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with Lord Scales, who had a thousand soldiers in the Tower ;
and defended London Bridge, and kept Jack and his people
out. This advantage gained, it was resolved by divers great
men to divide Jack's army in the old way, by making a great
many promises on behalf of the state, that were never in-
tended to be performed. This did divide them; some of
Jack's men saying that they ought to take the conditions
which were offered, and others saying that they ought not, for
the}' were only a snare ; some going hoiue at once ; others
staying whei-e they were ; and all doubting and quarrelling
among themselves.

Jack, who was in two minds about lighting or accepting a
patxlon, and who indeed did lK)th, saw at last tliat there was
nothing to ex|)ect from his men, and that it was very likely
fiome of them would deliver him up and get a reward of a
thousand marks, which was ottered for his apprdiension.
So, a tier they had travelled and quarrelled all the way from
South wark to Blackheath, and from Blackheath to Rochester,
he mounted a good horse and galloiHHl away into Sussex.
But there galloped after him, on a better horse, one Alexan-
der Iden, who came up with him, had a hard fight with him,
and killed him. Jack's head was set aloft on London Bridge,
with the face looking towards Blackheath, where he had
raised his flag; and Alexander hien got the thousand
marks.

It is supposed by some, that tlie Duke of York, who had
been removed from a higli post abroad through the Queen's
inflnence, and sent out of the way, to govei*n Ireland, was at
the bottom of this rising of Jack and his men, because he
wanted to trouble the government. He claimed (though not
yet publicly) to have a better right to tlie throne than Henr3-
of Lancaster, as one of the fkmily of the £arl of March,



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HENRY THE SIXTH. 241

whom Henry the Fourth had set aside. ToQcbing this elahn,
which, being through female relattotisbip, was not according
to the nsoal descent, it is enongh to say that Henry the
Foarth was the free choice of the people and the ParKament,
and that his family had now reigned undisputed for sixty
jeftrs. The memory of Henry the Fifth was so fkmous, and
the English people loved it so much, that the Duke of York's
claim would, perhaps, never have been thought of (it woukl
have been so hopeless) but for the nnfortanate ciroumstanoe
of the present King's being b}' this time quite an idiot, and
the conntr}- very ill governed. These two circumstances
gave the Duke of York a power he could not otherwise have
had.

WTiether the Duke knew an3'thing of Jack Cade, or not,
he came over fh)m Ireland while Jack's head was on London
Bri^e ; being secretly ad\'ised that the Queen was setting
up his enemy, the Duke of Somerset, against him. He went
to Westminster, at the head of four thousand men, and on
his knees before the King, represented to him the bad state
of the country, and petitioned him to summon a Parliament
to consider it. This the King promised. When the Parlia-
ment was summoned, the Duke of York accused the Duke
of Somerset, and the Duke of Somerset accused the Duke of
York ; and, both in and oat of Parliament, the followers
of each party were ftiU of violence and hatred towards the
other. At length the Duke of York put himself at the head
of a large fbrce of his tenants, and, in arms, demanded the
reformation of the Government. Being shut out of London,
he encamped at Dartford, and the royal armj- encamped at
Blackheath. According as either side triumphed, the Duke
of Yoi-k was arrested, or the Duke of Somerset was aiTested.
The trouble ended, for the moment, m the Duke of Yoi^c
i^enewing his oat^ of allegiance, and going in peace to one of
his own castles.

Half a year afterwards the Queen gave birth to a son, who
was very III received by ihe people, and not believed to be

16



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242 A CHILD'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND.

the son of the King. It shows the Duke of York to have
been a moderate man, unwilling to involve England in new
troubles, that he did not take advantage of the general dis-
content at this time, but really a^ted for the public good.
He was made a member of the cabinet, and the King being
now so much worse that he could not be carried about and
shown to the people with any decency, the Duke was made
Lord Protector of the kingdom, until the King should re-
cover, or the Prince should come of age. At the same time
the Duke of Somerset was committed to the Tower. So,
now the Duke of Somerset was down, and the Duke of York
was op. By the end of the year, however, the King recov-
ered his memory' and some spark of sense ; upon which the
Queen used her power — which recovered with him — to get
the Protector disgraced, and her favorite released. So now
the Duke of York was down, and the Duke of Somerset
was up.

These ducal nps and downs gradually separated the whole
nation into the two parties of York and Lancaster, and led
to those tenible civil wars long known as the Wars of the
Red and White Roses, because the red rose was the badge of
the House of Lancaster, and the white rose was the badge
of the House of York.

The Duke of York, joined b}' some other powerful noblemen
of the White Rose party, and leading a small army, met the
King with another small army at St. Alban's, and demanded
that the Duke of Somerset should be given up. The poor
King, being made to say in answer that he would sooner die,
was instantly attacked. The Duke of Somerset was killed,
and the King himself was wounded in the neck, and took
reAigc in tiie house of a poor tanner. Whereupon, the
Duke of York went to him, led him with great submission to
the Abbey, and said he was ver^' sorr}- for what had happened.
Having now the King in htj possession, he got a Parlia-
ment summoned and himself once more made Protector, buti
only for a few months ; for, on the King getting a little bet-



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HENRY THE SIXTH. 243

ter again, the Qaeen and her party got him into their posses-
sion, and disgraced the Duke once more. So, sow the Duke
of York was down again.

Some of the best men in power, seeing the danger of these
constant ehilnges, tried even then to prevent the Red and the
White Rose Wars. They brought about a great council in
London between the two parties. The White Roses assem-
bled in Blackfriars, the Red Roses in Whitefriars ; and some
good priests communicated between them, and made the pro-
ceedings known at evening to the King and the judges.
They ended in a peaceful agreement that there should be no
more quarrelling ; and thei*e was a great royal procession to
St. Paul's, in which the Queen walked arm-in-arm with her
old enemy, the Duke of York, to show the people how com-
fortable they all were. This state of peace lasted half a year,
when a dispute between the Earl of Warwick (one of the
Duke^s powerful friends) and some of the King's sen^ants at
Court, led tib an attack upon that Earl — who was a White
Rose — and to a sudden breaking out of all old animosities.
So. here were greater ups and downs than ever.

There were even greater ups and downs than these, soon
alter. After vanous battles, the Duke of York fled to Ire-
land, and his son the Earl of March to Calais, with their
friends the Earls of Salisbur}' and Warwick ; and a Parliament
was held declaring tliem all traitors. Little the worse for
this, the Earl of Wai-wick presently came back, landed in
Kent, was joined by the Archbishop of Canterbuiy and other
powerful noblemen and gentlemen, engaged the King's forces
at Northampton, signally defeated them, and took the King
himself prisoner, who was found in his tent. Warwick would
have been glad, I dare say, to have taken the Queen and
Prince too, but they escaped into Wales and thence into Scot-
land.

The King was carried b}' the victorious force straight to
London, and made to call a new Parliament, which immedi-
ately declared that the Duke of York and those other noble-



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244 A CHILD'S HISTOBY OF ENGLAND.

men were not traitors, but ejccellent subjects. Then, back
comes the Duke from Ireland at tlie head of five hundred
horsemen, rides from London to Westminster, and enters the
House of Lords. There he laid his hand upon the cloth of
gold which covered the empty throne, as if he had half a
mind to sit down in it — but he did not. On the Arehbtahop
of Canterbur}' asking him if he would visit the King, who was
in his palace close by, he replied, *' I know no one in this
countiy, my lord, who ought not to visit me." None of the
lonis present, spoke a single word ; so, the duke went out- as
he had come in, established himself royally in the King's pal-
ace, and, six days afterwards, sent in to tlie Lords « formal
statement of his claim to the throne. The lords went tx> the
King on this momentous subject, and after a gi-eat deal of
discussion, in which the judges and the other law officers were
afraid to give an opinion on either side, the qaestion was com-
promised. It was agreed that the present King should retain
the crown for his life, and that it should then' pass to the
Duke of York and his heirs.

But, the resolute Queen, determined on asserting her son's
right, would hear of no such tiling. She came firom Scotland
to the north of England, where several powerful lords armed
in her cause. The Duke of York, for his part, set off with
some five thousand men, a little time before Christmas Daj',
one thousand four hundre<l and sixty, to give her battle. He
lodged at Sandal Castle, near Wakefleki, and the Red Boees
defied him to come out on Wakefield Green, and figiit them
then and there. His generals said, he had best wait until his
gallant son, the Earl of March, came up with his power; bat
he was determined to accept the challenge. He did so, in an
evil hour. He was hotly pressed on all sndes, two thousand
of his men lay dead on Wakefield Greeuy and he himself was
taken prisoner. They set him down in mock state on an aot>
hill, and twisted gi*ass about his head, and pretended to pay
comt to him on their knees, saying, *' O King, witliout a
kingdom, and Prince without a people^ We lK>pe yom* gracious



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HENRY THE SIXTH. 245

Majesty' is very well and happy!" Thej' did worse than
this ; they cat his head off^ and handed it on a pole to the
Queen, who laughed with delight wheu she saw it (you
recollect their walking so religiously and comfortably to St.
PaaFs ! ) , and had it fixed, with a paper crown upon its head,
on the walls of Yovk. The Earl of Salisbury lost his head,
too ; and the Duke of York's second son, a handsome boy
who was fljing with his tutor over Wakefield Ikidge, was
stabbed in the heart by a murderous lonl — Lord Clifford by
name — whose father had been killed b^- the White Roses in the
fight at St. Alban's. There was awfVil sacrifice of life in this
battle, for no quarter was given, and the Queen was wild foi*
revenge. When men unnaturally fight against their own
coantrymen, they are always obscr>-ed to be more unnaturally
cmel and filled with rage than they are against any other
enemy.

Bat, Lord Clifford had stabbed the second son of the Dake
of York — not the first. The eldest son, Edwaixl Earl of
March, was at Gloucester ; and, vowing vengeance for the
death of his father, his brother, and their faithftil friends,
he began to march against the Queen. He had to turn and
figlit a great body of Welsh and Irish first, who won*ied his
advance. These he defeated in a great fight at Mortimer's
Cross, near Hereford, where he beheaded a number of the
Red Koses taken in battle, in retaliation for the beheading of
the White Roses, at Wakefield. The Queen had the next turn
of beheading. Having moved towards London, and falling
in, between St. Alban's and Barnet, with the Earl of War-
wick and the Duke of Norfolk, White Roses both, who were
there with an army to oppose her, and had got the King with
them ; she defeated them with great loss, and struck off the
heads of two prisoners of note, who were in the King's tent
with him, and to whom the King had promised his protection.
Her triumph, however, was very short. She had no treasure,
and her army subsisted by plunder. This caused them to be
hated and dreaded by the people, and particularly by the



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246 A CHILD»S HISTORY OF ENGLAND.

London people, who were wealthy. As soon as the London-
ers heard ttiat Edward, Earl of March, united with the Earl
of Warwick, was advancing towards the city, they refused to
send the Queen supplies, and made a great rejoicing.

The Queen and her men retreated with all speed, and Ed-
ward and Warwick came on, greeted with loud acclamations
on every side. The coui-age, beauty, and virtues of young
Edward could not be sufficiently praised bj' the whole people.
He rode into London like a conqueror, and met with an en-
thusiastic welcome. A few days afterwards, Lord Falcon-
bridge and the Bishop of Exeter assembled the citizens in St
John's Field, Clerkenwell, and asked them if they would have
Henry of Lancaster for their King? To this they all roared,
*' No, no, no ! " and ** King Edwani ! King Edward ! " Then,
said those noblemen, would they love and serve young Ed-
ward? To this they all cried, '*Yes, yes!" and threw up
their caps, and clapped their hands, and cheered tremen-
dously.

Therefore, it was declared that by joining the Queen and
not protecting those two prisoners of note, Henry of Lan-
caster had forfeited the crown ; and Edward of York ww
proclaimed King. He made a great ^>eech to the applauding
people at Westminster, and sat down as sovereign of Eng-
land on that throne, on the golden covering of which bis
father — worthy of a better fate than the bloody axe which
cut the tliread of so many lives in England, through so many
years — had laid hte hand.



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EDWARD THE FOURTH. 24-7



CHAPTER XXin.

ENGLAIO) UNDER EDWARD THE FOURTH.

KiKG Edward the Fourth was not quite twenty-one
years of age when he took that unquiet seat upon the throne
of England. The Lancaster party, the Red Roses, were then
assembHng in great numbers near York, and it was necessary
to give them battle instantly. But, the stout Earl of War-
wick leading for the young King, and the young King himself
closely following him, and the English people crowding rmmd
tiie Royal standard, the White and the Red Roses met, on a
wild March day when the snow was falling heavily, at Tow-
ton; and there silch a fhrious battle raged between them,
that the total loss amounted to fortj' thousand men — all
Englishmen, fighting, upon English grpund, against one an-
other. The 3'oung King gained the day, took down the heads
of his father and brother ft-om the walls of York, and put up
the heads of some of the most famous noblemen engaged in
the battle on tlie other side. Then, he went to London and
was crowned with great splendor.

A new Parliament met. No fewer than one hundred and
fifty of the principal noblemen and gentlemen on the Lancas-
ter side were declared traitore, and the King — who had very
little humanity, though he was handsome in person and
agreeable in manners — resolved to do all he could to pluck
op tlie Red Rose root and branch.

Qaeen Margaret, however, was still active for her young
son. She obtained help from Scotland and from Normandy,
and took several important English castles. But, Warwick
soon retoc^ them ; the Queen lost all her ti'easure on boai-d



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248 A CHILD'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND.

sbip in a great stoitn ; and both she and her 8on suffered
great misfortunes. Once, in the winter weather, as they
were riding through a foi-est, they were attacked and {Sun-
dered by a party of robbers ; and, when they had esca|>ed
from these men and were passing alone and on foot through
a thick dark part of Uie .wood, they came, ail at once, upon
another robber. So the Queen, witli a stout lieait, took the
Httle Prince by Uie hand, and going stmight up to that
robber, said to him, *' My friend, this is the young son of
}xmr lawful King ! 1 confide him to your care." The rob-
ber was surprised, but took the boy in his arms, and IkiUi-
AiUy restoi'ed him and his mother to their friends. lu t^
end, the Queen's soldiers being beatea and dispersed, she
went abroad again, and kept quiet for the present.

Now, all this time, the deposed King Henry was concealed
by a Welsh knight, who kept him ck)se in his oastJe. But,
next year, the Lancaster party recovering their E^rits, raised
a large body of men, and called hira otit of his retirenient, to
put him at their head. They were Joined by some pow e r fli i
noblemen who had sworn fidelity to the new King, bat who
wei*e ready, as nsual, to bi-eak tlieir oaths, whenever they
thought there was anyttiing to be got by it. One of the
worst things in the history' of the war of the Red and White
Roses, is the ease with which these noblemen, who should
have set an example of honor to the |>eople, left either sitle
as they took slight offence, or wei-e disapi>ointed in tlielr
greedy expectations, and joined the other. Well! War-
wick's brother soon beat the Lancastrians, and the felse
noblemen, being taken, were beheaded without a moment's
loss of time. The deposed King had a narrow escape ; three
of his ser^-ants were taken, and one of them hove his cap of
estate, which was set with i>earis, and embroidered with two
goldeji crowns. However, the head to which the cap be-
longed, got safel}- into Lancashire, and lay pretty quietly
tliere (the people in the secret being very true) Ibr more than
a year. At lengtli, an old monk gave such intelligenoe as



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EnWARP THE FOURTH. 249

kO to Henry's being tafcen while he wns sitting at dinner iu
a place called Waddington Hall. He was immediately sent
to London, and met at Islington by the Earl of Warwick, by
whose diixictions he was put upon a horse, with his legs tied
under it, and paraded three times i*ound the pillory. Then,
be was carried off to the Tower, where they treated him well
enough.

The White Rose being so Unumphant, tlie young King
abandoned himself entirely to pleasure, £^nd led a jovial life.
Bnt, Uiorns were springiug up un<ler his bed of roses, as he
soon found out. For, having been pnvately married to
Elizabeth Woodvillb, a yoimg widow lady, veiy beautiful
and very captivating ; and at last resolving to make his secret
known, and to declare her his Queen ; he gave some offence to
the Elarl of Warwick, who was usually called the King-Maker,
because of his power and influence, and because of his having
lent such great help to pladug Edward on the throne. This
offence was not lessened by the jealousy with which the Nevil
family (the Rarl of Warwick's) , regaitled the i>i*omotion of the
Woodville famih'. For, the young Queen was so bent on
providing for her relations, that she made her faUier an earl
and a great ofBcer of state ; mavned her flv^ sisters to young
noblemen of the highest rank ; and provided for lier younger
lm>tber, a young man of twenty, by roarr\ing him to an im-
mensely rich old duchess of eighty. The Earl of Warwick
took all this pretty gi-acioualy for a man of his proud temper,
until the question arose to whom the King's sister, Makga-
RET, should be married. The Earl of Warwick said, " To
one of the French King's sons," ami was allowed to go over to
the French King to make friendly pi'oposals for that purpose,
and to hold all manner of ftiendly inteiTiews with him. But,
while he was so engaged, the Woodville party married the
young ^ly to the Duke of Burgiuidy ! 1^ik>h this he came
back in great rage and scorn, and shut himself up discon-
tented in bis Castle of Middleham.

A reconciliation, though not a very siucere one, was



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250 A CHILD'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND.

patched np between the Earl of Warwick and the King, and
lasted until the Earl married his daughter, against the King's
wishes, to the Duke of Clarence. While the marriage was
being celebrated at Cakk^ the people in the north of Eng-
land, where the influence of the Nevil family was strongest,
broke out into rebellion ; their complaint was, that England
was oppressed' and plundered b}' tlie Woodville family whom
they demanded to have removed from power. As they were
joined by great numbers of people, and as they openly
declared tliat they were supported by the Earl of Warwick,
the King did not know what to do. At last, as he wrote
to the earl beseeching his aid, he and his new son-in-law
came over to England, and began to arrange the business by
shutting the King up in Middleham Castle in the safe keep-
ing of the Archbishop of York ; so England was not only in
the strange position of having two kings at once, bat they
were both prisoners at the same time.

Even as yet, however, the King-Maker was so far true to
the King, that he dispersed a new rising of the Lancastrians,
took their leader prisoner, and brought him to the King, who
ordered him to be immediately executed. He presently
allowed the King to return to London, and there innumera-
ble pledges of forgiveness and iViendship were exchanged
between them, and between the Nevils and the Woodvilles :
the King's eldest daughter was promised in marriage to the
heir of the Nevil family; and more fViendlj' oaths were
sworn, and more friendly promises made, than this book
would hold.

They lasted about three months. At the end of that time,
the Archbishop of York made a feast for the King, the Earl
of Warwick, and the Duke of Clarence, at his house, the
Moor, in Hertfordshire. The King was washing his hands
before supper, when some one whispered him that a body of
a hundred men were lying in ambush outside the house.
Whether this were true or untrue, the King took fH^t,
mounted his horse, and rode through the dark night to Wind-



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EDWARD THE FOURTH. 251

8or Castle. Another reconciliation was patched up between
him and the King-Maker, but it was a short one, and it was
the last. A new rising took place in Lincolnshire, and the
King inarched to repress it. Having done so, he proclaimed
that both the Earl of Waiwck and the Duke of Ckrence
were traitors, who had secretly assisted it, and who had
been prepared publicly to join it on the following day. In
these dangerous circumstances they both took ship and sailed
away to the French court.

And here a meeting took place between the Earl of War-
wick and his old enemy, the Dowager Queen Margaret,
through whoDLhia father had had his head struck off, and to
whom he had been a bitter foe. But, now, when he said
that he had done with the ungrateful and perfidious Edward
of York, and that henceforth he devoted himself to the res-
toration of the House of Lancaster, either in the person of
her husband or of her little son, she embraced him as if he
had ever been her dearest friend. She did more than that ;
she raan-ied her son to his second daughter, the Lady Anne.
However agreeable this marriage was to the new friends, it
was ver\- disagreeable to the Duke of Clarence, who per-
ceived that his father-in-law, the King-Maker, would never
make him King, now. So, being but a weak-minded young
traitor, possessed of very little worth or sense, he readily
listened to an artfbl court ladj* sent over for the puriK)se,
and promised to turn traitor once more, and go over to his
hrother, King Edward,, when a fitting opportunity should
come.

The Earl of Warwick, knowing nothing of this, soon re-
deemed his promise to the Dowager Queen Margaret, by in-
vading England and landing at Plymouth, where he instantly
proclaimed King Henry, and summoned all Englishmen be-
tween the ages of sixteen and sixt}', to join his banner.
Then, with his aimy increasing as he marched along, he
went northward, and came so near King Edward, who was in
that part of the countrj', that Edward had to ride hard for



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252 A CHILD'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND.

it to the coast of Norfolk, and thenoe to get away in such
ships as he could find, to Holland. Thereupon, the triam-
phant King-Maker and his false soo-in-law, the Duke of Clar-
ence, went to London, took the old King out of the Tower,
and walked him in a great procession to Saint Paul's Cathe-
dral with the crown ui>on liis head. This did not improve
the temper of the Duke of Clarence, who saw himself farther
off from being King than ever; but he kept his secret
and said nothing. The Nevil family were restored to all



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