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sailed and fought until he was quite worn out. He died, as
his successful ship was coming into Pl^Tnouth Harbor amidst
the joyful acclamations of the people, and was buried in state
in Westminster Abbe}*. Not to lie there, long.

Over and above all this, Oliver found that the Vaudois, or
Protestant people of the valleys of Lucerne, were insolently
treated by the Catholic powers, and were even put to death
ibr their religion, in an audacious and blood}' manner. In-
stantly, he informed those powers that this was a thing which
Pl^testant England would not allow ; and he speedily carried
bis point, throngh the might of his gieat name, and established
their right to worship God in peace after their own harmless
manner.

Lastly, his English army won such admiration in fighting
with the French against the Spaniards, that after they had
assaulted the town of Dunkirk together, the French King in
person gave it up to the English, that it might l>e a token to
them of their might and valor.

There were plots eiK>ugh against Oliver among the frantic
religionists (who called themselves Fifth Monarch}- Men), and
among the disappointed Republicans. He had a difficult game
to play, for the Royalists were always ready to side w ith
either party against him. The *' King over the water," too, as
Charles was called, had no scruples about plotting with any
one against his Hfe ; although there is reason to 8upix)se that
be would willingly have married one of his daughters, if Oli-
> ver would have had such a son-in-law. There was a certain



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422 A CHILD'S HISTORY OF BNGLAXD.

Colonel Saxbt of the army, once a great supporter of di-
ver's but now turned against him, who was a grievous troubb
to him through all this part of his career ; and who came ami
went between tlie discontented in England and Spain, and
Charles who put himself in alliance with Spain on being thrown
off by France. This man died in prison at last ; but not until
there had been ver}' serious plots between the Royalists and
Republicans, and an actual rising of them in England, when
they burst into the city of Salisbury on a Sunday night, seized
the judges who wei-e going to hold the assizes there next day,
and would have hanged them but for the merciful objections
of the more temperate of their number. Oliver was so ^-igor-
ous and shrewd that he soon put this revolt down, as he did
most other conspiracies ; and it was well for one of its chief
managers — that same Lord Wilmot who had assisted in
Charles's flight, and was now Earl op Rochester — that he
made his escape. Oliver seemed to have e3'e8 and ears every-
where, and secure<l such sources of information as his ene-
mies little dreamed of. There was a chosen bod}' of six per-
sons, called the Sealed Knot, who were in the closest and
most secret conOdence of Charles. One of the foremost of
these very men, a Sir Richard Willis, reix)rted to OUi-er
eveiy thing that passed among them, and had two hundred a
3'ear for it.

Miles Syndarcohb, also of the old army, was another con-
spirator against the Protector. He and a man named Crciu
bribed one of his Life Guards to let them have good notice
when he was going out — intending to shoot him fVom a win-
dow. But, owing either to his caution or his good fortune.
the}' could never get an aim at him. Disappointed in thin
design, they got into the chapel in Whitehall, with a basket-
ful of combustibles, which wei*e to explode by means of a slow
match in six hours ; tlien in tiie noise and confusion of tlie
Are, they hoped to kill Oliver. But, the Life Guardsman hinw
self disclosed this plot; and they were seized, and Milca
died (or kill^ himself in }>i'ison) ^ Uttle wWte before he was



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OLIVER CROMWELL. 423

ordered for execation. A fbw suoh plotters Oliver coased to
be beheaded, a few more to be hanged, and maoy more,
iocludiug those who rose in arms against him, to be sent as
slaves to the West Indies. If he were rigid, he was impartial
too, in asserting the laws of England. When a Portuguese
nobleman, the brother of the Portuguese ambassador, killed a
London citizen in mistake for another man with whom he had
had a quarrel, Oliver caused him to be tried before a jurj' of
Englishmen and foreigners, and had him executed in spite of
the entreaties of all the ambassadors in London.

One of Oliver's own friends, the Duke op Oldbnburgh, in
sending him a present of six fine ooaoh-horses, was very near
doing more to please the Boyalists than all the plotters put
together. One day, Oliver went with his coach drawn by these
mx horses, into H^-de Pai'k, to dine with his seci*etary and
some of his other gentlemen under the trees there. After
dinner, being merr)% he took it into his head to put his friends
inside and to drive them home : a postillion riding one of the
foremost horses, as the custom was. On account of Oliver's
being too free with the whip, the six fine horses went off at a
gallop, the postillion got thrown, and Oliver fell upon the
coach-pole and narrowly escaped being shot by his own pis-
tol, which got entangled with his d(»tbes in the harness, and
went off. He was dragged some distance by the foot,
until his foot came out of the shoe, and then he came safely
to the ground under the broad body of the coach, and was
very little the worse. The gentlemen inside were only bruised,
and the discontented people of all parties were much disap-
pointed.

The rest of the history of the Protectorate of Oliver Crom-
well is a history of his Pariiaraents. His first one not pleas-
iog him at all, he waited until the five months were out, and
th^ dissolved it. The next was better suited to his views ;
and from that he desired to get — if he could with safety to
iamself — the tiUe of King. He had had this in bis mind
mne time: whether because he thought that the English



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424 A CHILD'S HISTORY OP BNGLAND.

people, being more used to the title, were more likely to obey
it ; or whether because he realh' wished to be a Kiug himself,
and to leave the succession to that title in his family, is hx
from clear. He was ah*eady as high, in England and in all
the world, as he would ever be, and I doubt if he eared for
the mere name. However, a paper, called the " Humble
Petition and Advice," was presented to him by the House of
Commons, praying him to take a high title and to appoint his
successor. That he would have taken the title of King there
is no doubt, but for the strong opposition of the army. This
induced him to forbear, and to assent onlj' to the other points
of the petition. Upon which occasion there was another
grand show in Westminster Hall, when the Speaker of the
House of Commons formally invested him with a purple robe
lined with ermine, and presented him with a splendidly bound
Bible, and put a golden sceptre in his hand. The next tim«
the Parliament met, he called a House of Lords of sixty n^m-^
bers, as the petition gave him power to do; but as that
Paiiiament did not please him either, and would not proceed
to the business of the country, he jumped into a coach one
morning, took six Guards with him, and sent them to the
right-about. I wish Uiis had been a warning to Parliaments
to avoid long speeches, and do more work.

It was the month of August, one thousand six hundred and
fifty-eight, when Oliver Cromwell's favorite daughter, £uxa«
BETH Claypole (who had lately lost her youngest son), lay
very ill, and his mind was greatl}' troubled, because he love<l
her dearly. Another of his daughtei's was man*ied to Lord
Falconberg, another to the grandson of the Earl of Warwick,
and he had made his son Richard one of the members of the
Upper House. He was very kind and loving to them all,
being a good fatlier and a good husbaud ; but he loved this
daughter tlie best of the family, and went down to Hamp<toa
Court to see her, and could hardlj' be induced to stir ttofm ber
sick room until she died. Although his religion had beeo of
a gloomy kind, his disposition had been always die^rftil. Hm



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OLIVER CfiOMWELL. 425

had been fond of musio in his home, and bad kept open table
once a week for all officers of the army not below the rank of
captain, and had always preser\'ed in his house a quiet sensi*-
ble dignity. He encouraged men of genius and learning, and
loved to have them about him. Milton was one of his great
Ariends. He was good humored too, with the nobility, whose
dresses and manners were very- different from his; and to
show t^m what good information he had, he would some-
times jokingly tell them when they were his guests, where
thej- had last drunk the health of the '* King over the water,"
and would recommend them to be more private (if they could)
another time. But he had lived in busy times, and borne
the weight of heavj^ State afiairs, and had ollen gone in fear
of his life. He was ill of the gout and ague ; and when the
death of his beloved child came upon him in addition, he
sank, never to raise his head again. He told his physicians
on the twenty-fourth of August that the Loix) had assured
him that he was not to die in that illness, and that he would
certainly get better. This was only his sick fancy, for on
^ third of September, which was the anniversary of the
great battle of Worcester, and the day of the year which he
ealled his fortunate day, he died, in the sixtieth jear of his
age. He had been delhnous, and had lain insensible some
hours, but he had been overheard to murmur a very gooil
prayer the day .before. The whole country lamented his
deaUi. If 30U want to know the real worth of Oliver Crom-
well, and his real services to his country, you can hardly do
better than compare England under him, with £nghind under
Charles the Second.

He had appointed his son Richard to succeed him, and
after there had been, at Somerset House in the Strand, a
lying in state more splendid than sensible — as all such vani-
ties after death are, I think — Richard became Lord Protec-
tor. He was an amiable countrj' gentleman, but had none of
bis father's great genius, and was quite unfit for such a ix>st
in such a storm of parties. Richard's Protectorate, which



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426 A CHILD'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND.

only lasted a year and a half, is a history of qaarrels between
the officers of the army and the Parliament, and between the
officers among themselves ; and of a growing discontent
among the people, who had far too many long sermons and
far too few amusements, and wanted a ciiange. At last.
General Monk got the arm}* well into his own hands, and
then in pursuance of a secret plan he seems to have enter-
tained from the time of Oliver's death, declared for the King's
cause. He did not do this oi)enly ; but, in his place in the
House of Commons, as one of the members for De\'onshire,
strongly advocated the proposals of one Sir Johk Greenville,
who came to the House with a letter from Charles, dated fh>ni
Breda, and with whom he had previously been in secret com-
munication. There had been plots and counteiplots, and a
recall of the last members of the Long Parliament, and an
end of the Long Parliament, and risings of the Royalists ^t
were made too soon ; and most men being tired out, and
there being no one to head the countiy now great Oii\'er was
dead, it was i-eadily agreed to welcome Charles Stuart. Some
of the wiser and better members said — what was most true
— that in the letter from Breda, he gave no real promise to
govern well, and that it would be best to make him pledge
himself beforehand as to what he should bo bound to do for
the benefit of the kingdom. Monk said, however, it woukl
be all right when he came, and he could not come too soon.

So, everybody found out all in a moment that the country
mnst be prosperous and happy, having anotlier Stuart to con-
descend to reign over it ; and there waa a prodigious firing
off of guns, lighting of bonflres, ringing of bells, and throw-
ing up of caps. The people drank the King's health by tfaoti-
sands in the open streets, and everybody rejoiced. Down
came the Arms of the Commonwealth, up went the Ro^a)
Arms instead, and out came the public money. Fifty thou-
sand pounds for the King, ten thousand pounds for his brother
the Duke of York, five thousand pounds for his brother tbe
Duke of Gloucester. Prayers for these gracions Stuarts were



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OLIVER CROMWELL. 427

pnt up in all the churches ; commissioners were sent to Hol-
land (which suddenly found out that Charles was a great man,
and that it loved him) to invite the King home ; Monk and
tlie Kentish grandees went to Dover, to kneel down before
him as he landed. He kissed and embi*aced Monk, made
him ride in the coach with himself and his brothers, came on
to London amid wonderful shoutings, and passed through the
army at Blackheath on the twentj-ninth of May (his birth-
day), in the year one thousand six hundred and sixty.
Greeted by splendid dinners under tents, by flags and tap-
estry streaming from all the houses, by dehghted crowds in
all tlie streets, by troops of noblemen and gentlemen in rich
dresses, by City companies, train-bands, drummers, trum-
peters, the great Lord Mayor, and the majestic Aldermen,
the King went on to Whitehall. On entering it, he com-
memorated his Restoration with the joke that it really would
seem to have been his own fault that he had not come long
ago, since everybody told him that he had always wished for
him with all his heart.



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428 A CHILD'S HISTORY OF ENGJAND.



CHAPTER XXXV.

ENGLAND UNDER CHARLES THE SECOND, CALLED THE MERRT
MONARCH.

There never were such profligate times in England as
under Chaiies the Second. Whenever yoa see his portrait,
with his swarthy ill-looking face and great nose, you may
fancy him in his Court at Whitehall, surrounded by some of
the very worst vagabonds in the kingdom (thougii they were
loi-ds and ladies), drinking, gambling, indulging in ricioiis
conversation, and committing everj' kind of profligate exoess.
It has been a fashion to call Charles the Second ^^ The Meny
Monarch." Let me try to give you a general idea of some
of the merry things that were done, in the merry days when
this meny gentleman sat upon his meny throne, in merrj'
England.

The first merry proceeding was — of course — to declare
that he was one of the greatest, the wisest, and the noblest
kings that ever shone, like the blessed sun itself, on this be-
nighted earth. The next merry and pleasant piece of busi-
ness was, for the Parliament, in the humblest manner, to
give him one million two hundred thousand (xninds a year,
and to settle upon hini for Hfe that old disputed tonnage and
l)oundage which had been so bravely fought for. Then, Gen-
eral Monk, being made Earl of Albemarle, and a tew other
Royalists similarly rewarded, the law went to work to see
what was to l)e done to those [persons (the}' were called Regi-
cides) who had been concerned in making a martyr of the
late King. Ten of these were menil}' executed ; that is to
say, six of the judges, one of the council, Colonel Hacker



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CHARLES THE SECOND. 429

and anotlier officer who had commanded the Guards, and
HcGH Peters, a preacher who had preached against the mar-
tyr with all his heart. These executions were so exti'emely
menrr, that every horrible cii'cumstance which Cromwell had
abandoned was revived with appalling crueltj'. The hearts
of the sufferers were torn out of their living bodies ; their
bowels were burned before their faces ; the executioner cut
jokes to the next victim, as he rubbed his filthy hands to-
gether, that were reeking with the blood of the last ; and the
heads of the dead were drawn on sledges with the living to
the place of suffering. Still, even so meny a monarch could
not force one of these dying men to say that he was sorry
for what he had done. Nay, the most memorable thing said
among them was, that if the thing were to do again they
would do it.

Sir Hany Vane, who had furnished the evidence against
Strafford, and was one of the most staunch of the Repub^
iicans, was also tried, found guilty, and ordered for execu-
tion. When he came upon the scaffold on Tower Hill, after
conducting his own defence with great power, his notes of
what he had meant to say to the people were torn away from
him, and the drums and trumpets were ordered to sound
iostily and drown his voice; for, the people had been so
mncli impressed by what the Regicides had calmly said with
their last breath, that it was the custom now, to have the
drums and trumpets always under the scaffold, ready to
strike up. Vane said no more than this: ''It is a bad
iiuise which cannot bear the .words of a d} ing man : '* and
bravely died.

These merr}' scenes were succeeded by another, perhaps
even menier. On the anniversary of the late King's death,
the bodies of Oliver Cronrwell, Ireton, and Bradshaw, were
torn out of their gmves in Westminster Abbey, dragged to
Tvbam, hanged there on a gallows all da}' long, and then
beheaded. Imagine the head of Oliver Cromwell set upon a
pde to be stared at by a bmtal crowd, not one of whom



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430 A CHILD'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND.

would have dared to look the living Oliver in the face for half
a moment! Think, after you have njad this reign, what
England was under Oliver Cromwell who was torn oat of his
grave, and what it was under this merr^^ monarch who sold it,
like a men*}* Judas, over and over again.

Of course, the remains of Oliver's wife and daughter were
not to be spared either, though thej' had been most excellent
women. The base clergj^ of that time gave up their bodies,
which had been buried in the Abbey, and — to the eternal
disgrace of England — they were thrown into a pit, together
with the mouldering bones of Pym and of the brave and bold
old Admiral Blake.

The clergy acted this disgraceful part because they hoped
to get the nonconformists, or dissenters, thoroughly put dowa
in this reign, and to have but one pra3'er-book and one 8e^
vice for all kinds of people, no matter what their private
opinions were. This was pretty well, I think, for a Protest-
ant Church, which had displaced the Romish Church becaose
people had a right to their own opinions in religious matters.
However, they carried it with a high hand, and a prayer-book
was agreed uix)n, in which the extremest opinions of Arch-
bishop Laud were not forgotten. An act was passed, too.
preventing any dissenter from holding any office under any
corporation. So, the regular clergy in their triumph were
soon as merr}* as the King. The arm}' being b}' this time
disbanded, and the King crowned, everything was to go on
easily for evermore.

I must say a woixl here about the King's family. He had
not been long upon the throne when his brother the Duke of
Gloucester, and his sister the Princess of Oranob, died
witliin a few months of each other, of small-pox. His ie>
roaining sister, the Princess Henbieita, married the Decs
OF Orleans, the bi*other of Louis the Foctstcenth, King of
France. His brother James, Dure of York, was made
High Admiral, and by-and-by became a Catholic. He was a
gloomj' sullen bilious sort of luan, with ai remarkable par-



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CHARLES TIIE SECOND. 431

tiality for the ngliest women in the country. He married,
Qnder very discreditable circumstances, Annxz Htde, the
dangbter of Lord Clarekdox, then the King's principal
Minister — not at all a delicate minister either, but doing
much of the dirty work of a veiy diit}^ palace. It became
important now that the King himself should be married ; and
diTers foreign Monardis, not very particular about the char-
acter of their son-in-law, proposed their daughters to him.
The Kino op Pobtdgal offered his daughter Catherine op
Braganza, and fifty thousand pounds : in addition to which,
the French King, who was favorable to that match, offered a
loan of another fifty thousand. The King of Spain, on the
other hand, offered any one out of a dozen Princesses, and
other hopes of gain. But the ready money carried the day,
and Catherine came over in state to her merry marriage.

The whole Court was a great flaunting crowd of debauched
men and shameless women ; and Catherine's merry husband
insulted and outraged her in every possible waj-, until she
consented to receive those worthless creatures as her very
good friends, and to degrade herself by their companionship.
A Mrs. Palmer, whom the King made Lady Castlemaine,
and afterwards Duchess of Cleveland, was one of the most
powerful of the bad women abont the Court, and had great
influence with the King nearly all through his reign. Another
merry lady named Moll Davies, a dancer at the theatre,
was afterwards her rival. So was Nell Gwtn, first an
orange girl and then an actress, who really had good in her,
and of whom one of the worst things I know is, that actually
she does seem to have been fond of the King. The first
Duke op St. Albans was this orange girl's child. In like
manner the son of a merry waiting-lady, whom the King
created Duchess op Portsmouth, l>ecame the Duke op
Richmond. Upon the whole it is not so bad a thing to
be a commoner.

The Merry Monarch was so exceedingly m^T}- among
these merry ladies^ and some equally merry (and equally



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432 A CHILD'S HISTORY OF ENGLAXD.

infamoas) lords and gentlemen, that he soon got through
his hundred thousand pounds, and then, by way of raishig
a little pocket-mone}', made a meiry bargain. He sold
Dunkirk to the Fi*ench King for five millions of livres.
When I think of the dignity to which Oliver Cromweli
raised England in the eyes of foreign tK>wer8, and when I
think of the manner in which he gained for England this
very Dunkirk, I am much inclined to consider Uiat if the
Meiry Monarch had been made to follow his father for this
action, he would have received his just deserts.

Though he was like his father in none of that father^s
greater qualities, he was like him in being worthy of no
trust. When lie sent that letter to the Parliament, tTom
Breda, he did expressly promise that all sincere religious
opinions should be resi>ected. Yet he was no sooner firm
in his power than he consented to one of the worst Acts of
Parliament ever passed. Undei- this law, every minister
who should not give his solemn assent to the Praj'er-Book
b\* a certain day, was declared to be a minister no longer,
and to be deprived of his church. The consequence of this
was that some two thousand honest men were taken from
their congregations, and reduced to dire |X)verty and dis-
tress. It was followed by another outr^eou^ law, called the
Conventicle Act, by which any i>erson above the age of six-
teen who was present at an}- religious service not according
to the Pi'uyer-Bo(^, was to be imprisoned three months for
the first offence, six for the second, and to be trans|X)rted
for the thiixl. This Act alone filled the prisons, which were
then most dj'cadfnl dimgeons, to overflowing.

The Covenantei-s in Scotland had already fared no better.
A base Parliament, usually known as the Dmnken Parlia-
ment, in consequence of ita principal members being seldom
sober, had been got together to make laws against Uie Cove-
nanters, and to force all men to be of one mind in religkms
mattci-s. The Mab^lis of Aegyle, ikying on the King's
honor, had given Uimsclf up to him ; but, he was w^aUliy»



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CHARLES THE. SECOND. 433

and bis enemies wanted his wealth. He was tried for trea-
son, on the evidence of some private letters in which he bad
expressed opinions — as well he might — more favorable to
the government of the late Lord Protector than of the
present meny and i-eligious King. He was executed, as
were two men of maik among the Covenanters ; and Shabp,
a traitor who had once been the friend of the Presbjterians
and betrayed them, was made Archbishop of St. Andrew's,
to teal^h tlie Scotch how to like bishops.

Things being in this merry state at home, the Merry Mon-
arch undertook a war with the Dutch ; principally because
they interfered with an African company, established with
the two objects of Iwiying gold-dust and slaves, of which the
Duke of York was a leading member. After some prelim-
ioarj hostilities, the said Duke sailed to tlie coast of Holland
with a fleet of ninet;y -eight vessels of war, and four fire-ships.
This engaged with the Dutch fleet, of no fewer than one



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