Charles Dickens.

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and for not believing in the mass. He admitted both of
these accusations, and said that the mass was a wicked im-
position. Then they tried Rogers, who said the



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MARY. 323

Next morning the two were brought up to be sentenced ; and
then Rogers said that his poor wife, being a German woman
and a stranger in the land, he hoiked might be allowed to
come to speak to him before he died. To tliis the inhuman
Gardiner replied, that she was not his wife. ^^ Yea, but she
is, m}^ lord," said Rogers, ^^ and she hath been my wife these
eighteen 3'ear8." Ilis request was still refused, and the}'
were both sent to Newgate ; all those who stood in the streets
to sell things, being ordered to put out their lights that the
people might not see them. But, the people stood at then-
doors with candles in their hands, and prayed for them as
they went by. Soon aA^rwards, Rogers was taken out of
jail to be burnt in Smithfield ; and in the crowd as he went
along, he saw his poor wife and his ten children, of whom the
youngest was a little baby. And so he was burnt to death.

The next da}', Hooper, who was to be burnt at Gloucester,
was brought out to take his last journey, and was made to
wear a hood over his face that he might not be known by the
people. But, thef>' did know him for all that, down in his
own part of the country ; and, when he came near Glouces-
ter, they lined the road, making praj'ers and lamentations.
His guards took him to a lodging, where he slept soundly
all night. At nine o*ck>ck next morning, he was brought
forth leaning on a staff; for he had taken cold in prison,
and was infirm. The iron stake, and the iron chain which
was to bind him to it, were fixed up near a great elm-tree in
a pleasant open {^ce before the cathedral, whore, on peace-
ful Sundays, he had been accustomed to preach and to pray,
when he was bishop of Gloucester. This tree, which had
no leases then, it being February, was filled with people ;
and the priests of Gloucester College were looking compla-
cently on from a window, and there was a great concourae of
8pectators in every spot fVom which a glimi)6e of the dread-
ful sight could be beheld. When the old man kneeled down
on the small platform at the foot of the stake, and pra^^ed
itloud, the nearest people were observed to be so attentive to



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324 A CHILD'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND.

his prayers that they were ordered to stand farther back;
for it did not suit the Romish Church to have those Protes-
tant words heard. His prayers concluded, he went up to
the stake and was stnpped to his shirt, and chained ready
for the fire. One of his guards had such compassion on him
that, to shorten his agonies, he tied some packets of
gunpowder about him. I'tien tliey heaped up wood and
straw and reeds, and set them all alight. But, unhap-
pily, the wood was green and damp, and there was a wind
blowing that blew what flame there was awa^*. Thus, tkrongh
three-quarters of an hour, the good old man was scorched
and roasted and smoked, as the fire rose and sank ; and all
that time they saw him, as he burned, moving his Bps in
prayer, and beating his breast with one hand, even after the
other was burnt away and had fallen off.

Cranmer, Ridley, and Latimer, were taken to Oxford to
dispute with a commission of priests and doctors about the
mass. The}' were shamefullj' treated ; and it is reported
that the Oxford scholars hissed and howled and groaned, and
misconducted themselves in an an3'thing but a scholarly way.
The prisoners were taken back to jail, and afterwards tried
in St. Man's Church. They were all found guilty. On the
sixteenth of the month of October, Ridley and Latimer were
brought out, to make another of the dreadflil bonfires.

The scene of the suffering of these two good Protestant
men was in the City ditch, near Baliol College. On coming
to the dreadful spot, they kissed the stakes, and then em-
braced each other. And then a learned doctor got up into
a pulpit which was placed there, and preached a sermon fVom
the text, "Though I give my body to be burned, and have
not charity, it profiteth me nothing." When you think of
the charity of burning men alive, you may itnagine that this
learned doctor had a i*athor brazen face. Ridley wonld have
answered his sermon when it came to an end, but was not
allowe<l. When Latimer was 8trii>i)ed, it appeared that he
hat! dressed himself under his othei* ckithes, in a new sliroud-;



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MARY. 325

am!, as he stood in it before all the people, it was noted of
him, and long remembered, that, whereas he had been stoojv
ing and feeble but a few minulcs before, he now stood up-
right and handsome, in the knowledge that he was dying for
a just and a great cause. Ridlej-'s brother«in-law was there
with hags of gunpowder ; and when thej* were both chained
up, he tied them round their bodies. Then, a light was
tiut)wn upon the pile to fire it. ^' Be of good eomfort. Mas-
ter Ridley," said Latimer, at that awful moment, "'ami play
the Buui ! We shall tliis day light such a candle, by God's
grace, in England, as I trust shall never be put out." And
then he was seen to make motions with his hands as if he
were washing them in the flames, and to stroke his aged face
with them, and was heard to cry, '* Father of Heaven, re-
ceive my sonl ! " Ho died quickly, but the fire, after having
burned the legs of Ridley, sunk. There he lingei-ed, chained
to the iron post, and crying, ''Oil cannot burn! O! for
Christ's sake let the fire come unto me ! " And still, when
his brother-in-law had heaped on more wood, he was heard
through the blinding smoke, still dismally cr>ing, ''O! I
cannot bum, I cannot burn!" At last, the gun|K>wder
eaught fire and ended his miseries.

Five days after this fearful scene, Giu*diner went to his
tremendous account before God, for the cruelties he had so
mach assisted in committing.

Cnuimer remained still alive and in prison. He was
brought out again in Februar}', for more examining and tiy-
iag, by Bonner, Bishop of London: another man of blood,
who had succeeded to Gardiner's work, even in his lifetime,
when Gardiner was tired of it. Cranmer was now degraded
as a priest, and left for death : but if the Queen hated any
one on earth, she hated him, arid it was resolved that he
should be ruined and disgraced to the utmost. There is no
doubt that the Quoen and her husband personally urged on
these deeds, because they wrote to the Coundi, urging them
to be active in the kindling of the feai-ful fires. As Cranmer



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326 A CHILD'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND.

was known not to be a firm man, a plan Was laid for sur-
rounding him with artful people, and inducing him to recant
to the nnreformed religion. ' Deans and friars visited him,
played at bowls with him, showed him various attentions,
talked persuasively with him, gave him money for his prison
comforts, and induced him ta sign, I fear as many as six
recantations. But when, after all, he was taken out to be
burnt, he was nobly true to his better self, and made a gk>-
rious end.

After prayers and a sermon. Dr. Cole, the preacher of the
day (who had been one of the artfhl priests about Cranmer
in prison), required him to make a public confeesioB of his
faitli before the people. This, Cole did, expecting that he
would declare himself a Roman Catholic. ^*I wiU make a
profession of my faith,*' said Cranmer, *^ and with a good
wiU too."

Then, he arose before them aU, and took from the sleeve of
his robe a written prayer and read it aloud. That done, he
kneeled and said the Lord's Prayer, all the people joining ;
and then he arose again and told them that he beKeved la ti»
Bible, and tliat in what he had lately written, he had written
what was not the truth, and tlmt, because his right hand had
signed those papers, he would bum his right hand first when
he came to the fire. As fbr the Pope, he did refuse him and
denounce him as the enem}' of Heaven. Hereupon the pio«is
Dr. Cole cried out to tJie guards to stop that heretic's month
and take him away.

So they took him away, and chained him to the stake,
where he hastily took off his own clothes to make read.v ft*
the flames. And ho stood before the people with a baki head
and a white and flowing beard. He was so firm now, when
the worst was come, that he again declared against his re-
cantation, and was so impressive and so undismayed, that a
certain lord, who wad one of tlie directors of the execation,
called out to the vf^en to make haste! When the fire was
lighted, Cranmer, \r\ie to bfs jatest; word, stretched out his



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MABY. 327

riglit band, and crying out, ''This band hath offended!"
held it among the flames, until it blazed and burned away.
H» heart was found entire among bis ashes, and he left at
last a memorable name in Englisb history. Cardinal Pole
celebrated the day by saying his first mass, and next da^- he
was made Archbishop ot Canterbury in Ci-aumer's place.

The Queen's husband, who was now mostly abroad in his
own dominions, and generally made a coarse jest of her to
bis more familiar courtiers, was at war with France, and
came over to seek the assistance of England. England was
ver}' unwilling to engage in a French war for his sake ; but it
happened that the King of France, at this ver^- time, aided
a descent upon the English coast. Hence, war was declared,
gready to Philip's satisfaction ; and the Queen mised a sum
of money with which to carry it on, by everj'^ unjustifiable
means in her power. It met with no profitable return, for
the French Duke of Guise surprised Calais, and the English
sustained a complete defeat. The losses they met with in
France greatly mortified the national pride, and the Queen
never recovered the blow.

There was a bad fever raging in England at this time, and
I am glad to write that the Queen took it, and the hour of
her deatli came. " When I am dead and my body is opened,"
she said to those around her, ^'ye shall find Calais written
on my heart." I should have thought, if anything were
written on it, they would have found the words — Jane Grey,
Hooper, Rogers, Ridley, Latimer, Crakmer, and three

HUNDRED people BURNT ALIVE WrTHIN FOUR YEARS OF MY
WICKED REIGN, INCLUDING SIXTY WOMEN AND FORTY LITTLE

cmLDREK. But it is enough that their deaths were written in
Heaven.

The Queen died on the seventeenth of November, fifteen
hundred and fifbj^-eight, after reigning not quite five years and
a half, and in the forty-fourth year of her age. Cardinal
Pole died of the same fever next day.

As Bloody Queen Mary, this woman has become famous,



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323 A CHILD'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND.

and as Bloody Queen Mary, she will ever be jastly remem-
bered with horror and detestation in Great Biitain. Her
memory has been lield in such abhorrence tliat some writers
have arisen in later years to take her part, and to show that
she was, upon the whole, quite an amiable and cheerful
sovereign ! "By thek fruits ye shall know them," said Oub
Saviour. The stake and the £re were the fruits of this reign,
and you will judge this Queen by nothmg else.



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ELIZABETU. 329



CHAPTER XXXL



ENGLAND UNDER ELIZABETH.



There was great rejoicing all over the land when the Lords
of the Council went down to Hatfield, to hail the Piincess
Elizabeth as the new Queen of England. Weary of the bar-
barities of Mary's reign, the people looked with hope and
gladness to the new Sovereign. The nation seemed to wake
from a horrible dream ; and Heaven, so long hidden b}' the
smoke of the fires that roasted men and women to death, ap-
peared to brighten once more.

Queen Elizabeth was five-and-twenty years of age when
she rode through the streets of London, fW)m the Tower to
Westminster Abbey, to be crowned. Her countenance was
strongly marked, but on the whole, commanding and digni-
fied ; her hair was red, and her nose something too long and
sharp for a woman's. She was not the beautifbl creature her
courtiers made out ; but she was well enough, and no doubt
k)oked all the better for coming after the dark and gloomy
Mary. She was well educated, but a roundabout writer, and
rather a hard swearer and coarse talker. She was clever, but
canning and deceitful, and inherited much of her father's
violent temper. I mention this now, because she has been
so over-praised by one party, and so over-abused by another,,
that it is hardly possible to understand the greater part of
her reign without first understanding what kind of a woman
she really was.

She began her reign with the great advantage of having a
very wise and careful Minister, Sir William Cecil, whom
she afterwards made Lord Burleigh. Altogether, the peo-



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330 A CHILD»S HISTORY OF ENGLAND.

pie hod greater reason for rejoicing than they usually had,
wlien there were processions in the streets ; and they were
happy with some reason. All kinds of shows and images
were set up ; Gog and Magog were hoisted to the top of
Temple Bar ; and (which was more to the purpose) the Cor-
poration dutifully presented the young Queen with the sum
of a thousand marks in gold — so heavy a present that she
was obliged to take it into her carriage with both hands.
The coronation was a great success ; and, on the next day,
one of the courtiers presented a petition to the new Queen,
praying that as it was the custom to release some prisoners
on such occasions, she would have the goodness to release
the four Evangelists, Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, and
also the Apostle Saint Paul, who had been for some time
shut up in a strange language so that the people could not
get at them.

To this, the Queen replied that it would be better first to
inquire of themselves whether they desired to be released or
not ; and, as a means of finding out, a great public discossioa
— a sort of religious tournament — was appointed to take
place between ceilain champions of the two reUgions, in
Westminster Abbey. You may suppose tliat it was sooa
made pretty clear to common sense, tliat for people to benefit
by what they repeat or read, it is rather necessary they should
understand something about it. Accoi-dingly, a Churdi Ser-
vice in plain EngKsh was settled, and other kws and regula-
tions were made, completely establishing the great worit of
the Reformation. The Romish bishops and champions were
not harshly dealt wiUi, all tilings considered ; and the Queen's
Ministers were botli prudent and merciful.

The one great ti-ouble of this reign, and the anfbrtaiiate
cause of the greater part of sudi turmoil and bloodshed as
occurred in it, was Mary Stuart, Queen of Scfors. We
will try to understand, in as few words as possible, who
Mary was, what she was, and how she came to be a tliom in
the royal pillow of Elizabetii.



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FBANCI8 II. AKD MABT 8TUABT.



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ELIZABETH. ' 331

She was the daughter of the Queen Regent of Scotland,
Mabt of Guise. She had been married, when a mere child,
to the Dauphin, the son and heir of the King of France.
The Pope, who pretended that no one could rightfully wear
tJie crown of England without his gracious permission, was
strongly opposed to Elizabeth, who had not asked for the
said gracious permission. And as Mar}' Queen of Scots
would have inherited the English crown in right of her birth,
Biipposing the English Parliament not to have altered the
succession, the Pope himself, and most of the discontented
who were followers of his, maintained that Mary was the
rigfatftil Queen of England, and Elizabeth the wrongful
Queen. Mar}' being so closely connected with France, and
France being jealous of England, there was far greater dan-
ger in this than there would have been if she had had no
alliance with that great power. And when her joung hus-
band, on the death of his father, became Feancis the Sec-
ond, King of France, the matter grew very serious. For,
the young couple styled themselves King and Queen of Eng-
land, and the Pope was disposed to help them by doing all
the mischief he could.

Now, the i*eformed religion, under the guidance of a stem
and powerful preacher, named John Knox, and other such
men, had been making fierce progress in Scotland. It was
still a half savage country, where there was a great deal of
murdering and rioting continually going on ; and the Reform-
ers, instead of reforming those evils as they should have
done, went to work in the ferocious old Scottish spirit, lay-
ing churches and chapels waste, pulling down pictures and
altars, and knocking about the Grey Friars, and tlie Black
Friars, and the White Friars, and tlie friars of all soits of
cok>r8, in all directions. This obdurate and harsh spirit of
the Scottish Reformers (the Scotch have always been rather
a sullen and frowning people in religious matters) put up the
blood of the Romish French court, and caused France to send
troops over to Scotland, with the hope of setting the friars of



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332 A CHILD'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND.

all sorts of colors on tbeir legs Again ; of OMiquering that
countiy first, and England afterwards ; and so crushing the
Reformation all to pieces. The Scottish Reformers, who had
formed a great league which the}' called The Congregation of
the Lord, secretly' represented to Elizabeth that, if the re-
formed religion got the worst of it with them*, it would be
likely to get the worst of it in England too. And thus Elizt-
beth, though she had a high notion of the rights of Kings and
Queens to do anything they liked, sent an army to Scotland
to support the Reformers, who were in arms against Uieir
sovereign. All these proceedings led to a treaty of peace
at Edinburgh, under which the French consented to depart
from the kingdom. By a separate treaty, Maiy and her young
husband engaged to renounce their assumed title of King
and Queen of England. But this treaty they never ful-
filled.

It happened, soon after matters had got to this state, that
the 3'oung French King died, leaving Mary a young widow.
Slie was then Invited by her Scottish subjects to return home
and reign over them ; and as she was not now ha[^y where
she was, she, atler a little time, complied.

Elizabeth had been Queen three 3'ears, when Mary Queen
of Scots embarked at Calais for her own rough quarrelling
countiy. As she came out of the harbor, a vessel was lost
before her eyes, and she sait^, ''O! good God ! what an
omen this is for such a voyage ! '* She was very fond of
France, and sat on the deck, looking back at it and weepiug,
until it was quite dark. When she went to bed, she diredetl
to l>e called at daybreak, if the French coast were still visible,
that she might behold it for the last time. As it proved to
be a clear morning, this was done, and she again wept for
the country she was leaving, and said many times, '' Fare-
well, France! Farewell, France I I shall never see thee
again!" All this was long remembered ailerwards as sor-
rowful and interesting in a fair young princess of nineteen.
Indeed, I am afraid it gradually came, U^thcr with her



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ELIZABETH. 333

other distresses, to snrround her with greater sympathy than
8he deserved.

When she came to Scotland, and took up her abode at the
palace of Holyrood in Edinburgh, she found herself among
nDcoath strangers and wild uncomfortable customs very dif-
ferent from her experiences in tlie Court of France. The
rery people who were disposed to love her, made her head
ache when she was tired out by her voyage, with a serenade
of discordant music — a fearAil concert of bagpi|)es, I sup-
pose — and brought her and her train home to her palace on
miserabie little Scotch horses that appeared to be half starved.
Among the people who were not disposed to love her, she
foand the powerful leaders of the Reformed Church, who
were bitter upon her amusements, however innocent, and
denounced music and dancing as works of the devil. John
Knox himself often lectured her, violently and angrilj-, and
did nnoch to make her life unhappy. Ail these reasons eon-
firmed her old attachment to tlie Romish religion, and caused
her, there is no doubt, most imprudently and dangerously
both for herself and for England too, to give a solemn pledge
to tbelieads of the Romish Churdi that if she ever succeeded
to the English crown, she would set up that religion again.
In reading her unhappy histoiys 3*ou must alwa3's remember
this ; and also that dunng her whole life she was constantly
pot forward against the Queen, in some form or other, by
the Romish party.

Tliat Elizabeth, oo the otiier hand, was not inclined to like
lier, is pretty certain. Elizabeth was very vain and Jealous,
and had an extraordinary dislike to people being married.
She treated Lady Catherine Grey, sister of tlie beheaded
Lady Jane, with such slmmeful sevent}', for no other reason
than her being secretly married, that she died and her hus-
iNuid was ruined ; so, when a second marriage for Mary
lN»gan to be talked about, probably Elizabeth disliked her
more. Not that Elizabeth wanted suitors of her own, for
they started up from Spain, Austria, Sweden, and England.



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334 A CHILD»S HISTORY OF ENGLAND.

Her English lover at this time, and one whom she omch
favored too, was Lord Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester—
himself secretly married to Amy Robsart, the daughter of in
English gentleman, whom he was strongly suspected of cans*
ing to be murdered, down at his country seat, Cnmnor Hall
in Berkshire, that' he might be free to marry the Queen.
U[)on this story, tlie gi^at writer. Sir Walter Scott, has
founded one of his best ix)mances. But if Elizabeth knew
how to lead her handsome favorite on, for her own vanity
and pleasure, she knew how to stop him for her own pride;
and his love, and all the other proposals, came to nothing.
The Queen always declared in good set speeches, that she
would never be married at all, but live and die a Maiden
Queen. It was a ver}' pleasant and meritorious decIaratioB
I suppose ; but it has been puffed and trumpeted so much,
that I am rather tired of it myself.

Divere princes proposed to marry Mary, but the English
coui*t had reasons for being jealous of them aU, and even
proposed as a matter of policy that she should marry that
veiy Earl of Leicester who had aspired to be the husband of
Elizabeth. At last. Lord Darnley, son of tlie Earl of Len-
nox, and himself descended (Vom the Royal Family of Scot-
land, went over with Elizabeth's consent to try his f<Mrtune at
Holy rood. He was a tall simpleton ; and coukl dance and
play the guitar; but I know of nothing else he could do,
unless it were to get dnink, and eat gluttonously, and make
a contemptible spectacle of himself in many mean and vain
ways. However, he gained Mary's heart, not disdaining in
the pursuit of his object to ally himself with one of her secre-
taries, David Rizzio, who had great influence with her. He
30on married the Queen. This marriage does not say much
for her, but what followed will presentl}' say less.

Mark's brother, the Earl of Murray, and head of the
Protestant party in Scotland, had opposed this marriage,
partly on religious grounds, and partly perhaps from per-
sonal dislike of the very contemptible bridegroom. When it



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ELIZABETH. 335

had taken place, throi^h Mary's gaining over to it the more
powerful of the loi'ds about her, she banished Murray for hia
pains ; and, when he and some other nobles rose in arms to
support the reformed religion, she herself, within a month of
her wedding day, rode against them in armor with loaded
pistols in her saddle. Driven out of Scotland, they presented
themselves before Elizabeth — who called them traitors in
public, and assisted them in private, according to her crafty
nature.

Mary had been married but a little while, when she began
to hate her husband, who, in his turn, began to hate that
David Rizzio, with whom he had leagued to gain her favor,
and whom he now 'believed to be her lover. He hated
Hizzio to that extent, that he made a compact with Lord
RuTHVEN and three other lords to get rid of him by murder.
This wicked agreement they made in solemn secrecy upon
the first of March, fifteen hundred and sixty-six, and on the
night of Saturday the ninth, the conspirators were brought by
Damley up a private staircase, dark and steep, into a range



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