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siores paulo ; Ace. 93, si paulo quam tu veniam setius ; Afran. 254,
paulo saepius ; Lucil. 532 (Mx), vilicus paulo strenuior ; 708, paulo
minus ; 702, paulo melius ; 998, paulo vehementius.

paullulo: Afran. 121, natura tristiori paululo.

pauxillo : Afran. 296, pauxillo prius.

tantillo : Most. 394, hau tantillo minus.

tanto : Men. 95, tanto artius ; 434, tanto nequior ; so Ad. 528 ;
Merc. 573, tanto minus; Most. 831, tanto magis placet; so And.
774; H. T. 425; Phor. 203; Ad. 56; Most. 1099, tanto hunc ar-
genti condemnabo facilius ; Pers. 153, tanto peior ; True. 953, tanto
melior ; so Pers. 326 ; H. T. 549 ; 867, tanto ocius ; Phor. 328, tanto
saepius ; Trin. 530, tribus tantis illi minus ; Eun. 1053 ; Ace. 378.

quanto : Pseud. 449, quanto satius ; so Merc. 656 ; And. 307 ;
Cato, fr. (Jord), p. 42, 9, quan toque superiorem atque ampliorem ;
p. 36, 14, quanto secus ego fecerim ; Stat. 205, quanto libentius ;
H. T. 424, quanto diutius; 507, quanto plus; Eun. 453, idem hoc
tute' melius quanto invenisses ; 507, quanto magis ; so Ace. 136 ;
Eun. 730, quanto formonsior; 1053, quanto minus, tanto magis;
Hec. 284, quanto praestabilior ; Afran. 289, quanto facilius; Ace.
377, quanto mitius (minus codd) stirpem educabant, tanto ut reremur
magis severos esse; Lucil. 1025 (Mx), quanto blandior haec, tanto
vehementius mordet.



364 The Ablative.

2. With verbs of superiority, of increase (augeo), and malo: Bacch.
23, hie multo Ulixem anteit; so Trin. 546; Bacch. 1047, multo
mavellem ; so Merc. 421 ; M. G. 1356 ; Most. 178 ; Pseud. 209; 728;
Capt. 516, nimio mavelim ; Naev. Com. 74, quanto libertatem hanc
hie superat servitus ; Lucil. 506 (Mx), huuc milli passum qui vice-
rit atque duobus ; Pers. 474, Atticam civitatem niaiorem feci atque
auxi civi femina ; so 484.

3. With aliter, ante, post, etc. : And. 4, aliter evenire multo intellegit ;
Phor. 530, nilo sum aliter ac fui ; Enn. Trag. 40 (Sc 55 V), ubi ilia
paulo ante sapiens modestia ; Eun. 733, multon ante venit ? Bacch.
170, biennio postquam hinc abii; Men. 36, paucis diebus post ; so
Hec. 143 ; Men. 1132, annis multis post ; Most. 440, triennio post.
Pseud. 380, paullo post magis ; Pseud. 1039, hau multo post ; so Merc.
234; Phor. 879; Pacuv. 319, quam te post multis tueor tempesta-
tibus ; Hec. 393, aiunt tecum post duobus coucubuisse mensibus ;
Merc. 297 bis tanto valeo ; Most. 494, abhinc sexaginta annis.

4. With superlatives : H. T. 842, multo omnium me f ortunatis-
sumum factum puto esse; Eun. 253, is quaestus nunc est multo
uberrumus ; And. 526, multo maxumumst ; Plaut. f r. 24, solarium
multo omnium istorum optumum ; Ace. 316, senium multo acerru-
mum ; Stich. 164, multo maxumam et gravissumam.

5. In one instance we seem to have this construction with a positive :
H. T. 205, paulo qui est homo tolerabilis.

6. A peculiar class embraces the following passages : ' Men. 680,
bis tanta pluris : 800, multo tanta ilium accusabo quam te accusavi
amplius ; Bud. 521, uiulto tanta miserior (tanto B 2 ) ; Stich. 339,
multo tanta plus. Till recently editors have ignored the MSS tra-
dition in these passages and have uniformly read tanto. Havet, 1. c,
who first called attention to the proper Latinity of these passages,
explains tanta as resulting from the ellipsis of pecunia, and assumes
that the usage originated in expressions of buying and selling,
e.g. multo tanta pluris vendidi. Leo, 1. c. p. 101, suggests that with
multo, the impulse towards differentiation led to the use of tanta
(instead of tanto). Havet would read tanta also iu Pers. 153,
where the MSS give tanto; similarly in Bacch. 310, multo tanto
carior.

1 Havet, Archiv fur lat. Lexikographie, xi, p. 579; Leo, ibid. xii. 99 ff.



Ablative of Specification. 365

ABLATIVE OF SPECIFICATION. 1

The employment of the Instrumental as the case of specification
in Sanskrit, Slavic, and Lithuanian (Delbruck, iii, p. 273) makes the
instrumental character of the Latin Ablative of Specification prac-
tically certain. The construction occurs not only with adjectives
and verbs, but even occasionally with nouns and adverbs. The
material : OIL, i, 34, 5, quei numquam victus est virtutei ; Leg. XII
Tab. iii, 3, vincito compedibus xv pondo ; so Asin. 301 ; 299, quot
pondo ted esse censes? Asin. 598, opera ut largus est nocturna;
Eud. 919, opera hau fui parous ; Bacch. 124, qui tantus natu ; 402,
cave sis te superare servom siris faciundo bene ; 514, mendicum
malim mendicando vincere ; Cas. 876, tantum flagitio superavimus ;
Cist. 205, qui omnis antideo cruciabilitatibus animi; M. G. 630, per-
nix sum pedibus, manibus mobilis; 661, adulescens moribus; 662,
benefactis frequens; 1323, ferocior animo; Most. 154, parsimonia
duritia discipulinae aliis eram ; 708, nescio ut moribus sient vostrae ;
Pers. 2, superavit aerumnas is suis aerumnis Herculi; 59, neque
edacitate eos quisquam poterat vincere ; 238, malitia certare tecum ;
so True. 950; Pers. 698, videor vidisse hie forma persimilem tui;
Poen. 530, vinceretis cervom cursu vel grallatorem gradu; so 532;
True. 501 ; Poen. 1193, sicut nos hodie praestitimus pulchritudine ;
Pseud. 151, vincitis duritia hoc atque me ; 532, virtute regi Agathocli
antecesseris ; 932, dolis atque mendaciis antidibo; so Trin. 546;
True. 372, hoc tuis fortunis praestant meae; Enn. Ann. 178 (V),
nomine Burrus ; 222, qualis consiliis quantumque potesset in armis ;
Enn. Trag. 191 (Sc 222 V), quis homo te superavit impudentia?
quis autem malitia te? Enn. Var. 22 (V), qui factis aequiperare
queat; Cato, Agr. 157, 2, natura bona; Pacuv. 139, utinam nunc
matrescam ingenio; Stat. 121, depositus modo sum anima, vita
sepultus ; And. 475, non sat commode divisa sunt temporibus tibi
haec ; H. T. 1019, quod est consimilis moribus ; Phor. 125, qui sint
genere proxumi; 172, plerique omnes sumus ingenio; 247, quantum
erum ante eo sapientia; Hec. 601, quam fortunatus ceteris sum
rebus ; Ad. 126, natura tu illi pater es, consiliis ego ; 651 ; 902, tuos
vero et animo et natura pater ; 957, mi es germanus pariter animo et

i Ebrard, p. 651.



366 The Ablative.

corpore ; Trag. Inc. 17, omnis aequalis vincebat quinquertio ; Trabea.
5, Fortunam ipsam anteibo fortunis meis ; Ace. 296, sapimus animo,
f ruimur anima ; 475, satin astu et fallendo callet ? 596, genere anti-
quior; Ace. Didasc. 11 (Baehr), natura impos; 17, magnificissimi
excelsissimique honore; Lucil. 166 (Mx), pisces triginta numero;
398, quam spurcos ore ; 798, quaeque aspectu sunt spurca et odore ;
1233, blanditia certare; 106, pulmonibus aeger; 638, animo qui
aegrotat; 81, iure peritus.

Under the head of Ablative of Specification it seems best to bring
also the construction with dignus, indignus, dignor, decet, decorus,
aequos. Dignus is naturally explained as for dec-nos and as kindred
with decet. 1 The original meaning seems to have been, 'adorned,'
' distinguished,' ' worth ' ; laurea dignus, corona civica dignus, origi-
nally ' decorated with,' ' distinguished by,' might easily come to
mean ' worthy of.' Some, e.g. Delbriick, Grundriss, iii, p. 270, re-
gard the ablative as one of Price. But this seems unnatural.
Dignus salute does not really mean, ' worth safety ' ; nor does dignus
me mean ' worth me ' ; nor are expressions like quinque nummis
dignum ever found in Latin. Examples :

dignus: Bacch. 1055, cruciatu malo dignum; Amph. 857, dignus
domino servos; Merc. 395, quia non nostra formam habet dignam
domo ; 978, quibus est dictis dignus ; Pers. 681 ; Poen. 1176, munera
dignadiva venustissima ; Poen. 256 ; Rud. 640, qui te digna ut eveniant
precor ; Trin. 1153 has salute dignus, but Nonius gives dignus salutis,
' gen. pro abl.,' which is to be accepted as the probable text ; And.
666, dignum factis exitium ; H. T. 107, quod te dignurnst facies ;
135, malo quidem me quovis dignum; 530, hominem pistrino
dignum ; 687, honore quovis dignam ; Eun. 748, educta ita uti teque
illaque dignurnst ; 864 ; 865, digna hac contumelia ; Phor. 373,
dignum hoc illost ; 376 ; 430 ; 787, me dignurnst ; Hec. 209, an quic-
quam dignum te dici potest ; 275; 782, quod sit discidio dignum ; Ad.
237 ; Lucil. 150 (Mx), vita ilia dignus locoque ; 173, te dignus puellus ;
890, face dignam me ut vobis putem ; 1128, career, eris vix carcere
dignus. With ad: M. G. 968, ad tuam formam ilia una digna est.

indignus: Poen. 1140, facerentque indignum genere quaestum
corpore ; Phor. 376, te indignas seque dignas contumelias ; Ad. 165,
1 Skutsch, Glotta, ii, p. 158 f.



Ablative Absolute. 367

indignum te esse iniuria hac ; 409, indigna genere nostro ; Ace. 340,
indignam clade et squalitudine.

dignor : Ace. 231, aut Pelopia digner domo.

decet : Asin. 577, ut meque teque maxume atque ingenio nostro
decuit.

aequos : Bacch. 488, plus viderem quam deceret, quam me atque
illo aequom f oret ; Kud. 47, is leno, ut se aequom est.

decorus : M. G. 618, f acinora puerilia neque te decora neque tuis
virtutibus.

ABLATIVE ABSOLUTE.1

The Ablative Absolute construction is an outgrowth of the socia-
tive force of the Instrumental. Thus in Trin. 13, rem paternam me
adiutrice perdidit, the sense is : 'he lost his property (in connection)
with me as helper'; so frequently me iudice, 'with me as judge ' ; te
praesente, 'with you present.' Cf. further such expressions as scissa
veste, passis capillis, ' with clothes torn and hair dishevelled.' In
such cases the ablative at first modified the verb of the sentence,
but ultimately the original construction was lost sight of, and the
phrase as a whole came to be felt as a kind of loose modifier of the
rest of the sentence, — Ablative Absolute. See especially Brugmann,
Die lat. fo-Participia, Indogermanische Forschungen, V, p. 142 ff.

Some have regarded the Ablative Absolute as a locative develop-
ment. This theory was suggested by the fact that the Locative is
the case absolute in Sanskrit. That circumstance, however, is of no
significance unless it can be shown that the Locative was the case
absolute in the parent speech. There is nothing to indicate that
this was true. In fact, each language seems to have developed its
own case absolute. In Sanskrit we have the Locative, in Greek the
Genitive and Accusative ; in Gothic there are traces of the Dative ;
some modern languages (German and Italian) employ the Accusa-
tive. For Latin, therefore, the question is solely one of evidence,
and the evidence points overwhelmingly to an instrumental origin.

iEbrard, 610 ft. ; Bombe, De Ablativi Absoluti Usu, Greifswald, 1877 ; Brugmann,
Indogermanische Forschungen, v, p. 142 ff. ; Zieler, Beitrage zur Geschichte des
lateinischen Ablativs, Bonn, 1892, p. 67; Weihenmaier, Zur Geschichte des
absoluten Particips im Lateinischen, Keutlingen, 1891; Keller, O., Grammatische
Aufsatze, p. 333 ff.



368 The Ablative.

A strong additional argument in favor of this view is furnished by
the Oscan and Umbrian; in these languages the locative case is still
common. Yet the case absolute is the Ablative, which in these
dialects had already become fused with the Instrumental.

Bombe, op. cit. refers the Ablative Absolute to the true Ablative
for its origin, explaining hello confecto, as meaning originally, ' after
the war having been finished ' (cf. Keller, op. cit. p. 334 f .). But no
such use of the true ablative to denote time after which ever estab-
lished itself in Latin. Moreover, if Bombe's theory were true, we
should expect a predominance of time words in the construction;
but no such predominance exists.

The most frequent form taken by the Ablative Absolute in Early
Latin is that of a noun with a perfect passive participle. Besides
this, we find a noun or pronoun with the present participle; the
second member of the construction may also be an adjective or a
substantive.

1. A substantive with a perfect passive participle : Leg. Reg.
Numa, 2, Iunoni crinibus demissis agnum caedito ; 4, quoius auspicio
classe procincta opima spolia capiuntur; Leg. XII Tab. iii, rebus
iure iudicatis xxx dies iusti sunto ; CIL, i, p. 285, Etruscis devictis,
Aequis et Volscis subactis triumphavit ; Naev. Com. 8, dedita opera
quae ego volo non vis ; so Afran. 373 ; Naev. Com. 12, cur re inquae-
sita colligor ? Amph. 188, victis hostibus ; so Pers. 753 ; True. 75,
re placida, victis hostibus; Amph. 390, non loquar nisi pace facta;
644, dum modo laude parta domum recipiat se ; 968, re divina facta ;
1093, invocat deos capite operto ; Aul. 79, nunc defaecato demum
animo egredior domo ; Bacch. 1070, urbe capta domum redduco exer-
citum; 972, Ilio capto; Capt. 82, parasiti rebus prolatis latent in
occulto ; Cist. 6, omnibus relictis rebus mihi operam dedistis ; so
True. 236 ; et pass. ; Cist. 163, decumo mense exacto hie peperit
filiam ; Men. 469, pallam ad phrygioneni f ert confecto prandio vino-
que expoto, parasito excluso ; 989, ne sero veniam depugnato proelio ;
Merc. 92, his sic confectis navim solvimus ; Pers. 243, fide data cre-
damus ; Pseud. 1029, ne capta praeda capti praedones f uant ; 1033,
cor conligatis vasis exspectat meum ; 1269, postquam opus perpetravi
hostibus fugatis ; Rud. 581, numquam credam nisi si accepto pig-
nore; Stich. 81, decurso aetatis spatio; Trin. 592, re gesta pessume;



Ablative Absolute. 369

so 1182, et pass. ; 701, deseres amicos factis nuptiis ; Cato, Agr. 132,
2, dape facta serito milium ; 26, vindemia facta ; fr. ( Jord) p. 26, 4,
signis conlatis cum legionibus pugnavimus ; so Sempr. Asell. p. 110,
7 (Peter) ; Cato, fr. (Jord) p. 60, 3, quid si capite obvoluto stitisses ; p.
70, 1, sed turn revortantur resignatis vectigalibus ; Enn. Ann. 212
(V), ut primum tenebris abiectis indalbabat ; 238, consilio indu foro
lato; 349, aegro corde, comis passis; 350; Enn. Trag. 18 (Sc 20 V),
misso sanguine tepido ; Sc 36 (V), quo facto exsacruficabat hostiis ;
312 (Sc 364 V), neque sepulcrum ubi remissa bumana vita corpus
requiescat malis; PacuT. 186, clamide contorta astu clupeat brac-
cium ; 200, neu reliquias meas sireis denudatis ossibus per terrain
divexarier ; 347, exorto iubare, noctis decurso itinere ; 382, voce
suppressa ; Stat. 10, nam ego duabus vigiliis transactis duco de-
subito domum ; 235, cur inlecebris cognitis non refugisti ? 256,
venerio cursu veni, prolato pede usque ad scaphonem ; And. 180, id
voluit, nos sperantis iam amoto metu, opprimi ; 923, Atticus quidam,
navi fracta, ad Andrum eiectus est; Eun. 336, tremulus, labiis demis-
sis, gemens ; 762, malo ego nos prospicere quam hunc ulcisci accepta
iniuria ; Ad. 286, ego iam transacta re convortam me domum ; 860,
exeurso spatio ; 870, exacta aetate ; Turp. 93, redempto Phaedria
liceat redire ; Af ran. 104, quis tu es ventoso loco soleatus, aperto
oapite ; 244, constituit hilare anbelans, deiecta coma ; Titin. 101,
«xacta aetate ; Ace. 547, non armigero in corpore tela exercentur
baec abiecta gloria; 690, recte perfectis sacris; Trag. Inc. 81, ego
turn gravida expletis iam mensibus ; Lucil. 67 (Mx), quae horis sub-
lata duabus omnia sunt sole occaso ; 570, borae dimidio et tribus
<;onfectis; 938, quod, tbynno capto cobium excludunt foras; 985,
deducta tunc voce leo, ' cur tu venire non vis buc ? ' so Afran. 340 ;
•CIL, i, 198, 52, bracioque aperto ; 1, 577, III, 15, altera pars dimidia
.sol vetur, opere effecto probatoque ; Scip. African. Min. p. 181 (Meyer),
qui barba volsa feminibusque subvolsis ambulet ; Caelius Antipater,
p. 104, 3 (Peter), custodibus discessis multi interficiuntur ; p. 106, 2,
•amisso exfundato pulcherrimo oppido; p. 106, 5, eadem re gesta,
nibilo minore negotio acto.

2. A substantive with a present active participle : Amph. 747, egone
istuc dixi ? : : tune istic, etiam astante boc Sosia ; 826, alius Am-
pbitruo qui forte ted bine absente tamen tuam rem curet ; so Most.



370 The Ablative.

1139; H. T. 280; Eun. 1059; Asm. 500, absente ero ; so Men. 968 j
Asin. 583, quod sese absente mihi fidem habere noluisset ; Stich. 131,
nunc non aequomst abduci illisce absentibus; Trin. 167, me absente
atque insciente ; so M. G. 866 ; et pass. ; Eun. 649, absente nobis ; so
Afran. 6; Hec. 269, se absente; Amph. 998, hie deludetur, vobis
inspectantibus ; Asin. 455, tibi, ero praesente, reddam ; 647, prae-
sente hoc ; so Hec. 674 ; 712 ; Bacch. 262, eo praesente ; 301, illis-
praesentibus ; 335, qui praesente ; 336, populo praesente ; Cure. 434 r
te praesente ; so Stich. 538 ; Eun. 1059 ; Cure. 711, quo praesente ;
Most. 564, illo praesente ; 1164, immo me praesente amato; so Cure.
712 ; 714 ; Afran. 310 ; et pass. ; Pseud. 126, pube praesente in con-
tione; H. T. 1042, hac praesente; Ace. 428, praesente his; M. G-
144, sene soiente hoc feci ; 559 ; Asin. 853 ; Poen. 322, vigilante
Venere ; Enn. Ann. 420 (V), montibus obstipis obstantibus ; 520
pereunte viro ; Enn. Trag. 39 (Sc 54 V), sed quid oculis rapere
visast derepente ardentibus ? Trag. 69 (Sc 74 V), qui te sic respec-
tantibus tractavere nobis ? Pacuv. 411, occidente sole inhorrescit mare ;
Cato, Agr. 5, 4, insciente domino ; 31, 2, luna decrescente eximito ;
131, piro florente facito ; fr. (Jord), p. 41, 8, inspectantibus populari-
bus suis ; Stat. 271, quassante capite tristes incedunt ; And. 603,
feci hodie ut fierent, insperante hoc ; H. T. 913, qui se vidente ami-
cam patiatur suam ; Eun. 956, conligavit ? : : atque equidem orante
ut ne id faceret Thaide ; Hec. 830, eum haec cognovit Myrrina, in
digito modo me habente (sc. anulum) ; Ad. 507, non me indicente
haec fiunt; Trag. Inc. 64, quom Danais inclinantibus suramam per-
fecit rem ; Com. Inc. 102, similem habent labiae lactucam comedente
asino; Atta 23, germanas meas vespera oriente clanculum ferri ad.
specum.

3. A substantive with an adjective : Naev. Praet. 2, vita iusepulta.
laetus in patriam redux ; Com. 70, deo meo propitio ; Amph. 848, me
lubente facies ; so Cure. 665 ; et pass. ; Capt. 739, cur ego te invito-
me esse salvom postulem ? so Amph. 663 ; et pass. ; CIL, i, 200, 84,
invito eo, quei dabit ; 88, inviteis eis ; M. G. 321, mirumst lolio vic-
titare te, tarn vili tritico ; 1420, salvis testibus ; Most. 230, quam te,
me vivo, umquam sinam egere ; so Bacch. 419 ; H. T. 103 ; et pass. ;
Most. 563, natus dis inimicis omnibus ; so M. G. 314 ; Pers. 753,.
civibus salvis, re placida, integro exercitu et praesidiis ; Rud. 917,,



Ablative Absolute. 371

tempestate saeva experiri ; so 1187 ; Trin. 376, tua re salva ; so Eun.
258 ; Trin. 446, bonis tuis rebus meas res inrid.es malas ; 942, ad-
vecti aqua advorsa ; True. 75, re placida atque otiosa ; 630, ventre
dum salvo licet ; Enn. Ann. 167 (V), bellum aequis manibus nox in-
tempesta diremit; 349, aegro corde; 527, tonuit tempestate serena;
Enn. Trag. 4 (Sc 13 V), incerta re atque inorata ; Cato, Agr. 37, 3,
nisi intermestri lunaque dimidiata; 61, 2, si quis quaerat quod tem-
pi] s oleae serendae siet, agro sicco per sementim, agro laeto per ver ;
112, 1, mari tranquillo, quom ventus non erit ; fr. (Jord), p. 21, 8,
scio solere plerisque hominibus rebus secundis atque prolixis atque
properis animum excellere ; p. 40, 1, decern hominibus vitam eripis,
indicta causa ; Stat. 99, obstipo capitulo sibi ventum facere tunicula ;
146, salva urbe atque arce ; Eun. 53, inf ecta pace venies ; Phor. 74,
memini relinqui me deo irato meo ; 791, rebus vilioribus ; Trag. Inc.
186, quom te expetebant omnes florentissimo regno ; Afran. 77, solli-
cito corde corpus non potitur quie ; Ace. 38, quae turn absentem
rebus dubiis coniugem tetinerit ; 359, re dubia ; 71, territa membra
animo aegroto cunctant subferre laborem.

4. Two substantives : Cure. 434, te praesente teque interprete ;
Men. 858, senem osse fini dedolabo (this shows the origin olfini as a
preposition) ; Cato, Agr. 28, 2, opterito terra radicibus fini ; 21, 3,
cupa qua fini in modiolos erit ; so 154 ; 149, 1 ; Cas. Hem. p. 73, 15
(Peter) ; Most. 916, me suasore atque impulsore id factum audacter
dicito ; Pers. 597, me impulsore aut inlice ; so Eun. 988 ; Ad. 560 ;
Pers. 580, atque aut hoc emptore vendes aut alio non potis ; Stich.
602, non me quidem faciet auctore ; Trin. 13, rem paternam me adiu-
trice perdidit ; 1161, te advocato atque arbitro ; Plaut. f r. 24, me puero ;
Cato, fr. (Jord), p. 66, 5, C. Licinio praetore, scripti cives Eomani
veniere ; H. T. 969, satius est quam te ipso herede haec possidere
Bacchidem ; Eun. 1013, te auctore quod fecisset adulescens ; Hec.
254, aut ea corrigemus te iudice ipso ; Afran. 129, me auctore ; Lucil.
395 (Mx), lustrum illo censore malum fuisse ; Semp. Asell. p. 109, 17
(Peter), scribere autem bellum initum quo consule et quo confectum
sit ; CIL, i, 200, 4, P. Muucio L Calpurnio cos. ; so 13 ; 15 ; 33.

Occasionally we find the Ablative Absolute used where the adjec-
tive or participle logically belongs with some other substantive of
the sentence, e.g. Amph. 542, ut, quom absim, me anies, me tuam



372 The Ablative.

te absente tamen ; Most. 230, quam te, me vivo, umquam sinam egere ;
Bud. 712, meas mihi ancillas, me invito, eripis ; H. T. 913, qui se
vidente amicam patiatur suam.

MISCELLANEOUS CONSTRUCTIONS OF INSTRUMENTAL

ORIGIN.

The following usages seem to be of Instrumental origin, although
they fail to fall under any of the usually recognized categories :
Aniph. 967, tu gubernatorem evoca verbis meis ; so Merc. 787 ; Poen.
1000 ; 1001 ; Bud. 405 ; Pacuv. 26, si non est ingratum reapse ;
Lucil. 1333 (Mx), id dare quod re ipsa debetur ; Amph. 845, cave
sis ne tu usu perduis ; Cato, fr. (Jord), p. 70, 3, usu venit ; Aul. 639,
quin tu eloquere quidquid est suo nomine ; CIL, i, 198, 61, quod eo
nomine lis aestumata erit; so 60; 63; 64; M. G. 287, forte fortuna
hue despexi ; etc.

LOCATIVE USES OF THE ABLATIVE.

Locative uses of the Ablative are confined almost exclusively to
the ordinary local and temporal relations, Place Where, Time at
Which, Time within Which. Figurative uses are extremely rare.

ABLATIVE OF PLACE WHERE. 1

A. Common Nouns.

1. ruri: Aul. 505, plus plaustrorum in aedibus videas quam ruri
Bacch. 365; Capt. 84; Cas. 99; 105 (dat.?); 110 (riure P); 126
129; 781; Cist. 226; Merc. 273; 509; 543; 686; 760; 766; 924
Most. 4; 7; 19, augebis ruri numerum, genus ferratile (used at-
tributively); 35; 799; Trin. 166 (rare codd; ruri 2?on) ; True. 277
915 ; Phor. 250 ; 363 ; Hec. 215 ; Ad. 45 ; 95; 401 ; 542 (rare Charts)
Cato, Agr. 4 ; Titin. 60, in foro aut in curia posita potius quam rure
True. Arg. 1, tres unam pereunt adulescentes mulierem rure unus,

1 Heokmann, Ueber prapositionslose Ortsbezeichnung im Altlateinischen, Indo-
germ. Forsehungen, xviii, p. 296 ff.; Gorbig, Nominum quibus loca significant.^
usub Plautinus exponitur et cum Terentiano comparatur, Halle, 1883; Konig, Quaes-
tiones Plautinae, Patschkau, 1883.



Ablative of Place Where. 373

alter urbe, peregre tertius. The reading rure is fully supported for
the last two passages.

2. vicinia: Most. 1062, sed quid hoc est quod foris concrepuit
proxuma vicinia ?

3. domo: CIL, i, 1009, tenebris tenentur Ditis aeterna doinu
(taken by Heckmann, op. cit. p. 314, as instrumental) ; Amph. 637,
ego id nunc experior domo ; Merc. 354, scio saevos quarn sit, domo
doctus. With preposition : Cas. 620, in nostra domo ; so Pseud. 84 ;
Cure. 209, in domo istac; M. G. Arg. 1, 13; Ad. 747, una in domo;
Eun. 960, in domo meretricia; Cato, Agr. 132, 1, Iupiter dapalis
quod tibi fieri oportet in domo familia mea culignam dapi. In Stich.
192, P has si cenassit domo ; A domi ; True. 261, quid debetur hie
tibi nostrae domi (in nostra domo -.4); ed. praetor Bruns 7 , p. 222,
mulier in domu honestissimae feminae pariat. Ordinarily the local
relation is designated by the locative domi; see p. 386 f.

4. terra, mari: Poen. 105, mari te(rraque) usque quaque quaeri-
tat; Lael. p. 174 (Meyer), uti nobis terra marique simul obsidium
facerent. Where terra and mari are used alone, Plautus adds the
preposition: Merc. 196, equidem me iam censebam esse in terra;
Epid. 679, quaeras mea caussa vel medio in mari. But Enn. Trag. 50
(Sc 65 V), iamque mari magno classis citatexitur ; Ann. 145 (V), mari
quaesentibus vitam ; CIL, i, 195 (Duilius inscr.), rem navebos marid
consol primos c(eset) (gessit).

5. loco, locis l .• Heckmann, op. cit. p. 320, is inclined to recognize
as truly local only a very few of the examples of loco, locis. In this
I have not been able to follow him, and have felt compelled to
classify as local a number of examples which he takes as temporal,
instrumental, etc., viz. : Amph. 568, homo idem duobus locis ut simul
sit ; Most. 254, suo quicque loco est ? Bud. 907, qui salsis locis
incolit pisculentis; Enn. Ann. 430 (V), quo res sapsa loco sese
ostentatque iubetque ; Cato, Agr. 1, 3, sub radice montis siet, loco salu-



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