Charles Chapman Grafton.

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His will), when it falls under the power of disease.
The means for the latter are of a twofold character.
There are the remedies the physician applies, for
"God giveth medicine to heal our sickness." There
is also the purification of the soul by absolution;
bringing it into harmony with God, that He may the
better work through it to the healing of the body.
Then there is the restoring life-gift of God, by the
blessing on the means used, and bestowed through
prayer and by the Anointing. Unction thus comes
in our sickness to comfort, assure, and cheer the soul,
to help it to a recovery or to smooth its passage to
the other world.



258 A PASTORAL LETTER

Another action of the late Convention was the
permission given to print an Edition of the Book of
Common Prayer, eliminating the name "Protestant
Episcopal" from its title page. This action was
taken chiefly at the instance of our foreign mission-
ary Bishops, who, laboring in foreign countries,
found the title "Protestant" a hindrance to their
work. This comes from the word Protestant having
two separate meanings. It is used by those who,
objecting to the action of any society of which they
are members, instead of withdrawing from it, record
their protest. It is in this sense that the Anglican
Church is a protesting Church in that, while remain-
ing part of the Catholic Church, it protests against
the claims of the Papal Supremacy. But now the
word "Protestant" is a common name for all sects
and kinds of religions, including those who do not
believe in the Deity of Christ. It is assumed by
those who are followers of new teachers like Sweden-
borg, Irving, Campbell, Smith, Dowie, and Eddy
and who often give their names to their respective
sects. The term therefore is admitted to be for us
Churchmen a misleading title and has been found a
hindrance to our missionary work. This led the
General Convention to take this action. It is to be
observed that the reason given for the change applies
equally to the United States, surrounded as we are
by a babel of conflicting sects, with which the popu-
lar mind identifies us. It is to be hoped, therefore,
that a general and non-partisan movement will be
made at the next General Convention for the elim-



A PASTORAL LETTER 259

inating of this title and so make the editions of the
Prayer Book uniform at home and abroad.

It was a significant feature of the Convention
that the Holy Eucharist was twice reverently offered
daily by Bishops and Priests assigned to the duty.
It marks an increased recognition of the place and
function of the Holy Sacrifice in the ministrations of
the Church. As a copy of the Holy Scriptures,
being the Word of God written, is always placed
open in some dignified position in the House of
Bishops, so it is fitting that the Word Incarnate, in
its most significant action, should be set forth during
the sessions of the Convention, in the Holy Eucharist.
And we Anglican Catholics, as true believers in the
Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist, cannot be
too thankful for the action of our Reformers in elim-
inating from the liturgy " those inexplicable pas-
sages which are so hard to reconcile with the doctrine
of the Real Presence" and which Roman writers
admit "it is not easy to explain." Liturgical
scholars have found that there are prayers in the
Roman Mass which, if they were in ours, would lay
us open to the charge that we did not hold the
Real Presence. Our Reformers wisely struck them
out. We define not the process while we assert the
fact. We know that the whole transaction of Con-
secration and Communion takes place in the spiritual
body of Christ and is governed by its own spiritual
laws. In this divine mystery Christ makes the ele-
ments what His word declares them to be and com-
municates Himself to His people.



2 6o A PASTORAL LETTER

It is a great spiritual advance, when, as part of
the program of our General Convention, the daily
Eucharist is thus made a special feature of it. It is
a lesson, more potent than any words, of the in-
creasing realization of Christ's abiding Presence in
His Church, and the efficacy of this Holy Sacrifice.
And it is of this and its place in our worship we
would lovingly remind you. In the Holy Com-
munion, we do not merely receive the gift of Christ's
Body and Blood. It is first of all a sacrifice and an
offering made to God. It is the offering we make to
God and His returning gift to us. It is first a sacri-
fice and secondly a feast upon it. It is the one
Gospel service ordained by Christ. If you will
devoutly enter into its meaning, you will not desire
Morning Prayer as a substitute, for, in the Eucharist,
Christ is present as He is not in Morning Prayer.
Moreover, the Eucharist sets forth and pleads the
Atoning action of Christ on Calvary. In order to
obtain the benefits of this Offering we must not
only believe that there He made it, but we must
plead it in the ordained way and by communion be
identified with it. Again, by offering the Holy Eu-
charist, we specially glorify God. For God is
glorified more by the Offering of His Son on Calvary,
which we present in the Eucharist, than He is
wronged or insulted by all the sins of the world put
together. Thus the pleading of Christ's Sacrifice
fills the heart of God with joy as nothing else can
and brings down special blessings upon every wor-
shiper. Try and make the Holy Eucharist the
great act of your Sunday worship.



A PASTORAL LETTER 261

At the Convention a Preamble to the Constitution
was passed. It will have to be ratified at a succeed-
ing Convention before it can be adopted and become
part of the Constitution. It omits the term "Prot-
estant Episcopal" and calls our Church, "This
American Church" which was planted by represen-
tatives of the ancient Church of England. It
acknowledges the Holy Scriptures to be the Word
of God, the record of God's revelation of Himself in
His Son, and to contain all things necessary to sal-
vation. It holds the Catholic Creeds, to wit, the
Apostles' and the Nicene Creed, to be a sufficient
statement of the Christian Faith. It maintains the
Orders of the sacred ministry in such form as from
the Apostles' time it received the same. It rever-
ently conserves the Sacraments ordained by Christ
Himself. The only danger concerning this Preamble,
which is otherwise excellent, is that it might be as-
sumed to be a limitation of the Church's doctrines
and practises to the things therein stated, and so be
applied as a principle of construction to the doctrines
as set forth in the Prayer Book and Articles.

Our Church professes in her Creed to be Catholic
and as such holds the whole Catholic Faith, as the
Bishop of London said lately, "We are Anglican, not
Roman, Catholics." We differ from Rome in five
great particulars.

I. In our form of Church government.
II. In our Rule of Faith.

III. In various matters of Doctrine.

IV. In our Church discipline.
V. And Worship.



262 A PASTORAL LETTER

The Church of Rome presents to us an absolute
monarchial form of government of which the Pope
is the head, claiming to be the source of all jurisdic-
tion, the appointee of all Bishops, without whose
concurrence no legislative action can take place, and
without communion with whom none is in the
Church. This is not the Catholic Faith. Our
belief in the Church's government is that it is a con-
federation of Dioceses, each ruled by its own Bishop,
and united in General Councils under the guidance
of the Holy Ghost.

Rome has as an essential element of its Rule of
Faith the infallible utterance of the Pope, who, apart
from General Councils, claims when teaching the
Church to be infallible.

The action of the ancient Church, in resorting to
General Councils in time of need, and not to the sup-
posed infallibility of a Pope, shows that it did not
know it to exist. Moreover, Rome has added dogmas
to the Faith which the General Councils forbade.
We believe that the Incarnate Word of God, Jesus
Christ, is the Revelation of God to man. In what
He was, what He did, what He taught, and what He
instituted, we have the whole Revelation. The
Holy Spirit was given to the Church to enable it to
preserve the revelation by definitions of doctrine
when necessary, but not to add to the Faith once
delivered. In the interests of a true Catholicity
therefore we reject the modern dogmas of the Im-
maculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin and the
Infallibility of the Pope, while maintaining the
ancient Faith.



A PASTORAL LETTER 263

In our discipline and worship, it has been one of
the blessings of the Reformation, that, rejecting the
medieval supremacy of Rome, the Episcopate has
recovered the fulness of its powers and its rightful
privileges. It is as foolish a conception that the
Anglican Bishops would ever give up their recovered
freedom and place themselves again under the
tyranny of the Papacy, as that our blacks would
vote themselves back into slavery or England's free
people tear up their Bill of Rights and go back to
Tudor despotism. The Anglican Church and Rome
can never be united so long as the Papacy continues
as it is.

We may have lost, dear brethren, somewhat of our
realization of the Communion of Saints, the sense of
the supernatural world, the guardianship of angels,
our intercourse with the whole church, the prayers
for the Departed, and the love and honor due to the
Ever-Blessed Virgin, Mother of God, but in our
Book of Common Prayer and our noble Liturgy in
the common tongue, and our threefold ministry
and Sacraments, the Church is still the Mother of
Saints.

A word of explanation may be made respecting
an addition to one of our general Canons which re-
lates to persons, "not ministers of the Church,
officiating in any congregation therein." According
to the Canon no one is allowed to officiate who is
not duly licensed or ordained to minister in this
Church. Officiating includes preaching. Canon 15
of the edition of 1895 says, "No one who is not a



264 A PASTORAL LETTER

minister of this Church shall officiate either by
preaching, reading prayers in public, worship, etc."
The Canon not only forbids officiating in the Church
building, but in the "congregation." It therefore
applies not only to services held in the Church, but
when the congregation assembles for regular service
in guild halls or parish buildings. The addition made
to the Canon at the last Convention allows the
Bishop to license Christian laymen to make ad-
dresses on special occasions. It is to be noted that
only the Bishop can do this, that the persons licensed
must be Christian men, all these can do is to make
an address not deliver a sermon, and that it must
be on a special occasion, i.e. one other than those
of the Church's service. In the language of Bishop
Paret of Maryland, "I affectionately ask the clergy
of my Diocese that they will help me in trying to
conform to the condition with which the Church
strives to safeguard the preaching of the Gospel."

In conclusion, taking a wider view of the whole of
Christendom, we cannot but notice the movements
of the Holy Spirit in its different branches. Prot-
estantism, feeling the force of the attack on its basic
principle of "the Bible and the Bible only" as a
system of theology, is gradually breaking up, and
many earnest men amongst the sects are crying out
for a new catholicity as furnishing a better basis for
belief. The Holy Spirit has been working in our
own communion, presenting to it the issue whether
it would become protestant or regain its inherited
catholicity as enshrined in the Prayer Book, and



A PASTORAL LETTER 265

there has been a progressive advance in respect to
the latter. The Holy Spirit in Western Europe
seems to have been pleading with the Roman Com-
munion and presenting to it the issue whether it
would return to ancient catholicity or become more
papal. By the additions it has made to the Faith,
its decree of papal infallibility, denial of Anglican
Orders, driving out of the Old Catholics, its response
has been increasingly determined in favor of papal-
ism. In England our Church is struggling with the
necessary readjustment of the relation of Church and
State. We believe in time the practical wisdom of
the English people will be able to solve the problem.
While there are existing differences of theological
opinions, yet the oppression of the State, the action
of Rome in denying our orders, and the increasing
spirituality are drawing all parties together in more
loving accord. There is no danger or likelihood
because there are parties in it that the Church of
England any more than the nation will ever become
divided. Churchmen are separated, as the waves
of the sea are, but, holding together in their funda-
mental beliefs and kept united by the Book of Com-
mon Prayer, they are one as the ocean is one. Here
in America we are free from state control, and ques-
tions of ceremonial do not call for separation. The
Church has in her offices and Holy Eucharist both
a synagogue and a temple form of worship. The
Church is the richer for the beautiful evangelical
spirit of the old low Churchmen, better for the con-
servative spirit of those high Churchmen who recog-



266 COUNCIL ADDRESSES

nize that Christ gave to us the Gospel in the form
of an institution, and something is due to those of
broadmindedness who are seeking to state the in-
herited Christian faith in the terms of modern
thought. Each school has its dangers as it neglects
the wisdom of the others. But under God we
Relieve our Church is growing in a better under-
standing of differences and in mutual trust and Chris-
tian fellowship. What indeed is most to be desired
is the development of spirituality, of devotion to our
Blessed Lord, of growth in holiness, of missionary
zeal, of the spirit of self-sacrifice, and of love to God
and our fellow-men.

May the Holy Spirit bless and keep you and our
Diocese in the knowledge of the Faith and in loving
conformity to it.

Your Bishop and Father in God,

C. C. FOND DU LAC.

1909
REVEREND BRETHREN OF THE CLERGY AND LAITY:

GRACE and peace be with you. May our
Divine Master bless you with all spiritual
graces, and keep you in His Faith and love. May
you year by year grow in devotion to Him, and
loyalty to His Church, and be filled with an increas-
ing zeal for the spread of His Kingdom. May you
grow above all things in holiness, in union with His
inner life, and be clothed with "the righteousness of
God by Faith."

We meet this year under manifest tokens of the



COUNCIL ADDRESSES 267

Divine blessing, and I extend to you my loving
salutation in Christ. May all we do at the Council
be blessed by the Holy Spirit to us individually,
and to the forwarding of the interests of Holy
Church.

My Episcopal decision has been sought during the
year in a number of difficult moral questions relating
to marriage, and we would ask the clergy to make
clear to their people the law of the Church, regarding
this sacrament. The Church, of course, does not
legislate for those outside her body. Concerning
the marriage within it, that is, of the baptized, her
rule is that such marriage, being in the Lord, is in-
dissoluble. The reason of this is, that as Christ
and His Church is indissolubly one, so the marriage
of members of the Church should bear witness to this
truth.

I am also obliged to state, that our own Com-
munion has, as the law at present stands, made an
exception, in a particular case. For my own part,
I regret this, and should like to see our practise
brought more into conformity with the law expressed
in our Prayer Book, that the parties united in the
Lord by marriage, are united "till death us do
part."

We have also published a letter to our Oneidas,
and several pamphlets on the Roman question, which
have had a very wide circulation. It has been my
humble endeavor to make the two Communions
better understand one another, that by recognizing
the strength of our own Catholic position, the cause



268 COUNCIL ADDRESSES

of Christian fellowship and recognition may be
advanced.

Let me here also resign my own salary of $300,
as taking part in this noble work of Diocesan En-
dowment.

We will now turn to some matters of theological
import. We have been going in and out among you,
dear Brethren, preaching the Gospel of the King-
dom, for the last twenty years. The discoveries of
science and in Biblical learning have presented new
problems respecting God and Revelation. The old
Protestant theologies have ceased to satisfy their
theological supporters. The systems based on the
theory of the Bible and the Bible only, are disin-
tegrated. The dead hand and mind of Calvin no
longer rules the Church he planted. Politically
strong, yet theologically weak, the Papacy feels the
attack of true Catholicity. The religious future lies
not with the Latin race and Latin thought, but with
the Broader spirit of the Teutonic races. It is
Catholicity, not Protestantism or Papalism, that
offers the best solvent and satisfaction to modern
thought.

As a loving legacy to you, let me sum up some of
the philosophical and theological truths, which God,
revealing them to me by His Spirit, has enabled me
to teach you during my Episcopate.

Beginning with the greatest and fundamental
truths of our religion, allow me to state one of the
many arguments which relate to the Being of God.



COUNCIL ADDRESSES 269

THE BEING OF GOD

First: All the theories of philosophers from
ancient to modern times have busied themselves
with the problem of human knowledge. The prob-
lem is, "How do we know what we think we know?"
In modern times, Descartes, and Locke, and Berke-
ley, and Hume, and Kant, and Reid, and Hamilton,
and Mansell, and Herbert Spencer, and Hegel have
succeeded one another. They have all based their
arguments upon an analysis of the human mind.
Some have treated of its action as the actions of
separate faculties. Others have believed that the
action of belief was that of the whole mental nature.
Each of these has pointed out the mistakes of his
predecessor, but they have either advanced in
accepted arguments for the Being of God, or, like
Spencer and Huxley, have come to the agnostic
position that God was the unknowable.

Now the fundamental error in all these philoso-
phers is that they do not understand the triple
nature of man. He is, as Holy Scripture tells us,
a triple unit, consisting of body, soul, and spirit.
The distinction between soul and spirit is that the
spiritual nature of man is that which brings him
into a union with and cognition fcf God. This is
seen by the action of man's nature. He is'not born
with innate ideas, but the way his nature works
shows it to be in connection with a nature other than
his own.

He finds himself to have a memory, the trust-



270 COUNCIL ADDRESSES

worthiness of which does not come by experiment,
but with which he is born. He must trust his
memory. He finds his reasoning faculty obliged to
act on a law of causation, which he cannot demon-
strate but is obliged to assume. His mind thus acts
automatically, just as his heart and stomach do. He
believes in universal law from which he argues, but
the existence of which his reasoning faculty cannot
prove. He arrives at maturity with a knowledge
that his reasoning faculty cannot prove. He knows
then more than reason can prove. While his sense
demonstrates, and his reasoning faculty leads him
to an acceptance of ideas, which are probably true,
all reasoning can do for him is based on probability.
But the action of the spiritual nature is different.
It does not reason, it knows. It knows, for instance,
there is a real external world. And it knows, be-
cause it is in union with the Eternal Thought and
Wisdom, in whom we live and move and have our
being. This Eternal Thought with which we are in
communication is the Divine Intelligence that moves
the World. Reason may or may not tell us that
probably there is a God, but the spiritual nature of
man knows Him. In this knowledge there is a
revelation of the distinction between right and
wrong, and the duty of man to love and worship
Him.

THE HOLY TRINITY

Let me speak a few words about the doctrine of
the Holy Trinity. There is one God, and in God
there are three persons. The Church has ever seen



COUNCIL ADDRESSES 271

in this a reasonable belief, and realized the beautiful
life of God. The doctrine was revealed to us by
God Himself. In the beginning of every Dispensa-
tion, we find God making a new revelation of His
Nature and by a new name. He is to Israel the
great I AM. He is to Christians, Father, Son, and
Holy Ghost. For the effective preservation of this
truth our Lord connected it with the initial sacra-
ment of Baptism. It lies thus at the basis of the
Christian life and Truth.

It is, as we have said, a most reasonable belief.
We are enabled in a way to grasp it by realizing that
there are necessarily in the Divine Nature these
eternal activities, i.e. God is, God knows, God
loves. These actions are eternal, and are related
one to another. First, God is. As the Source
within the Divine Life He is called Father. In
other words, He is pure activity. Secondly, He is.
intelligent, or a knowing energy. This knowledge
is wisdom itself. It is begotten of the Source. It is
therefore called the Son. Again, God is love, and
love is God. This act of loving proceeds from the
Father, and through the Son, and returns to its
Source. It is known as the Holy Spirit.

Now these three internal actions within the
divine life are self-conscious activities. They know
themselves to be. And as self-conscious activities,
they are personal. Self-consciousness is equivalent
to Personality. Thus there are not three separate
individual Gods, but in the one God there are three
self-conscious personalities. They know themselves



272 COUNCIL ADDRESSES

to be and so are persons. They also know each other,
and live in a beautiful and reciprocal love. More-
over, these activities are eternal ones. The Son is
ever being begotten. The Holy Ghost is ever pro-
ceeding. God lives in this beautiful, glorious, all-
satisfying jubilation of Being. To think of Him as
possessed of but one personality is irrational. For
it condemns Him to an eternal solitude in which He
would dwell without companionship or a perfect
return of His love. The Catholic doctrine of the
glorious nature, and blessedness of God in Himself,
fills the Christian's soul with a marvelous sense of
satisfaction, happiness, and delight.

THE INCARNATION

Another truth we have endeavored to implant in
you is the doctrine of the Incarnation.

You know how formerly it was thought that man,
having sinned and needing to be reconciled to God,
God took upon Himself the nature of man in order
that in it He might suffer, and so by suffering make
a reparation to God for man's sin. Now the Incar-
nation of God is an act by which God, taking upon
Himself human nature, which is the consummation
of created things, united creation in a new way to
Himself. Creation was already united to God by
God's indwelling power, but the Incarnation was a
new and different mode of union. It was not some-
thing done which was to be laid aside. God joined
human nature to Himself indissolubly. He will
wear that nature for all eternity. It is the greatest,



COUNCIL ADDRESSES 273

grandest work of God. It is the completion of
Creation. For it is a passing on of Creation to a
new stage of development. We believe that this
greatest, grandest, noblest, most wonderful all-
glorious work of God was from the very beginning
in the Divine Thought. God always intended to
become incarnate. To make the Incarnation an
after-thought of His, or occasioned by man's sin, is
to make this magnificent, glorious, grandest work of
God dependent upon the sin of His Creature.

We hold, therefore, that the Incarnation was
eternally purposed and that the sin of the Creature
did not baffle the work of the Creator. It may have
been necessary for the manifestation of His love to
come and die for us on the Cross, but it was ever
His intent to consummate Creation by an Incar-
nation which would lead eventually in another state
to a Kingdom or a sphere, where all sin would be
abolished and pain and sorrow should be no more.

THE THREE WAYS OF UNION WITH GOD

We would have you understand that there are
three ways in which man is, or may be, united to
God. These are known as the ways of power, of
grace, and of glory.

All creation is united to God by way of His power.
In Him we all live, and move, and have our being.



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