The enemy faints not, nor faileth,

And as things have been they remain;
If hopes were dupes, fears may be liars;

It may be, in yon smoke concealed,
Your comrades chase e'en now the fliers,

And, but for you, possess the field.

THE FAITH AND SCIENCE

Again, in our day, the Catholic Faith has been
challenged by science and what has been called the
"Higher Criticism." There is a great difference
between what science has discovered in the realm of
Nature and that system of interpretation of Scrip-
ture which is called " Higher Criticism." There is
nothing modern science has discovered which affects
the Christian dogmatic teaching any more than the
discoveries of science in the sixteenth century.
Persons once thought that if the Copernican theory
of our Solar system was found to be true and the
earth had a daily revolution, then the Scriptures
were thereby proved to be untrue. But as the dis-
covery was found not to affect the Christian religion
or its dogmas, so the discovery of modern geologists
that the world was not made in six days does not
affect the Christian Faith. The Bible never said it
was made in six days of twenty-four hours. Again:
the glorious discovery of the Law of Evolution in
the last century has only gone to show the method
in which the Divine Mind developed the present
organization. It has added a proof that the pro-



COUNCIL ADDRESSES 245

gressive and intelligent development seen in the
Universe is the result of an omnipotent power and
intelligent Will. If there is thus an intelligent and
omnipotent power, no intelligent theist can object
to the possibility of miracles. We find, therefore, no
real opposition between the ascertained facts of
science and the revelation in God's Word.

THE HIGHER CRITICISM

Concerning the Higher Criticism of the Old Testa-
ment Scriptures; there has been much study concern-
ing its formation, just as there has been concerning
the formation of the material world. In regard
to the Scriptures, it is immaterial whether the early
chapters of Genesis are historical or allegorical. It
is immaterial whether there was one Isaiah or two;
whether the Pentateuch was written by Moses alone,
or by the aid of several others. What as Christians
we reject is any theory that casts doubt on the
validity and truth of Our Master's teaching. We
cannot, for instance, accept the theory that the
Patriarchs were fictitious beings when Our Blessed
Lord based His argument of the immortality of the
soul on the real existence of Abraham, Isaac, and
Jacob. We cannot believe that the accounts in
Deuteronomy of the establishment of a Tabernacle
in the Wilderness was a fiction written up after the
return to Babylon. We believe on Our Lord's au-
thority that there was an actual Deluge, that David
was the author of the noth Psalm, and that, through
Moses, God revealed the Law.



246 COUNCIL ADDRESSES

In respect of the New Testament, the tradition
and consciousness of the Catholic Church bears
witness to the authorship of the Gospels and the
truthfulness of their record. The Holy Ghost
dwells in the Church, and we must censure those,
who, rejecting its traditions, seek to learn the teach-
ing of Christ, from persons living outside the sphere
of the Church's Divine illumination. The Holy
Scriptures can only be rightly understood by those
who are living members of the Holy Body in which
the Holy Spirit dwells, who is the author of those
Holy Writings. It is only by the saints the writings
of the saints are comprehended. Thus there are
two kinds of Biblical scholars the merely intel-
lectual, who criticize the Bible like any other book,
and the spiritually illuminated, who know it to be
the awful and profound Word of God. Only the
latter are true scholars; the opinions of the others
are of no value.

THE GOSPELS AND ST. JOHN

Concerning Our Lord's life; it could not be written
after the fashion of modern historical research. His
life was divine, marvelous, sublime. There could
be no data given, by mere record of eyewitnesses,
which would enable any person unassisted by the
Holy Ghost to write it. For the Holy Gospels are
no less than the life of God upon the earth, written
by His Holy Spirit. St. Matthew, St. Mark, and
St. Luke, being divinely illuminated and controlled,
set forth, unconsciously to themselves, the kingly,



COUNCIL ADDRESSES 247

prophetical, and priestly offices of Christ. They
wrote of Christ, but Christ by His Spirit wrote
through them. They declared His Messianic offices,
His public and the official side of His life. St. John
reveals the awfulness of His Godhead and His rela-
tion to His Father. The author of the Fourth Gospel
had necessarily a peculiar and special training and
enlightenment, and could have been none other than
the disciple who leaned on Jesus' bosom and to whom
was revealed Christ in Glory. The Fourth Gospel
was necessary to complete the Revelation of the
Incarnate Son of God, of whom no mortal could by
earthly wisdom reveal the height or breadth or
length. O Marvelous Mind of Infinite Love.
O wonderful revelation of Infinite Holiness. O
Burning Bush of Divine Wisdom. Put we our
shoes off our feet and bow we down to Christ in the
Gospel. Far away be the disputing of the unillumi-
nated and unspiritual. Silent be the din of con-
troversy and novelties of these latter and evil days.
Hushed be the sounds of Earth, the babblings of the
schools, the noise of all passing and fleeting things.
Hushed be all the rebellions of mind and heart, that
we may as children listen to the Word of God that
abideth forever.

THE TWO ANTAGONISTS OF SOCIALISM AND
MODERNISM

In the latter days, the Church of God is assaulted
by two forces, one in the political sphere and the
other in the religious world. These two are known



248 COUNCIL ADDRESSES

as "Socialism" and "Modernism." It does not
belong to me here to treat of the former. It is a
rising popular and political force. It is divided into
two schools, one of which calls itself Christian Social-
ism. Both have a common basis, however, in their
belief, and they have both popular arguments in their
favor. Socialism appeals to our sympathies by its
proposed relief of the burdens of the poor and
laboring classes. It asks for the government owner-
ship of all the chief productions of wealth. In the
claimed advantages to be bestowed upon the many,
however, it minimizes the rights of the individual.
It can only accomplish the ends it seeks by a large
surrender of individual rights and the elevation of
some "man on horseback."

It thus singularly foreshadows the uprising of the
last and great final Anti-Christ, a counterfeit Christ,
who, filled with philanthropic ideas, promising the
improvement of mankind, will demand for their
accomplishment an imperial and tyrannous power.
The Anti-Christ will pose as a great reformer and
favor a morality of his own. He may be a pro-
hibitionist but in favor of easy divorce, a bestower
of old age pensions, and a chloroformer of the insane
and confirmed criminals, an eight or six hours a day
for the laborer, and a limitation of the accumulation
of wealth, a worship of nature and not of a personal
God and a practical disbelief in a future. I will
only, here, point out that the Christian religion,
while it aids civilization, does not make civilization
its end. The Gospel has a higher end than to save



COUNCIL ADDRESSES 249

man individually, nor did Christ come by His re-
ligion to make this world a good world. He came
to evolve a new world out of this present one, and
one that should be filled with righteousness and last
forever. This new world is His mystical Body,
the holy Church; and as He said, after having done
His work in the World, "I pray not for the World,
but for those Thou hast given Me." Christ loved
His Church and gave Himself for it, and it is by the
creation of the Church God's wisdom is manifested
in creating and His Glory declared by its final result.

"Modernism" in theology is a revival of cultured
paganism. It rejects everything that cannot bear
the tests of experiment and of modern historical
methods. It shuns or does not accept the super-
natural. In its critical phase, it rejects the historical
value of the Gospel of St. John. The historical
Christ fades away before its solvents. It comes to
reject the historical Christ as He has been presented
to us in the Church and replaces it by a distillation
of His doctrines which it calls the essential Christ.
It rejects the Church's definitions concerning Christ's
deity, His two Natures, two Wills and one Person.
It argues for a morality without a real Christ or
effective sacraments uniting us to Him. It has
much of rhetorical fervor about the elevation of
mankind, its dignity and happiness, and is full of
philanthropic schemes for man's improvement.

Dear Brethren, we are thus in the presence, in this
twentieth century, of two forces : socialism in politics,
and modernism in religion. I believe both have



250 COUNCIL ADDRESSES

their inspiration in the human spirit, rather than
that of the Holy Ghost. Let us as faithful men hold
fast the Faith once delivered, undisturbed by modern
criticism, in trustful faith and looking for the
glorious and triumphant coming of Our Lord.

THE DIVISIONS IN THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH

Again: the sad divisions of the Western Church
gave rise to the Protestant system. The term
" Protestant" has originally a good signification. I
would not deny that the Reformation was forced on
by the evils existing in the Latin Church. Cardinals
and Councils had again and again cried out for a
Reformation in the Head of the Church and its
members. Refused and repressed, an explosion was
the necessary consequence. It would have come if a
Luther or a Henry VIII had never existed. There
was indeed a great difference between the Revolu-
tion which took place in the northern part of Eu-
rope, and the Reformation of the Church, by the
Church, in the Church, which took place in England.

In England, the continuity of the Church and the
Catholic Faith, the priesthood and the sacraments,
were preserved. It is an idle, unscholarly statement
that the Church in England began, or was founded,
by Henry VIII. The Church of Christ was founded
in Britain early in the second century, independently
of Rome. The two came into unity, and the Church
of England became part of the system of Western
Christendom. Finding itself politically and other-
wise oppressed, in the sixteenth century, along with



COUNCIL ADDRESSES 251

the great Eastern Churches, it rejected the Papal
jurisdiction as being of divine right. No separation
took place, however, until the time of Queen Eliza-
beth, when the Pope called on his followers to with-
draw and so began what is now known as the
Roman Catholic Church in England.

The Church, thus reformed and free from Rome,
found herself, however, assaulted by Puritanism,
which soon expressed itself in various sects. Persons
who were once members of the Church went out from
her and formed sectarian bodies by themselves and
are known as Independents or Congregationalists,
Unitarians, Baptists, Methodists, and others. Thus
all these who were the Church's children have, upon
various grounds, strayed away from her. We do
not mean to say that the Church was without fault.
But breaking away from the authority of the Church,
they took the position that the Bible, and the Bible
only, was the sole basis of the Faith. The fact that
printing was not invented till the fifteenth century,
and therefore it could not have been in the hands
of the people generally, is one proof that Christ did
not intend that His religion should be so known.

Rejecting the Church's authority and traditions
and governing themselves by the individual inter-
pretation of the Scriptures, they became hopelessly
divided into various sects, holding beliefs which are
absolutely contradictory.

They lost, moreover, the ancient Apostolic govern-
ment, and so have no longer an Apostolic priesthood.
It is not illiberal to say they have not what they do



252 COUNCIL ADDRESSES

not claim to have. We love them as fellow- Chris-
tians should love one another; but see what they
have lost, and their efforts to regain a liturgical
service and the Christian Year show this. Rejecting
the sacramental system of the Church, they regard
the sacraments, such as they have, merely as types,
seals, pledges, signs of Christ. And in this, uncon-
sciously, they go back to Judaism, which was a sys-
tem without sacraments, but had only signs and
pledges of the covenanted and coming Lord. Living
without and not knowing the Church life and power,
they do not realize the spirituality of those who
devoutly use its sacraments. They know nothing
of the special grace given in Confirmation. The
absolving, cleansing, invigorating power of sacer-
dotal absolution, of the awful grandeur, dignity, and
power of the Real Objective Presence of Christ in
the Holy Eucharist, of the sacrifice of the Holy
Altar. Their system, for the most part, ends in the
assurance of peace and acceptance, and is influenced
by popular statements, such as that we are Romanists
or ceremonialists; so they deprive themselves of the
fuller gifts of grace with which Christ has endowed
His Church and are their Christian inheritance.

O! dear Brethren; I feel most keenly that it is not
by word or by argument that we can lure our sepa-
rated brethren into the Fold. No! It can only be
by our lives as living examples of the marvelous
truths and grace which we possess. O! let us go
forth to live the Catholic Faith in union with our
Blessed Lord, and then the Holy Ghost will so speak



COUNCIL ADDRESSES 253

through us that many shall say, "We will go with
you, for we see that you can do us good."

In conclusion let me bid you be of good cheer.
Beware of any desponding or panicky feeling.
"Panics," as Liddon said "are the last infirmity of
believing souls." They are to be deprecated and
quelled because " they betray a distrust of the over-
ruling and living Presence of the Lord." Archeo-
logical research is establishing the historical accounts
of the Old Testament. Science, in the province of
Physics, is making a theistic belief in the origin of
the Universe a logical necessity. Indifference, no
more rife now than in days gone by, is giving way to
a recognized necessity of religion as a support of
morality. Sectism is losing its hold, under a sense
of its failures, and the growing desire for Christian
union. One barrier to union and spirituality is the
ignorance and jealousy Christians have of one an-
other. How little for example is it known that our
Church stands for a true Catholicity, at once con-
servative and liberal, that our American Episcopacy
is unlike that of a foreign derived absolutism, that
our Bishops are assisted in their offices by clerical
and lay counselors, chosen by the Diocese. How
little is the Church's spiritual life known, as seen in
so many consecrated souls and religious walking in
the way of perfection.

We have our own imperfections, and are em-
barrassed by our temporary trials. But our Church
is being benefited thereby and strengthened and
becoming more consolidated. The faith of her



254 A PASTORAL LETTER

children rises triumphantly in the midst of her trials.
Her candlestick stands securely fixed. The storm
may rise and the waves lash against the ship, but
she rides in safety, because Christ is in her, the source
of her invincible strength. It is only by increasing
prayer to Him that we can evoke His saving power.
Go we forth therefore, bravely, courageously, truth-
fully, knowing Heaven is before us and Christ is at
our side.

A PASTORAL LETTER FROM THE BISHOP TO THE
CLERGY AND LAITY OF THE DIOCESE OF FOND
DU LAC

WE extend to you as fellow-workers and
brethren our loving salutation in the Lord
and send you our Episcopal benediction. May
peace, hope, and joy abound in you, and rule your
hearts, and unite you more and more closely in
Christian fellowship in the service of the Lord.

As no united pastoral letter was issued at the time
of the General Convention, we have deemed it not
amiss to send you at the beginning of this New Year
a word of Christian greeting and encouragement.

It may be well first to notice the missionary en-
thusiasm and hearty good-will manifested in the late
Convention by the large donation of $1,000,000 as
the United Thank Offering for the three hundred
years of the Church's ministration in our land.

It will cheer you to know, and we hope stimulate
you to generous effort, that we have lately secured



A PASTORAL LETTER 255

$10,000 from outside the Diocese as an addition to
our Episcopal Fund. This fund has increased from
about $9000 when we were consecrated to now a little
more than $32,000. We need about double this
sum to put the Diocese on a fair financial footing;
thus providing for the support of the Episcopate and
relieving the burden now resting on the parishes,
and enabling them to give more largely to the sup-
port of our missionary work. Will not all take part
in the effort to raise this fund by present gifts, by
life insurance, or by leaving money in their wills?

In the year 1909, I shall have been your Bishop
for twenty years, and completed my fiftieth year in
the priesthood. I shall have been a Bishop in Wis-
consin for a longer time than any of my predecessors
in the Dioceses of the State. This Diocese has had
a remarkable development. It would be a noble
work in return for what God has done for us if we
churchmen could unite in an effort to secure by that
time a suitable Episcopal Endowment Fund. We
know it is in the hearts of many of you to do this,
and we hope that the Thank Offering then to be
made by gift or pledge may be worthy of our stand-
ing as churchmen and a real token of our gratitude
to God.

Amongst smaller but hopeful signs at the General
Convention, we note that the Russian Archbishop
Platon, who ministers in America for the adherents
of the Orthodox Russian Church, sent his fraternal
greeting to the House of Bishops, to which they
responded in courteous and loving terms. These



256 A PASTORAL LETTER

two communions, representing such different nation-
alities and traditions, can never be brought into
organic relation together under one government, but
it is possible that recognized Christian fellowship
and partially allowed intercommunion, in cases of
need, might be established between the two churches.
This can only come when it is formally recognized
that our Christian Faith is practically the same,
though our methods of worship and ceremonies may
differ. For the bringing about of such fellowship a
better understanding on both sides is necessary,
together with that enlarged charity which seeks to
minimize rather than intensify differences. For
one, we should be willing (it seems to me), on our
side, to allow of the omission of the recitation of the
Filioque from the creed, and so restore it as originally
promulgated by Ecumenical Councils. This would
remove the greatest existing barrier to restored inter-
communion. More especially it is our duty to
accept and teach the dogmas of the Catholic Faith
as they have been received from the beginning.
But for all this, we must be content to wait and
work in patience and faith, if need be for a hundred
years. "He that believeth shall not make haste."
At the General Convention, a committee was ap-
pointed to prepare an Office for the Anointing of the
Sick. We have the Scriptural authority for this in
the New Testament in the Epistle of St. James, where
St. James, as Bishop of Jerusalem, gave order con-
cerning its administration. Our reformers placed
an Office for this purpose in the first Prayer Book.



A PASTORAL LETTER 257

Its subsequent absence has in a measure been sup-
plied by action of individual bishops. It has ever
been the custom of this Diocese, established by my
predecessor and continued by myself. The present
action of the Church is confirmatory of the wisdom
of this action and will provide for general future use.

The ministration of Unction testifies to the truth
that Christ came to redeem and restore both our
bodies and souls through union with His Incarnate
Nature.

Protestantism, in its various sectarian forms, seems
to have lost sight of this principle. The Church,
however, teaches us that "our bodies are to be made
clean by His Body, and our souls washed with His
Most Precious Blood." And as He has provided by
sacerdotal absolution for the healing of the Chris-
tian soul when it falls into sin, so He provided a
means for the restoration of the body (when it is



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