Charles Ebert Hay.

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Zwingli and his party then desired that they be
heard in regard to the other articles of faith to
which reference had been made, and Luther, upon
re(juest, at once ])repared a statenunt in fifteen
brief articles for mutual consi«leration. They
covered the leading topics of his own teaching,
and, Ui his amazement, wen» acc<'pted on the sam(^
day, with a few slight verbal changes, by all the
theologians present.


Thus tho (lifTrronces had been narrowcil i\n\\n
to tlie one point, /. e., Xhv IxKlily ])rrs('nce of
Christ in xlw Lord's Sn]»])('r. The Lan<lL:nive was
(ltli«:htc(l, and exhorted l>oth ])arti(s to t»>h'ration
an<l llie exercise of hrotlierly love. Zwin«;H and
liis friends readily ajxreed to so conduct themselves,
and proposed that all should consent to acknowl-
eil<re one another as hrethren, and that each ]K\rty
sln»uld welcome the other at the Tahle of the
Lord. With this proposition, Zwin«;li extended
his hand to Luther, hut the latter refused to make
such acknowled^Miient of fraternity, declarinji, as
he had frtHpuntly done during' the colliMjUy,
"You liave a different spirit from ours."
Zwingli ])leaded, even with tears, and, turning to
the Landjxrave, declared: ''There are no men in
the world with whom I would rather he in har-
mony than with the ^^'ittenherJ:ers. " Hut in
vain. Luther was ready to jrrant to the o])posite
]»arty oidy such exhihitions of Christian love as
are due to one's enemies. To the declaration of
the fifteenth of the adopted articles, acknowledg-
ing the spiritual presence of the Lord in the Holy
Supper, was ad<led the statement: " lUit, although
we have not agreed at this time whether the true
body and hlood of Christ are hodily in the hrcatl
an<l wine, yet each ])Mrty promises to exercise to-
wanl the other Christian love, in so far as th(»
con.'icicnce of each will at all allow, and h«»th
parties earnestly implore (Io(l, the Almighty, that
lie may through His Spirit grant us the right
understlinding." The articles were then
signed hy Luther. Melan<hthon, Jonas, Osiander,
Hrenz, Agricola, (iMolamjuidius, Zwingli, Huccr
and IL'dio, and at once given to the press.

No act (»f Lutlier's life has been subje<te(l to
more divei-su comment than his refusal to take

TlIK MAKIUIU; ("oM.fK^rV. 1 ') .')

tlic profTorod hand of Zwiiiirli at Marl)ur^'. In tin*
light of our modern ideas of mutual toleration, it
has the a]>i><'aran(e of insutTerahle ))i,i:otrv; hut a
eandid consideration of the eireumstanees nuist
j^reatly modify, if it do not entirely reverse, such
harsh judirnient. Let it he rememhered that the
colloquy was not an unbiased gathering of
theolojrians to discuss nliLMnus suhjccts for their
own sake. It was ]»lann<'d in furtherance of a
j)olitical scheme which Luther did not approve,
i)Ut which his opponents considered vital. The
desire upon their ])art for Luther's endorsement
did not therefore s])rin^ from pure Christian love.
Ajrain, the point at issue was not a vital one in
the juilgment of tlie Swiss, while to Luther it ap-
peared to involve the very foundations of the
Christian faith. The denial of it seemed to him
to indicate contem]»t for the j)lain language of the
Scriptures, the rejection of the divinity of Christ
and a proifanation of His most sacred ordinance,
as well as to open the door for all manner of god-
less fanaticism. Nor did the assent of these men
to the other articles satisfy him. Tlis astonish-
ment was mingled with deep suspicions, ;is he
knew how strongly p(>litical considi-rations
prompted them to seek at Icjust ajtpan-nt harmony,
rpon the one j)oint which had for years heen
made the test-(piestion hetween the diverse ten-
dencies, and in view of which alone the conference
had been called, not the slightest ap])roximation
to harmony had been made.

Should Luther now allow the rejiort to go
abroad, that he had at the critical moment com-
promised with the enemy ? Should he thus cast
the weight of his influence in favor of what he
believed to be an uidioly alhance which woidd
deluge the land in bldtMJ :iiid incur the \\r;itli of


the Aliniuhty ? No! he would not allow his name
t«> l)t' tlms misused. \lv would niakt* no com-
promise with error, even under the ;ruise (»f
charity. He whom tlie tlireats of an Emperor
could not terrify was not to Ik- suhdued hy the
tears of a di.sai)j)ointed politician. He was im-
movahle — as ever, true to his convictions.

That those who hear the name of Lutlier to-(lay
should he le<l l>y liis example upon this critieal
(K-easion to permanently refuse fellowship at
the Lord's Tahle with all win* do not accept in
full the strictest Lutheran view of the sacred ordi-
nance, can he consistently maintained only upon
the supposition that the j)ersons thus excluded
really occuj)y the position attrihuted to Zwinjxli
and his followers, i. e., that they are insincere in
their j)rofessions of piety, despisers of (lod's
Word, inspired hy Satan in their stuhhorn oppo-
sition to the truth. Luther's denial of altar fellow-
ship was no mere ]»nttest a^^unst the error of an
aeknowled«r(.(l Cliristian l)r«)ther: it was an indiji-
nant rejection of all fellowship with those whom
he conceived to he the inost danj^erous enemies
of Christ. He is a hold partisan who would to-
day ascrihe such a character to all professing
Christians without the hounds of our own Luth-
eran church.



The colloquy at Marl)ur<r rcMKk'rcd a licrmancnt
service in leadiiif? to the j)reparation of a concise
statement of the chief points of evangelical doc-
trine. Prepared in haste, within at most a few
hours, hy the master hand of Lutlicr, this lirief
formula j)roved the living germ t'lciii which \v;is
develo])ed the remarkalilc confessional literature
of the sixteenth century, which has moulded the
entire suhse<iuent history of the Protestant church.

Before leaving: Marhur.L', Luther and his associ-
ates received instructions from the Elector to ]>re-
pare a statement of the articles of faith which
niifrht serve as a hond of union for the Protestant
Leajzue, a meetinfr of which was to l)e held at
Schwahach on Octoher Kith. To meet this r<'-
quirement, Luther simjtly recast the Marhur;^
Articles. The latter had Ix'cn ]>rejiared with a
view of securin.L' as far as ]»ossihle th(» assent of
the Swiss theolo<:ians. No lon^^'cr restrained hy
such considerations, Luther now expressed more
positively his own convictions, especially upon
the suhject of the Lord's Supper. He inserted
also an article setting forth the Church as the
general fellowship of helievers, in contradistinction
from the hirrarchical view of the Romanists — a
doctrinal |»osition which has maintain<Ml its place
suhstantially in all the preat Protestant confes-
sions. Theseventeen articles tlm- oriL'inatecl, after-
wards known as the '• Schwabach Articles,"
were acceptahle to tlie Saxon court, but, on ac-


count of tlu'ir ptricttr tone, ])rovcil unsntisfnctory
to the 8out)j (icnnan (U-legatcs at the convention,
and action upon them was po8t]>one<l. They
failed of aeceptiinee also, for the same reason, at
a larjrer convention luM at Smaleald, on Novem-
h(T L'^Uh; hut, while rejected hy those who in-
eliiu'd to Zwin;ilian views, tliey were inlluential
in str<'n«:th( nin<r the convictions of those who
still followed the leadership of Saxony.

As Luther returned t(^ Wittenberp, all eyes
were turned in a new direction. The Sultan
Soliman was storming Vicima. The imaginary
war with the Turks, for which the roi)e had so
often collected large sums in (iermany, had he-
come a reality, and the land was lilltMl with terror.
Luther, who had in his earlier writings ridiculed
the insincere (»uteries of the ]mpal emissaries, and
who might have foreseen advantage for his own
cause in this new cmharrassment of the Emj)eror,
now i)roved his patriotism hy ]ni!>lishing a
'* Martial Sermon against the Turks," sum-
moning his countrymen as (iermans, regardless of
their religious dilTerences, to respond to the call of
the l''m|iiror and defend their tin-sides from the
harharous fo<'. The Landgrave IMiilip ])roposed
that no aid he given to the Km]>eror against the
Turks uidess he should lii*st guarantee religious
peace to his suhjects in (Jcnnany; hut Luther
was unwilling to enter into any negotiations of
this character, maintaining that the support of
the lawful authority of the land is a simple duty
which must he discharged at all hazards. He
sought to overcome any scru]»les which might he
<*ntertained against warfare un<ler such circum-
staiHi's, although it might he just as clearly a
duty to dis(»hey the Kmperor shouM he summon
Itis suhjects to war against the (iospel. Soliman


was ilcft'iitcd, and tlic tlii\ati'iiiii^^ peril for tlic
tiino ln'in^ avt-rtod.

On Frhruarv 24tli, the Kniixror was crowned
by the Pope at liolo<ina, and at onei' announeid
his purpose of visiting (iennanv in jterson. A
Diet was summoned to meet at Augsburg on the
8tli of April, professedly to " heal tin* (hvisions in
tlu' C'hureh, committinj^ the errors of the past to
the jud«rnient of the Lord, and, after ])atiently
hearing the opinions of all parties in the spirit of
love anil forl>earanee, to arrive at harmonious
views of Christian truth." The Elector John,
uiK)n receiving the imj)erial notice on March 11th,
inuncdiately instructed Luther, Jonas, lUigen-
fiagen and Melanchthon to prepare a statement
of the ])oints in controversy for the use of himself
and his friends at the Diet. The result of their
lahors in response to this call, handed to the
P^lector ten days latiM', is known to history as the
*' Torgau Articles."

'i'ii»- l^lictor and his counselors, realizing what
a wide field of discussion would he oi)ened up if
the terms of the oflicial summons were ohserved
at Augshurg, and resolving to he prepared for
every possible emergency, gathered in advance
all hnoks and papers within tlieir reach thr(>wing
light upon the religious c]Uestions at issue or upon
the mutual relations of the I'jnjxTor and the es-
tates of the realm. Three chests were refpiired to
carry these valual)le documents.

In April, Luther, Melanchthon and Jonas
j«»urneyed with the electoral retinue as far as
Coburg, near the border of Saxony, where the
KeftMiMt r was to find a secure refuge in the castle.
It was hi.s desire, and that of his j)rince as well,
that he should accompany the party to the Diet,
hut, as he was still under the ban of the empire,


it wa« not thoiiplit best to so openly <lefy the aii-
tliority of the nionareh. Luther niiively expri'ssetl
ti) a friend his suspieion that he was left hehind
heeaiise he was known to have a truuhUsouie


A 9f:coxd imprisonment.

Another ri<l<' in the iiijzlit, wliidi must Ikivo
vividly rcrallrd the evriits of niiR' years hcfore,
and Lullicr found liinist'lf a_l,^'lin in a "r('i:i(»n of
birds." The tine old castle on the l)ank of the
Itz met every re«|uirement of quiet comfort.
His frien«l, Veit Dietrich, and a nephew, C'uriaeus,
Were connnissioned to keep him company, while
the thirty servants stood ready to do his hiildin«^.
After surveying the grounds, the ]»ris()ner-guest
-pent the atternoon in writing clieerful letters to
his friends and ma])ping out a scluMue of work fnr
the idle hoin-s hefore him. To Melanditlion he
wr<»te : "We have arrived at our Sinai, hut we
will make a Zion out of it."

I li< first eoncern was for liis unfmislied lahors
ill the translation and expounding of the
Scriptures. During the tive months of his iso-
lation here he accomplished no little in this direc-
lioii. When liis j>hysical ailments incapacitated
liini fnr severe mental lah<>r, he turned fn»m the
interpretation of the intricate j»rophecies of K/a-
kiel and rested himself hy further elucidation nf
the I'salms. He wrote in Latin upon the walls of
his study the «juotations fnun his heloved I'salter:
* I shall not die, hut live, and declare the works
of the Lord." " The way of the ungodly . - hall

He had l(»ng cherished the idea of translating
the fables of iEsop and puhlishing them witji
appropriate comimnts, in order that the chiMren
11 CKil;


miplit in this attractive fomi be taught the duty
nf livin;r *' wisely and ]ieaceal>ly anion;: the wicked
niultitudi' in this false and evil world/ ' He found
time, h(»wever, to tlius treat hut tliirtccn <>f the
aiuient colleetion.

For exercise, he amused himself hy ])raeti<ing
with the cross-bow, and his attendant triumph-
antly recorded a masterly shot which pierced a
hat directly throu^di the heart. It was here, lus
always in his warfare, a creature of darkness that
suffered at his hand.

He found unfailing deli^dit in listening to the
twitleriiiL' of the hinls. He di'scrihes in detail a
••Diet of Rooks," assembled in a cluster of
hushes beneath his window, screaminir day antl
night witliout ceasing, as though they were all
roaring drunk. (Jreat and mighty lords they
seemed to him, although he was unable to discern
the emperor among them. It afforded him great
amusement to observe with what lordly dignity
they swung their tails and wiped their bills as
they broke down the hedges and ])repared to gain
a glorious victory over the grain fields. " Success
to tlieir |iilfering." he cries, ''and may they all
together be impaled upon a hedge-pole ! "

Pieking up a stray leaflet with a snatch of an
old song upon it, set to music of three parts, he
recast the music, added notes for the fourth voice,
appended a few dogi;erel lines to suit the measure,
and sent it to Augshurg, gravely rci'ommentling to
his friends its jmblication there as a welcoming
ode to the Knijierorand F»rdinand.

His letters to the family circle at Wittenberg
are full of tJM' .piaintest liunior and unfailing
go(xi cheer. His j»ower of entering into sympathy
with the feelings of innocj'nt chihlhooti is strik-
ingly sliown in a letter to Ids son, Hans, dcscrib-


in;: a hraiitiful jjanb'n, with all manner of fruits
and tlowers, in wliich were at j»lay liappy little
chiklren having liorses witli golden hridles and
silver saddles. But, of course, tlure nuist be a
moral even to this fairy tale, and little Hans is
j)lainly warned that the charniing place is open
only to chiMren who are good and who ])ray and
study well. A j)icture of his infant daughter,
Magdelena, hung above his table in the dining-

On January oth, word was brought of the
death of his aged father. Deeply moved, he
grasj)ed his Psalter and hastened to his room to
weep. He bewailed the death of such a father,
through whom God had bestowed U])on him life
and all his faculties, and who by hard toil had
nourished his tender years and supported him at
the I'niversity. He recalled the hours of sweet
fellowship enjoyed with him in later years, and
rejoiced that his father had lived to see the light
of truth, and had died ])eacefully in the faith of While thus finding comfort, he realized
more keenly than ever the awful j)ower of death,
and praised (iod for the grace which enables i>oor,
weak men thus to triumj)h over it.

But the walls of the Coburg could not confine
tlie Reformer's thoughts to his personal relati<»ns.
He could not forget the great conflict without.
Never was he more confident, more intrepid, more
conscious of Ins special calling. Within three
weeks he had prepared an Address to the Clergy
at Augsburg, by which he proposed to make
amends for his bodily absence. He trenchantly
reviews the events of the past years; reminds the
bishops of the service which lie has ren<lered them
in freeing them from the swarms of monks that
had, like llcas, infisted Cliribtendum; recalks the


loii;; list (»f uhominations agiiinst which lie had
protested, many of whieh they wen* in their folly
still seekinj,' to holster U]); and warns them of the
(lisonlers which must result if they continue to
disjiute the riizhteous claims of the (Jospel and its
adherents. " Vou know as well as we that you
are living without the Word of (Jod, whereas we
liave it. It is, therefore, our earnest desire and
most liumhle prayer that you may give (iod the
glory, consider, repent and reform. If not, then
you will have to deal with me. Livin«r, I will he
your jtestilence, and dying, I will he your death.
You will have no rest from my name until you
eitlur reform your ways or j^erish miscrahly.''

Such was Luther's lirst contrihution to the pro-
posed reconcilation of Christ and lielial at the
Diet. We shall have occasion to ohserve how
potent was his inlluence in all its deliherations.
lie had, indeed, little hope that the Diet would
accomplish any real good. He still spoke of the
ICmperor as "the good and pious Charles," hut
h< lieved him hel}>less as a lamh surrounded hy
ravening wolves. His only concern was that the
representatives of the trutli might make a bold
and fearless profession of their faith. When
rejM<rl.s of wavering ami compromise reached him,
he hecame impatient, and sent message after
message to stimulate tlie courage of his friends.
To Melanchthon he wrote : " 1 hate your fears.
It is not the greatne.'^s of the cause which awakens
them, Imt the greatness of our uidulief. If our
cause is wrong, let us recant ; if it is ri^zht, why
do we make(l<»d a liar hy douhting His promises?
Was it to the wind, or to dumh l)easts, that Ho
gave the command, 'Cast your care upon the
Lord?' I a<ljure you, wlio are in all else so
valiant, fight against ycturself, your own worst


T<> Chancelor Kriick, the most liopcful in spirit
among the little ((unpany, ho wrote: "1 have
lately seen two wonderful things. First, as I
was looking out of my window, 1 saw the stiirs in
the sky and the whole heautiful firmament of
Ciod ; and yet I saw nowhere any ])illar set up hy
the Master to suj)i)ort this lirmament. Still, the
sky did not fall, and the lirmament is yet stand-
ing securely. Now, there are some who look for
such pillars, and would like to la}' hold of them
and feel them, and hecause they cannot do this,
they tremhle and go into convulsions, as though
the sky would now certainly fall, for no other
reason than hecause they cannot lay hold u]>on or
see the i)illars. * * * The other wonder which I
saw was this : Great, thick clouds were floating
over us, so heavy that they might he com})ared to
a great ocean, and yet I saw no foundation upon
which they rested or stood, nor any tuhs in which
they were held. Nevertheless, they did not fall
upon us, hut greeted us with a threatening coun-
tenance and tied away. When they were j)ast,
there shone out that which held them up, as hoth
their su])port and our roof, the rainhow. * =i^ *
Yet there are some who, in their fear, look ujxin
and regard the thick and heavy weight of waters
and cloutls more than this thin, narrow and light
shadow. They would like to feel the strength of
this shadow, and hecause they cannot do this,
they are afraid that the clouds will produce an
everlasting del uge. ' '

Hut this holdncss of Luther was niaintain(Ml
only hy earnest prayer. His a.ssoeiate, I)ietri<h,
has recorde(i that thre(M)f the hours most valuahle
for study were daily spent in this exercise. Once,
by acci<lent, he caught the very language of the
earnest, hold petitions: "I know tliat Thou art


onrCiojl and Fatlicr. I :un ((Ttain, tliorcforo, tliat
Tliou wilt l>rin'; to sliaino tlie piTsccutors of Thy
cliildrrii. If Thou dost not, the peril is Ixith
Thine and ours. The whole alTair is Thine."

Several vij^orous controversial tracts issued
from the Col)urir. In one of these the subject of
purgatory is thoroughly treated. Luther, held
by his traditional einu'eptions, had long been
willing to grant the existence of sueh a plaee of
torture, but he now repudiated the i<lea entirely,
and with unllinehing severity uncovered the
"shameful lies and abominations" that were
based upon the doctrine. He elucidated also
more fully than heretofore, in special publica-
tions, th(» sphere of the Church's power and
its limitations, with sjtccial reference to the exist-
ing state of things. The tone ami contents of
these clocuments must have efTectually allayed
the fears of any who may have been alarmed by
Zwingli's charge that Luther was shrinking back
toward the Roman foM.

Numerous ]>ersonal letters of consolation
may be traced to these fruitful m(»nths, as well as
a careful selection of scriptural j)assages calcu-
lattMl to bring comfort to those in distress, and a
fervent admonition to all to meekly bear the cross.
The latter may have Ix-cn suggested by the arrival
of a handsome seal-ring j>rescnted by the prince,
John Fredcriek. The original coat-of-arnns of
the Luther family liad been a cross-ltow with a
rose upon each side. The new design, elaboratinl
l>y Luther as an embodiment of his theology, he
Idnjself thus explains: First, let tiiere be a cross
in black within a heart of natunil color, that I
may be reminded that faith in the ('rucilie<l saves
US. Although it is a black cross, which crucilies
and may be t'Xpctrtid to give pain, yc t it leaves


tlio lioart in its own color, does not destroy
nature, i. e., it docs not kill, hut urosorvcs alive;
for tlie just lives hy his faith in the Crucified.
Let the lieart stand in the midst of a wliitc rose,
to indicate that faith «xives joy, comfort and i)eace.
Let the rose he white, and not red, for white is
the C()l(»r of spirits and all angels. The rose
stands in a field of celestial color, })ecause such
joy in tlie Spirit and in faith is a foretaste of the
heavenly joy now assured to the heliever and to
he freely revealed hereafter. Around the field of
hlue let there he a golden circle, to indicate that
the hlessedness of heaven endures forever, and is
precious heyond all joy and wealth, as gold is the
nohlest and most precious metaL

ciiAP'ri:i: xviii


At liMiiitli tho Kinporor arrivo^l with crn^at pomp
at Aiiirsl»urir. His first onlcr forbade the preach-
ing nf tln' i*n»tr>t:int )>:irty, and rctpiircci iIrmm all
to join in the procession on the following: day,
wliicli was the festival of Corpus CMiristi. The
latter linally a«:reed to yield the liherty of preneh-
iniX for the time heinir, jirovided the same restrie-
tion were laid upon their adversaries. In the
iclolatrous procoHsion, however, the Kvaniielieal
Princes declined to participate, asserting:: that their
consciences would not allow them to do so. Tin*
concession was reiMrded as a great victory by the
Komish party, who tiiemselves cared l)Ut little for
tlie privilcLT** of preaehinj:; hut the absence of so
lari^'e an<l respectahle a ]>ortion of the Diet from
the procession was a striking evidence of the wide-
spread defection from th<' pajial ranks.

Melanchthon had toiled faithfully in recasting
the Articles of Smalcald and Torgau. The result
of his lal)ors, since known to the world as the
Augsburg Confession, having nx'eived the en-
dorsciiient of I.ntlnr, was signed hy the Protest-
ants on .lune 2.*M and presented to the Diet June
30th. The Kmperor desired that it he (juietly
handed to him, hut, upon the demand of the sign-
ers, permi.ssion was given for tlie reading of the
(lerman copy, a duty which was admimhly per-
formed hy the Saxon Chancellor. Priick.

The document, in the first twenty-one articl(»s,
presents the leading doctrines of the Scriptures


witli judicial calmness and diLMiily, in languap' of
transjuiivnt simplicity, and then, in seven articles,
dt'siirnatcs the leading abuses aj^ainst which tes-
timony had been borne by the Heiormcrs. Luther
read and re-read the articles, deliLdited witli their
lucidity and liti'rary tinish, declarinu^ that he could
not have troddi-n so lightly, yet well satisfied to
tind in tliem the essentials of the faith. When he
learned that they had actually been presented to
the Diet as the unanimous confession of the Evan-
p'lical Estates, his exultation wils unbounded.

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