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as a servant and put u|)on a hoi^se with a cloak strapi>ed be-
hind him, and ixxle out of the town behind one of his own
faithful followei-8, with a dei-gyman of that countr}* who knew
the road well, for a guide. He rode towards London as far
as Harrow, and then altered his plans and i-esolveil, it wowH
seem, to go to the Scottish camp. The Scottisli men had
been invited over to help the Parliamentar}* army, and had a
large foix^ then in England. The King was so desperately
intriguing in everything he did, that it is doubtAil what he ex-
actly meant b}' this step. He took it, anyhow, and delivered
himself up to the Earl of Leven, the Scottish general-in-
ehief, who treated him as an honorable prisoner. Negoti-
ntions 1>etween the Parliament on the one hand and the
Scottish authorities on the other, as to what should 1* ikme
with him, lasted until the following Febniaiy. Tlien, wlien
the King had i-efused to the Parliament tlic i^neesston of
that old militia i)oint for twenty years, and had reAised to
bcoUimd tbo i^ecognitian of \\b Solemn Lei^e ^nd CoveaaiH,



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CHARLES THE FfllSX. 399

Scotland got a handsome sum for its army and its help,
and the King into the bargain. He was taken, by certain
Parliamentaiy commissioners appointed to receive him, to
one of his own houses, called Holmbj' House, near Al-
tborpe, in Northamptonshire.

While the Civil War was still in progress, John Pym died,
and was buried in great honor in Westminster Abbey — not
with greater honor than he deserved, for the liberties of Eng-
lishmen owe a might}' debt to P}Tn and Hampden. The war
was but newly over when the £ai*l of Essex died, of an illness
brought on b}* his having overheated himself in a stag hunt
in Windsor Forest* He, too, was buned in Westminster
Abbey, with great state. I wish it were not necessar}* to
add that Archbishop Laud died upon the scaffold when the
war was not yet done. His trial lasted in all nearly a year,
and, it being doubtful even then whether the charges brought
against him amoimted to treason, the odious old contrivance
of the worst kings was resoii;ed to, and a bill of attainder
was brought in against him. He was a Aiolently prejudiced
and mischievous person ; had had strong ear-cropping and
nose-splitting propensities, as you know ; and had done a
world of harm. But he died peaceably, and like a brave
old man.



Fourth Part.

Whkn the Parliament had got the King into tlieir hands,
they became very anxious to get lid of their army, in which
Oliver Cromwell had begun to acquire gi'eat i)ower ; not only
because of his courage and high abilities, but because he pi-o-
fessed to be very sincere in the Scottish sort of Puritan
religion that was then exceedingly popular among the soldiers.
They were as much opi)08ed to the Bishops as to tlie Poi)e
himself; and the verj' privates, dinimmers, and trumi^tei's,
had such an inconvenient habit of starting up and pi^eaching



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400 A CHILD'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND.

long-winded discoursea, iliat I would not have belonged to
that army on any account.

80, the Pai'liament, being far from sure but that the aimj
might begin to preach and fight against them now it had
nothing else to do, proposed to disband the greater imrt of it,
to send another part to serve in Ireland against the rebels,
and to keep only a small force in England. But, the army
would not consent to be broken up, except upon its own con-
ditions ; and, when the Pajrliament showed an intention of
compelling it, it acted for itself io an unexpected manner.
A certain comet, of the name of Joick, arrived at Holmby
House one night, attended by four hundred horsemen, venl
into the King's room with his hat in one hand and a pistol in
the other, and told the Kuig that he had come to take hxm
away. The King was willing enough to go, and only stipu-
lated that he should be publicly required to do so next morn-
ing. Next mcM'niiig, aocordingly, he appeai-ed on the top of
the steps of the house, and asked Cornet Joice before his mea
and the guard set Uiere by the Pax'liameikt, what authority he
had for taking him away? To this Comet Joice replied,
''The antlionty of the aimy." "Have you a written com-
mission?" said the King. Joice, pointing to his fbur hun-
dred men on horseback, replied, " That is mj* commiaaion.'*
"Well," said the King, smiling, as if he were pleased, "I
never before read such a commission; but it is written
in fair and legible characters. This is a company of as
handsome proi)er gentlemen as I have seen a long while."
He was asked whei-e he would like to live, and he said at
Newmarket. 80, to Newmarket he and Comet Joice and the
four hundred horsemen rode ; the King remarking, in the
same smiling wa}^ that he could ride as far at a spell as Cor-
net Joice, or any man there.

The King quite believed, I think, that the army were his
friemls. He said as mudi to Fairfax when tliat General,
Oliver Cromwell, and Ireton, went to persuade him to return
to the. custody of the Parliament. He preferred to remain as



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CHARLES THE FIRST. 401

he WM, and resolved to remain as he was. And when the
army moved nearer and nearer London to frighten the Pari la-
ment into 3ielding to their demands, the}' took the King with
them. It was a de|>lorable thing that England should be at
the mercy of a gi'oat body of soldiers with arms in their
hands ; bnt the King certainly favored them at this important
time of his life, as compared witii the more lawful power that
tried to control him. It must be added, however, that they
treated him, as yet> more respectfully and kindly than the
Parliament had done. They allowed him to be attended by
his own servants, to be splendidl}' entertained at various
hoaaes, and to see his chUdren — at Cavesham House, near
Reading — for two da3*s. Whereas, the Parliament had been
rather hard with him, and had onl}* allowed him to ride out
and play at bowls.

It is much to be believed that if the King could have been
tmsted, even at this time, he might have been saved. £ven
Oliver Cromwell expressly said that he did believe that no
man eoidd enjoy his possessions in i>eace, unless the King
bad his rights. He was not unfriendly towards the King ;
he had been present when he received his children, and had
been much aflfeete<l by the pitiable nature of the scene ; he
saw the King often ; he frequently walked and talked with
him in tlie long galleries and pleasant gardens of the Palace
at Hampton Court, whither he was now i-cmoveil ; and in all
this risked something of his influence with the arm3% But,
the King was in secret hopes of help from the Scottish
l)eople ; and the moment he was encouraged to join them he
liegan to be cool to his new friends, the anny, and to tell the
officers that they could not possibly do without him. At the
ver}- time, too, when he was promising to make Cromwell
and Ircton noblemen, if they would help him up to his old
height) he was writing to the Queen tliat he meant to hang
them. They both afterwards declared that the}- had been
privately informed that such a letter would be found, on a
certain evening, sewed up in a saddle which would be taken

26



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402 A CHILD'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND.

to the Blue Boar in Holbom to be sent to Dover ; and that
the}' went there, disguised as common soldiers, and sat drink-
ing in the inn-3'ard nntil a man came with the saddle, whtcb
the}' ripped up with their knives, and thei*ein found the letter.
I see little reason to doubt the stoi*}*. It is certain that Oh-
ver Cromwell told one of the King's most faithful followers
that the King could not be trusted, and that he would not be
answerable if an^lhing amiss were to happen to him. Still,
even after that, he kept a promise he had made to the King,
by letting him know that there was a plot with a certain por-
tion of Uie army to seize him. I believe that, in fact, he
sincerely wanted the King to escape abroad, and so to be got
rid of without more trouble or danger. That Oliver himself
had work enough with the army is pretty plain ; for some of
the troops were so mutinous against him, and against those
who acted with him at this time, that he found it necessan*
to have one man shot at the head of his regiment to overawe
the rest.

The King, when he received Oliver's warning, made his
escape from Hampton Court ; after some indecision and un-
certainty, he went to Carisbrooke Castle in the Isle of Wight.
At first he was pretty free there ; but, even there, he carried
on a pretended treat}' with the Parliament, while he was
really treating with commissioners fixnn Scotland to send an
army into England to take his part. When he broke oflT
this treaty with the Parliament (having settled with Scot-
land) and was treated as a prisoner, his treatment was not
changed too soon, for he had plotted to escape that very
night to a ship sent b}' the Queen, which was lying off the
island.

He was doomed to be disapiK>inted in his hopes from Soot-
land. The agreement he had made with the Scottish Com-
missioner was not favorable enough to the religion of tliat
country to please the Scottish derg}-; and the}' preached
against it. The consequence was, tliat the army raised iu
Scotland and sent over, was too small to do much ; and that^



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CHARLES THE FinST. 403

although it was heli)ed by a rising of the Roj^alists in En^and
and by good soldiers from Ireland, it could make no head
against the Pariiamentary aimy under such men as Cramwell
and Fairfax. The King's eldest son, the J^rince of Wales,
came over from Holland with nineteen ships (a part of the
English fleet having gone over to him) tq help his father ;
but notliing came of his voj^age, and he was fain to return.
The most remarkable event of this second civil war was the
cruel execution by the Parliamentary General, of Sir Charles
Lucas and Sir George Lisle, two grand Royalist generals,
who had bravely defended Colchester under every disadvan-
tage of iamine and distress for nearly three pionths. When
Sir Charles Lucas was shot. Sir George Lisle kissed his body,
and said to the soldiers who were to shoot him, ^' Come nearer,
and make sure of me." *' I warrant you, Sir George," said
one of the soldiers, *' we shall hit you." ** Ay ? " he returned
with a smile, ^^ but 1 have been nearer to you, my Mends,
many a time, and you have missed me."

The Piarliament, after being fearfully bullied by the army —
who demanded to have seven members whom they disliked
given up to them — had voted that tliey would have nothing
more to do with the King. On the conclusion, however, of
tliis second civil war (which did not last more than six
months), they appointed commissioners to treat with him.
The King, then so far released again as to be allowed to live
in a private house at Newjwrt in the Isle of Wight, managed
his own part of the negotiation with a sense that was admired
by all who saw him, and gave up, in the end, all that was
asked of him — even yielding (which he had steadily refused,
80 far) to tlie temporary* abolition of the bishops, and tlie
transfer of their church bind to the Crown. Still, with his old
fatal vico upon him, when his best friends joined the commis-
sioners in beseeching him to yield all those points as the only
means of saving himself from the army, he was plotting to
escape from the island ; he was holding correspondence with
bis friends and the Catholics in Ireland, though declaring that



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404 A CHILD»S HISTORY OF ENGLAND.

he was not ; and he was writing, with his own hand, that in
what he 3'ielded he meant nothing but to get time to escape.

Matters were at this pass when the armj, resolved to deljr
the Parliament, marched up to London. Tlie Parliament,
not afrai(i of tliem now, and boldly led by HoUis, voted that
the King's concessions were sufficient ground for settlmg the
peace of the kingdom. Upon that, Colonel Rich and Col-
onel Pride went down to the House of Commons with a
regiment of horse soldiei's and a regiment of foot; and
Colonel Pride, standing in the lobby with a list of tiie mem-
bers who wei*e obnoxious to the army in his hand, had them
pointed out to him as they came through, and took them all iota
custody. This proceeding was afberwards called bj the
people, for a joke, Pride's Puroe. Cromwell was in the
North, at the head of his men, at the time, bat when he
came home, approved of what had been done.

What witli imprisoning some members and causing others
to stay away, the army had now reduced the House of Com-
mons to some fifty or sa These soon voted tiiat it was
treason in a king to make war against his imrliament and his
people, and sent an ordinance up to the House of Lords for
the King's being tried as a traitor. The House of Lords,
then sixteen in number, to a man rejected it. Therenpon,
the Commons made an oixlinance of tlieir own, that they were
the supreme government of the country, and would bring the
King to tiial.

The King had been taken for security to a place called
Hurst Castle : a lonely bouse on a ix>ck in the sea, connected
with tlie coast of Hampshire by a i*ough road two miles
long at low water. Thence, he was ordered to be removed
to Windsor; thence, after being but rudely used there, and
having none but soldiers to wait u)x>n him at table, he was
brought up to St. James's Palace in London, and told that
his trial wjas appointed for next day.

On Saturday, the twentieth of January, one thousand six
hundred and foitj-nine, this memomble tiial began. The



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CIIAULES THR FIRST. 405

House of Commons had settled that one hnndred and thirty-
five persons should form the Court, and these were taken
from the House itself, from among the officei*s of the army,
and from among the lawyci"s and citizens. John Bradshaw,
serjeant-at-law, was apixjinted president. The place was
Westminster Hall. At the upper end, in a red velvet chair,
sat the pi-esident, with his hat (lined with plates of iron for
his protection) on his head. The rest of tlie Court sat on
side benches, also wearing their hats. The King's seat
was covered with velvet, like that of the president, and
was opposite to it. He was brought from St. James's
to Whitehall, and fh)m Whitehall he came bj- water to his
trial.

When he came in, he looked round veiy steadily on the
Court, and on the great number of spectators, and then sat
down : presently he got up and looked round again. On the
indictment '^ gainst Charles Stuart, for high treason," l)eing
read, he smiled several times, and he denied the authority' of
the Court, saying that there could be no parliament without
a House of Lords, and that he saw no House of Lords there.
Also, that the King ought to be there, and that he saw no
King in the King's right plac*e. Bradshaw replied, that the
Court was satisfied with its authorit}', and that its authonty
was God's authorit}' and the kingdom's. He then adjourned
the Court to the following Monday. On that daj', the trial
was resumed, and went on all the week. When the Saturday
came, as the King ]>assed forward to his place in the Hall,
aome soldiers and others cried for *' justice! " and execution
on him. That day, too, Bradshaw, like an angry Sultan,
wore a red robe, instead of the black robe he had worn before.
Tlie King was sentenced to death that day. As he went out,
one solitar}' soldier said, *'God bless you. Sir!" For this,
his officer struck him. The King said he thought the pun-
ishment exceeded the offence. The silver head of his walk-
uig-etiek had fallen off while he leane<l upon it, at one time of
the trial. The . ac^cident seemed to disturb him, as if he



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406 A CHILD'S HISTORY OF ENOL.\ND.

thought it ominous of the falling of his own head ; and be
admitted as much, now it was all over.

Being taken back to Whitehall, he sent to the House of Com-
mons, saying that as the time of his execution might be nigb,
he wished he might be allowed to see his darling childree.
It was granted. On the Monda}' he was taken back to St.
James's ; and his two children then in England, the Princess
Elizabbth thirteen yeare old, and the Duke op GiX)ccESTKi
nine years old, were brought to take leave of him, from Sioo
House, near Brentford. It was a sad and touching sceoe,
when he kissed and fondled those poor children, and roaik a
little present of two diamond seals to the Princess, and gave
them tender messages to their mother (who little desenred
them, for she had a lover of her own whom she married soon
afterwards), and told them that he died '* for the laws and
libei-ties of the land." I am bound to say that 1 don't think
he did, but I dare say he believed so.

There were ambassadors from Holland that day, to into^
cede for the unhapi)y King, whom you and I both wish tJie
Parliament had spared ; but they got no answer. The Scot-
tish Commissionei-s interceded too; so did the Prince of
Wales, by a letter in which he offered as the next heir to the
throne, to accept any conditions from the Parliament ; so did
the Queen, by letter likewise. Notwithstanding all, the wa^
rant for the execution was this day signed. There is a ston'
that as OUver Cromwell went to the table with the pen in his
liand to put his signature to it, he drew his pen across Uie
face of one of the commissioners, who was standing near,
and marked it with ink. That commissioner had not signed
his own name yet, and the story adds that when he caine to
ilo it he mai*ked Cromwell's face with ink in the same way.

Tlie King slept well, untroubled by the knowledge that it
was his last night on earth, and rose on the thirtieth of Jan-
uary, two houre before day, and dressed himself carefnlly.
He put on two shirts lest he should tremble with the cold,
and had his hair veiy carefbliy combed. The warrant bad



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EXECUTION OF KING CHARLES.



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llA ' - ■

y. . ■, .rit'(*tv-^l to throe (.!^^^ •

• ■•►M-L Hi NK^. ail'! (\»1 '^ t i -

• ^: ••!* Xhesii i\in\o to tiu - • . .
^ :*.*!. .;i. Tlic King-, v j, - *
n .s 'il Ot bis i:^H;d s[W'«- I '■ , ;

• ' ^ * j'mrd, witli Iji-* ace- ' '

'•n :v. ' •' ! " AVhen ht^ *">! i,* : • .

L • •»Hi. iKHin'Oui, wlun-t' a ■ '.. -

nat* '-ik.-u the Siu'nunent, ». h ■ ' *

at «*•■ li the timo uhen tin; <-.'i • '"

(ft*! I.** b.ul to wait Mirouj.'* *h« -• '. :

took *■-»' Ltlvi«r of theiro'M \\-<k • , -

$m\ At** I littlo bnvid a-t^; t ... ;• *

A*r h* hft«l taken this rt-t'-t .• . •

tbl> thiiinlK^i with the wair:. .t -v t

Cbtfk - Stoart.

And then, through the if" t*
lM(*h he had often s(h n liuhi •* ' . ^ • .
h %<?rv di fro rent tiriies, th^ <a!'.. i: <; . .
eanK ro the centre ^ind(.»w of . .t- r. - *
which he emeiued ii|k>u lne * *. • i, 'Oi < •
black. IIo h'<»[<ed at the tv > ."\o' i -i m. i ,.
tu Ulaek fuid uuif^ked ; he hx-U'd it th- tr<
borxcbni'k and on fr ot, and all h* t^i :i" i**
he looked at the vast array of ^i^ « 'iior-', t.
Im'oiid, and turning all their fac-e*^ mj o?. i •
hi* old Palace of St. Jatiie'<*<* ; n .<i h' i-* •..
He HeenKHl a Htth* tr<Mihled to *:nd V'..\\ 'i *. •'^
••kedt *• if there were no place Mjl v. '■' " I'l i;
upon the seatfold, he said *' that it wa-^ *:n' "\
had liettun the \^ur, and not Iw ; but he Ijoim ? •!,.•
goQtksb Uyi); as ill instrunA-nts had irone !»•'.' ;» ' .
one resi>ect," lie said, '■ he sutfered jusily ; uu-: u.\:
t-aiise he had permitteil an unjust sentcMice to he e\<M
aii )thor.'* In this he referre<l to the FLarl of Stralfoil
I It; was not at all afraid to die ; hut he wab anxioun



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EXECUTION OF KING CHARLES.



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CHARLES THE FIRST. 407

been directed to tbree ofikers of the army, Colonel Hackek,
Colonel Hunks, and Colonel Phayer. At ten o'clock, the
first of these came to the door and said it was time to go to
Whitehall. The King, who had always been a quick walker,
walked at his usual speed through the Park, and called out
to the guard, with his accustomed voice of command, *' March
on apace ! " When he came to Whitehall, he was taken to
his own bedroom, wliere a breakfast was set forth. As he
had taken the Sacrament, he would eat nothing more ; but,
at about the time when the church bells struck twelve at noon
(for he had to wait through the scaffold not being ready), he
took the advice of the good Bishop Juxon who was with him,
and ate a little bread and drank a glass of claret. Soon
after he had taken this refreshment, Colonel Hacker came to
the chamber with the warrant in his hand, and called for
Charles Stuart.

And then, through the long galler}' of Whitehall Palace,
which he bad often seen light and gay and merry and ci'owded,
in very difl'erent times, the'fallen King passed along, until he
came to the centre window of the Banqueting House, through
which he emerged upon the scaffold, which was hung with
blade. He looked at the two executioners, who were dressed
in black and masked ; he looked at the tix>ops of soldiers on
horseback and on foot, and all looked up at him in silence ;
he looked at the vast array of spectators, filling up the view
beirond, and turning all their faces upon liim ; he looked at
his old Palace of St. James's ; and he looked at the block.
He seemed a little troabled to find that it was so low, and
asked, '*if there were no place higher?" Then, to those
upon the scaffold, he said ^' tliat it was the Parliament who
had begun the war, and not he ; but he hoped the}' might be
guiltless too, as ill instruments had gone between them. In
one respect," he said, '' he suffered justly ; and that was be-
cause he had pennitted an unjust sentence to be executed on
another." In this he referred to the Earl of Straffoi*d.

He was not at all afraid to die ; but he was anxious to die



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408 A CHILD'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND.

easily. When some one touched the axe while he was speak-
ing, he broke off and called out, **Take heed of the axe!
take heed of the axe ! " He also said to Col<NieI Hadter,
" Take care that they do not put me to pain." He toki the
executioner, *'I shall say but verj' short prayers, and then
thrust out ray hands " — as the sign to strike.

He put his hair up, under a white satin cap which the
bishop had earned, and said, ^' I have a good cause and a
gracious God on my side." The bishop told him that he had
but one stage more to travel in this wearj- world, and that,
though it was a turbulent and troublesome stage, it was a
short one, and would carr}' him a great way — all the way
from earth to Heaven. The King's last word, as he gave his
cloak and the George — the decoitition ftx)m his breast — to
the bishop, was, '' Remember! " He then kneeled down,
laid his head on the block, spread out his hands, and was in-
stantl}' killed. One universal groan broke from the crowd ;
and the soldiei's, who had sat on their horses and stood in
their ranks immovable as statues, were of a sudden all in
motion, clearing the sti*eets.

Thus, in the forty-ninUi year of his age, falling at the same
time of his career as Strafford had fallen in his, perished
Charles the Firat. With all my soitow for him, I cannot agree
with him that he died " the mart^T of the people ; " fw the
people had been martyrs to him, and to his ideas of a King's
rights, long before. Indeed, I am afraid that he was bat a
bad judge of martyrs ; for he had called that infamous Duke
of Buckingham '* the Martyr of his Sovereign."



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OLIVER CROMWELL. 409



CHAPTER XXXIV.

ENGLAND UNDER OLIVER CROMWELL.

Before sunset on the memorable day on which King
Cliarles the First was executed, the House of Commons
passed an act declaring it treason in any one to proclaim the
Prince of Wales — or anybody else — King of England.
Soon afterwai-ds, it declared that the House of Lords was
useless and dangerous, and ought to be abolished ; and di-
rected that the late King's statue should be taken down from
the Royal Exchange in the City and other public places.
Having laid hold of some famous Ro3alists who had escai}ed
from prison, and having l>elieaded the Duke of Hamilton,
Ijonv Holland, and Lord Capel, in Palace Yai-d (all of
whom died very courageously), they then appointed a Coun-
cil of State to govern the countrj*. It consisted of forty-one



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