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to explain tlie importance attached to it hy tlie
Saviour and its acknowledged ])()wer to comfort
and .strengthen the liumlde communicant. From
this simple conception he never afterwards wav-
ered. To maintain it intact was his sole ohject in
the wearisome controversies which ensued.

But this exj)lanation of tlie sacred ordinance, so
satisfying to the child-like faith and deej) mysti-
cal nature of Luther, was not to stand unchal-
lenged. Already in the summer of 1522, a letter
was addressed to Luther by a theologian of Hol-
land, named Honius, arguing tliat the words used
hy Christ in instituting the Sup])er arc to he in-
tr'ri)reted tiguratively and do not at all imply His
iH.dily ]»resence. The views of the Bohemian
Brethren were also calli'd to his attention us lack-
ing in clearness and strongly inclining to a rejec-
tion of imj)ortant aspects of this doctrine. Carl-
stadt and his fanatical associates went much
farther. When not des])ising the sacrament alto-
gether, they regarded it as simply a memorial
meal, whose chief advantage lay in the rapt con-
templation of Christ upon the jmrt of the recip-
ient. To some, it was merely an o]>portunity for
a renewal of their ])rofession of faith, or a badge
of loyalty. To the most radical, it was a mere
ceremony, utterly needless in the case r)f those
who had attained to real s]>iritual life, and who
could commune with (Jod directly without (he in-
tervention of any outward means.

Against these views, Luther maintained that
God deals with us only through special ext<'rnal
means of His own apjiointment; tliat the Lord's
Supper is a transaction in whicli (lod hestows a
gift and man is merely the reci|)ient; that the gift
l)«*stowed is the foTL'iveness of sins and a share in


the fc'llDWsliip of C'lirist an<l His saints; that the
IhkIv of Christ is truly jjiven as a seal and j)h'(Ijr(»
of the iniparte<l spiritual hlessin*:. He would
have men "direetly and ini]>licitly helieve that in
the sacrament of the altar the hody an<l l)lood of
Christ arc truly present, and that we shouhl not
in<iuire further how or in what form they are i)res-
ent, since Christ has not told us esjx'eially any-
thinji ahout that." Had this counsel heen ^^mut-
ally heeded, what interminable controversies
would have been avoided, and how diiTerent would
liave been the history of the Protestant church!

But when Carlstadt began to publish flippant
misinterpretations of the words of institution, to
ridicule the eonseeration of the elemi-nts. and deny
that the eeU-bration of the Sup])er had any rela-
tion to the f(trgiveness of sins, the indignation of
Luther was stirred, and he denounced in vigorous
terms the ignorant luu'dc who, in tlu-ir blind zeal,
sought to exclude the Lord from His own ordi-

In the year \i)24, word was brought to Luther
that Zwingli, the Swiss Reformer, had adopted
Carlstadt's view. About the same time, GEco-
lampadius. a former jtujiil and warm friend of
Luther, now j)rea«hing in Strassl>urg, and Martin
Bucer, also a firm friend of the l\ef<»rmation, an-
nounced that they no longer believid in the bodily
presenile of tlie I^)rd in the Holy Supper. They
cjuoted against it irrelevant passages, such a.s "the
llesh proliteth nothing," and argued that the body
of Christ could not be in so many places at one
time, nor could it be anywlure (»n earth, since it
)iaH ascended visibly to Heaven.

These scholarly assaidts conipelle<l Luther to
imdertake an exhaustive study of the subject.

W'itli k. . n. >i In-i. li.' ^..i;/]m t.. Iiiret eViTV erill-


cisin aiul carefully (U'voloped his own view. ir<!
endeavored to show how Christ's hody eould, hy
pharinj; in the attrihiites of the divine nature, l>e
j)resent in lu-aven and also, at the same time, at
many ]»laces upon earth, and stoutly maintained
that, wliether his particular theory ))e acce})ted or
not, all Christians are hy the sim])le langua«re of
Christ hound to reeo<j:nize that, in some way, 1 1 is
hody is present and distrihuted wherever the sac-
rament is properly administered. His interest
deepened as the strife })roceeded, and he became
thorou.irhly convinced that the views of his op-
jM)nents spranj^ from an exaltation of reason above
the sim])le divine Word, and that they were in
conflict with the fundamental doctrine of the in-
s<*]»aral)le union of the human and divine natures
in the person of Christ.

He was the more ready to condemn the views
of his distinguished antagonists since he had |»re-
viously met them, supj)orted largely by the very
same arguments, in connection with the fanatical
vagaries of Carlstadt and Miinzcr. lie regarded
the (;ntire movement as essentially one — a fresh
outl)rcak of the very tendencies which he had so
earnestly combated in the Pioman Catholic
church, transforming an ordinance of God's free
grace into a work of human merit: The sacra-
ment of the Ix)rd*8 Supper seemed to him, as be-
fore, the point upon which all the new forms of
error converged, and lie boldly met the issue by
planting himiself firmly here, and treating all
wlio varied essentially from what he conceived to
])e the scriptural basis of this doctrine as alike the
enemies of Christ and of His church.

CHAPTKn xiir.


Side by side with the advance of evan.Lnlical
j)rinciples in Germany was progressinj^ during
tliese years a great reformatory movement in
Switzerland, under the leadership of Ulrich
Zwingli. The latter was a man in temperament
and training the very opposite of Luther. His
parents were in comfortahle eironmstances, and
lie enjoyed the hcnefits of a thorough classical
training at Ikisel, Heme and \'ieima. Having
< omplcted his theological course, he at the age of
iwenty-two became pastor at Glarus, in Switzer-
land, where he diligently prosecuted his studies
in the Scriptures. He took an active part in pub-
lic alTairs and twice accompanied the men of his
village upon military campaigns. The experience
thus gained le(l him to protest with jKitriotic
ardor against the mercenary employment of his
countrymen in the service of foreign princes, a

ustom which, mainly through his influence, was
.il)olished in the canton of Zurich. In lolfi, he
removed to Einsiedlein, a famous centre of Rom-
ish ])il;iri manes, where he attracted much Jitten-
tion by boMly assailing the superstitious worship
"f the \'irgin Mary. AN'hen, in lolS, the venders

f indulgences appcaretl in Ins neighborhood, he
cxpose<l their iniijuitics with e<|ual zeal. Trans-
ferred in loll) to Zurich, he continued to j)reach
witlj em-rgy against tlje al)Uses in the Church,
i'asting, enforced celibacy, and the withholding
• •f the cup from the laitv, beciunc in turn the ob-


jfH'ts of liis attack. His fRTv i'1(M|Ui'1kc', aided liy
a free distribution of Luther's writings, carried ail
before it, and in 1524 the canton of Zuricli re-
nounced its allejxiance to Rome and re-orj:anized
tlie church witliin its hounds in accordance with
Zwin^H's ideas. Other cities followed suit, the
le<ral civil authorities in each case formally declar-
ing in favor of the Kcformation and assuming the
direction of all religious alTairs. Thus the move-
ment in Switzerland was chietly concerned in the
abolition of external abuses and hore from the
^n•:^t a njarked jiolitical cliaractcr. It was the aim
of Zwingli, further, to reject everything not ex-
pressly commanded l)y the Word of (iod, and
thus i'lcak away as completely as possible from
the establislied religious customs; whereas Luther
a<lvocated the retention of whatever was harndess,
and laid all the stress of his ministry by voice and
pen upon the underlying d(K'trines of repentance
and faith.

It was in connection with the doctrine of the
Lord's Supper that the difTerence between the
\\\i) movements was to tind its culmination.
Luther, whose deep spiritual nature lived and
njnved in the realm of divine mysteries, found no
dilliculty in conceiving of the Ixxlily presence of
the Lord with the earthly elements of the commun-
ion.^ Zwingli's j)ractical mind, on the contrary,
welcomed the theory which removes all mystery
and makes the sacred meal but a memorial celebra-
tion. The conception was more congenial, also, to
the restless superficial s|)irit of the martial cantons
of the Swiss and to the minds of self-complacent
I liinianists. It found ready accei)tance in South-
western Germany among the pupils of Eras-
mus, who were then very widely scattered and
inthlential. It was oroclaimcd as the na.-t. liable.

Ill l.rTIIKH, Tin: HKKolJMKU.

advanced view, wluTcns T.utlur was supposed to
he ill this, as in liis treatment of ntlier external
ceremonies, hut half-awakened from his j)opish

The unseemly strife hetween hnthren grew
more hitter as the years rolled on. The argu-
ments of Zwingli apj>eared to Luther, hy pevering
the two natures of Christ, to roh I lis atoning
work of its ellieaey and thus destroy the very hasis
of the (;osi)i'l. His susjiieions were conlirmeil
when he found Zwingli wavering upon the doe-
trine of original sin, and so exalting the virtues
of the heathen as to ap])arently deny alt«)grther
the necessity of the atonement. lie failed to note
in the writings of the latter any evidence of that
deep sense of personal guilt which lay at the very
foundation of his own experience and which even
yi't at times so entirely overpowtred him. When,
in addition, he ohserved Zwingli's constant exal-
tation of the P})iritual, as entirely a])art from all
relati(»n to outward ordinances, and found him
teaching a direct inlluence (»f the Holy Spirit, in-
dependent of the divine Word, ami looking to
])olitical schemes for the furtherance of thedospel,
lie hecame more than ever convinced that the
spirit of the latter wjis identical with that of the
Fanatics and woidd eventually lead to the samt»
excesses. He, therefore, waged a nlentless and
undiscriminating warfare against the "Sacramen-
tarians,'' who, up«»n their part, le<l hy Zwingli and
(ICcolampadius, nev<r wearied of ridiculing the
superstition nf the *' Hihl<'-tyrants" at Wittenherg.

None lamented the strife more sincerely than
Luther. He declared that *' the gates of lu'll, the
entire papacy, the Turks, the world, the tlesh and
all the powers of evil, could imt hav«' wrouiiht such
injury," and that he would gladly lay down his


life many tiinis over to restore liarinonv; ''luit,"
he added: "the Word is too strong;; it liolds me
captive." In March, \i)2X, lie jni)>lishe<l an ex-
liaustive treatise, entitled: "Confession upon
the Lord's Supper. M. Luther." This he
desiLMH'd to he his tinal utterance upon the suh-
ject, and in it he warns all tlu- world to ahandon
the iilea that he can c\'er ])e induced to depart
from the positions here maintained. Should he
do so, he he^'s posterity to attrihute the wavering
to hodily or mental infirmity, and still rcL^ird this
treatise as the exj)ression of his immovahle con-
viction. To the further replies of Zwinirli and
othei-s, he paid no attention. He had home his
testimony, and could do no more.


TiiK iu;ave protest.

While tliis ])l()0(ll('ps conflict was heing wa^rrd
between the (>j)p()sing chani])i<>ns within the ranks
of those wlio had escaped frnni the dominion of
paj)al errors, their common enemy was not idle,
liavaria had furnishc*! a luuulK'rof martyrs to the
( an<(' of the Uelormatiou, amon.ij tliem Leonard
Kaiser, a jn-rsonal ae(iuaintanee of Lutlur's.
Tlif latter pul»hshe<l a ;;raphic account of Kaiser's
arrest wliile on a visit to liis dying father and of
his cruel death at the stake, ])raying that (lod
might enahle Inm, when his hour should come, to
meet death with hut half the fortitude of his
heroic friend. Tnder a new wave of persecuting
zeal, a nund)er of evangelical ])reaehei*s were
driven out of Austria. Paul Winkler, a pastor
in llalle, sumnione(l to AsehalT(iil»nru' to answer
for having administereil the conniumion in hoth
forms, was assassinated upon the homeward jt)ur-
nev. His death was extttlled hy Luther as peeu-
liarly glorious, hiK'ause eneountered while in ohe-
dience to the lawful authority and in defence of
the doctrine of the Lord's Supj)er.

rpon tln' other hand, the lU^formation had
made notable conquests. Margrave (leorge, t»f
Frankfurt- ^l^Uldenl.uI•L^ in lo'JT, re-organized the
ehureh upon his t<rritory under the direction of
ministers furnished hy Luther, and became a
zealous adherent of the cause. Hrunswiek, Ham-
burg, (Joslar, LubcH'k and CJocttiugen openly
espoused the truth.



Hut the I'jniMM'or IkkI iiuniiwliilc ncrnin nsolvc^i]
upon a<:ixivssive nicasun'S. llavini^'cnpturi'd Konic
and ukkIc tlu* I'npt' a j)ris()ii('r, he IkkI concliKU'd
t«'niis with tlu' latter cniln'acinir a plcd^^^e of strin-
•zcnt n'u'ulations anainst tlic Lutlicran heresy. The
Diet assenil)liMl at Spires on February 21st,
1529, was calK'd upon to face a stern imperial
mandate, requirinjj: the ahro<;ation of the edict of
toleration issued three years before, and express-
in«r in no measured terms the displeasure of the
monareh at the spread of the revolutionary doc-
trines. The Romish |)arty at the Diet, eneour-
atred l)y this assurance of the Emperor's support,
and bein^ in the majority, resolved that, in sec-
tions in which the Edict of Worms had hitherto
i»een lionored, its re«juirements sh(>uld still be
carried out, wliile in other places no further in-
novations sliould be made until the meetini^ of a
L-^cneral council. Doctrines and sects which deny
tile ])resence of the true body and blood of Christ
in the sacrament were not to !)e tolerated in the
kinirdoin. No ruler was to <^ive shelt«T to reli^dous
fujritives from a nei.i_dil)orinL; territory.

Thus, wliile the Diet did not unilertake to re-
store the old order of thinj^s where already aban-
doned, it pb^d^ed its authority to ])revent the
spread of th(» new principles, and to perform ])oliee
service for the persecuting princes in the restora-
tion of such ;is mii^ht escape from their grasp.
It was, further, very broadly binti'd that severer
measures would ere long be adopt<'<l.

The evangelical members of the Diet could not
be thus terrified into submission. To yield nuw
w(»uld l)e to surrender all that had been won by
the arduous toil of years. Only one (piestion
divi<le<l their counsels for a time. Should the
followers of Luther make common cause with


the Zwinglians, who, ncconhiifj to the resohition
aiiiml sokly at them, were to he driven from the
kingdom? Tlie I^imlgrave Pliihp pleaded for
their recognition, while the Elector John was in
douht. The (juestion was referre<l to Melanch-
thon, and npon his advice it was decided to in-
clude these in any defensive measures which
niiL'ht he adojUed.

On the 19th of April, John nf Saxnuy, Thilip
of Hesse, Margrave Cieorge of Hrandenherg, Duke
Krnest of Liineberg, Prince Wolfgang of Anhalt.
and fourteen imperial cities presented a solemn
protest against the action of the majority. They
dt'clan-d tiiat, in matters which concern the honor
of Ciotl and the salvation of souls, they were com-
pelleil hy conscience to regard the will of (lod
above all else, and hence couM not agree to carry
out the resolutions of the Hiet. They further
maintained that in such matters every one must
give account of himself directly to CJod, and that
no one can excuse himself hy appealing to the
decisions of a majority. The Zwinglians, they
contende<l, should not he condenmcd without a
hearing, nor any such violent measures adoj)te<l
against them until a council shoidd have ])ro-
nounecil judgment upon their teachings. The
signers of this document were spoken of as the
'• Protestants," and tlieir hold, honest course has
1m tn innnortalized in the adoption of this term as
the distinctive designation of the moilern Christian
('hurch of the western world outside of the Roman
Catholic connnunion. That which has excited
tlie admiration of jiosterity is not merely the<(»ur-
age with which this little hand st«M)d up against
superior numhers and against the Kmperor, now
lluslu'<l with victory, hut the ground upon which
their action waa bahcnl, /. <., the clear enunciation


of \ho sacred rights of conscience, as against
tlic (l<tininati<»n of majorities (»r tlic inandatt'S of
tyranny, in tliis it l»ut irave formal and unitccl
utterance to tlie principles wiiieh the Monk of
W'ittonheri,' had holdly proclaimed eight years be-
f( )re.

Three days later, the Elector John, the Lantl-
^rave Philip and the representatives of the cities
of Nurember^r, Ulni and 8trassbur<; pledged
united resistance against any j^ower wliieh
shouM attack eitlier of the confederates ui)on the
ground of adherence to the (iospel.

It is worthy of remark, that Luther failed to
recognize either the genuine heroism or the far-
reacliing signiiieance of the great i>rotest. The
rejection of the imi)erial demands appeared to him
as merely the discharge of a plain, unavoidal)le
duty, and with its performance he would have had
the adherents of the Gospel rest content. The
subscMpKMit organization of the princes and cities
for defence alarmed him. lie could not be ])cr-
suadcd that the danger was so imminent as to re-
(|uire this, and it appeared to him to imply dis-
trust in the divine power. Had not (iod wonder-
fully protected them hitherto without any human
aid? Were it not far better to conlide in Him
now than to lean ui)on an arm of llesh ? lie
greatly feared, further, that the cause of truth
would sutTer by alliance with the HefornuTS whose
views wen' at such variance with his own.
Melanchthon, too, became very uneasy, and re-
gretted the ])art which he had taken in encourag-
ing the "terrible protest." Thus Luther's cour-
age and the natural timidity (»f Melaiulitli<.n
(ombiiu'd, in this as in later ])erio(ls. to discoun-
tenance political combinations which might
transfer the conlliet fmm the tribunal of free dis-
cussion to the arbitrament of arms.


But tho lionzon wasalnady dark with throaton-
\u\l clouds. The Kmpcror and the I'ope liad no
i?cruj)les to restrain lluni from rt'li«;i()us warfare,
anil tlie Proti^stant^s miglit at any moment l»e
called upon to draw arms in self-defence. How
important then that they he unite<l and j)rcpared
to act in concert aiiainst their common enemy!
Resistance of sucli «lriiiands as tliose now made,
Would not, it was claimed, l>e insurrection. Hut
Luther was immovalde. lit; maintained that it
is the duty of su))jects to endure wroni^ when per-
petrated by those in lawful authority, and to look
ft)r delivemnce to llim who can control the hearts
of princes and overrule the trials of His j^eople to
their own linal advantage. But the incrcasin*]j
jcravity of the situation led to a careful scrutiny of
this sweeping doctrine of submission, as applied to
political alTairs, and no one could lonirer douht
that, if driven to <les|)eration, the majority of the
princes W(»uld l»e ready to lift the sw(»rd in self-

The most serious difliculty in the way of a
cordial confederation of all the evangelical forces
now lay in the doctrinal dilTerences which yet
divide<i the j^reat emancipated host. How these
could 1m' reconciled became the jjressing tiuc>ti»>n
of the hour.



In all the ])(>liti;al j)lans of tlir Prot<'stiints,
Philip of Hesse now Ir-IiI the ]>lacc of undis-
j.utcd Ira.lcrsliip. His youthful t'nerjzy, his uu-
llinching courage and his sagacity well fitted him
for the ]uTilous |»re-eininence. He had honestly
enihraced the fundamental teachings of Luther,
i)Ut rather from intellectual conviction than from
<lee]) religious motives; yet he was willing to main-
tain his convictions at all hazards. None realized
more clearly than he the serious dangers now
threatening, and he was untiring in his efforts to
unite all the anti-})a|)al elements. It seemed to
him an incredible infatuation that such a union
should he prevented l)v a mere doctrinal dispute
among the theologians, and he cast about for
means of overcoming this needless obstacle.
Already Ix-fore tlie Diet of Spires he had declared
that there must be a conference between Luther
and (Ecolampadius, if it cost him ()(K) guldens to
< fleet it. After the lines had there been so deeply
drawn i)etween the two great parties, the necessity
of harmony among the friends of the Reformation
became still more evi<lent, and Philip at once
cautiously a«ldressed himself to the Uisk of bring-
ing the warrini: theologians face to face.

Tiie Wittenberg men had no sympathy what-
ever witii tilt; movement, and sougiit in ev<ry imn-
onible way to avoid a meeting which they felt
<ould ;iccom])lish nothing more than further alieii-'.n. l>ut they could not resist the urgency of


the I^n<l^ra\'e an<l tlic wishes of their own
prince, who felt tliat the refusal of a rcMjuest so
seeiniii^ly reasonahle would certainly be misin-
trri-n t.-.f.

Zwingli, on the contrary, was filled with de-
light ujHin re<"eivin«: the invitati<»n. Having suc-
r»«dr<l in extending; his inlhu-nc r in Switziiland,
he had conceived the idea of fnnninir a ^reat in-
ternational confederacy to resist the Kn»j>eror's
encroachments. He had even made propositions
of alliance with the King of France on the east
and Vienna on the west, ignoring thus the most
extreme religious difTerences for the accomplish-
ment of his ])<>litical dream. If the pr<»pose<l con-
ference should achieve no more, it would at least
enahle him to piin the sym})athy of Philip, and
with it the support of all Southern and Western
(lermany. History accords to Zwingli a jrenuine
religious zeal, hut for him religion and politics
were one, and his patriotism and piety were now
alike aflame with the idea of grasping the golden
opportunity to throw oiT the yoke of media*val

Fearing opjiosititni to the project upon the j»art
of his friends, the Swiss reformer slipped away
from Zurich secretly on Se|»tend)er 1st. He sjMut
twelve days at Strasshurg seeking to advance his
cause, and, arriving early at Marhurg, the j>lace of
meeting, swured an audience with the<lgmve
before the arrival of Luther with his j)arty. On
Friday, October 1st, by a ]>rudent arrangement of
IMiilip, Luther was closeted for three hours with
(F/dlampadius, while in an<»ther ro«»m Zwingli
and Melanchthon compared views.

On the following day, the formal discussion
l»cgan. It was, according to the olVu iai instruc-
tions, to be an *'out*<iK)ken, friendly and undis-

TiiK MAunnn: coLUKiiY. 153

putatioiis conversation." A nuinlxTof tliroloiiians
and scholars were present, and the Landgrave
himself followed the discussion with unflagging
interest. Directly l»efore the latter, at a se]mratc
tahle, were seated Luther, Zwingli, Mclanchthon
and Ov'olanipadius. Luther, who had written
with clialk u])(»n the tal)le-cover: " Hoc est cor-
pus meum " (This is my body), o])en«(l the col-
loquy l»y announcing that he ])ro])()sed merely to
maintain the positions which he had assumed in
his writings, and that, if the opposite ])arty had
anytliing to advance against the truth, he was
ready to hear and refute them. He proposed that
a wide range ]>e given to the discussion, as he
understood that the Swiss entertained erroneous
views upon a number of the most vital su])jects,
such as original sin, the nature of Christ, bajttism,
etc. The latter expressed themselves as willing
to testify their helit^f upon these subjects, but
desired to begin the discussion with the doctrine
of the Lord's Sup])er, to which Luther agreed.

For two days the debate continued, without
developing any arguments not ])reviously ad-
vanced. Again and again, Luther ])ointe<l to the
words upon the table, and at length tore ofT the
cover and dramatically held it up as the final
answer to all the objections of his opponents. A
private meeting of the theologians on the f«»l-
lowing nmrning |)roved e(|ually fruitless.

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