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tion, Luther now resumed his place as the
rulini^' spirit of the University and villaire. His
word was law, and the stormy i)ast seemed like a
dnam. He does not appear to have at once
midrrtaken regular academic lectures, as that por-
tion of his earlier lahors was hein^^ well done hy
others. Before many months, however, we find
him expounding whole hooks of the Bible to
eager throngs of students.

The first practical (juestions «leinandinfr atten-
tion were thos(^ relating to the public worship of
the e()ngregations, particularly of the ])arish
church, of which th(; Reformer was the ]>astor.
Here he preached twice every Sunday, and as
soon as ])ractical)le arranged for a daily devotional
service, in which the chief place was assigned to a
practical exposition of the Scriptures. He con-
ducted also an early morning service in tlic
Auixustinian monastery every Sunday.

Disapproval of th(^ reckless course of the late
self-appointeil lead(.>rs foimd ]»ositive ('X])ression in
the restoration of nearly all the customs which
had been violently ahan<loned. Luther insisted
that scrupulous regard must in all cases he mani-
f(?sted for the prejudices of the unenlighten(Ml, and
that no long-established c(Temonies should be
changed until the mass of the congregation had
by faithful preaching been prej»ared t<» accept the
advanced measures. Subordinating entirely his


own personal preferences, he restored the services
of llie public mass, rt'tnininj: as harmless the
name, whirh ilio extninists had rejected, and
omitting only those portions which savored dis-
tinctly of idolatry and human j)resumption. The
pictures which liad escaped the ictnioelastic storm
were permitted to remain, with merely a warning
from the j)ulj>it and through j)uhlishe«l tracts
against tlic al»iiscs ct)nnectcd with them. The
Latin language was again introduced in tlie fa-
miliar liturgiial formularies. The cup was ad-
ministered in the Lord's Supj>er only to those who
desired it, and to such at sj)ecial times, in order
not to offend the consciences of those who clung
to the old method. Even the elevation of the
host, which had heen so closely linked witli tho
Worship of the conseciate<l elements, was ntained
for several years as an ixj>rcssion of reverence and
thankfulness. Candles and the ordinary clerical
vestments found their j)lace again as ancient cus-
toms. All these outward forujs were regarded as
matters of indifference, not worth contending
about, to he regulated from time to time in ac-
cordance with the growing intelligence of tho

The chief aim was to give ]»rominence to tho
proclamation of the pure Word of (Jod, and
ill the new onit r of woi>hip which Luther him-
s<lf prepared in 1023, he demanded a jilace for
this in the very mi<lst of the service, al)hreviating
and simplifying the latter, and providing for thi'
gradual superseding of the Latin hy appropriate
f«>rms in the national t<»ngue.

Kspe<'ially did Luther seek to cniourage tho
participation of all the assemhled people in tho
services of praise, lie pleaded personally with
tljo.Ho ol lii- a->«H iales who were known to pitssess


iMutical or nuisical talent to prepare suitable Oer-
iiiaii livmnR, hiused upon tlie Psalms, or other por-
tions of the Seriptures. to secure adiMjuate
rrsponse, he himself undertook the work, display-
ing,' a «:ift hitherto entirely inisusj)ccted l)y himself
or others. The martyrdom of two brave young
eonfessoi*s of the truth at Hrussds, in the summer
of ir)23, impelled him to jrive utterance to his
«leej> feeling in a stirring ode in connnemoration of
their fidelity, which was soon ujion the lij>s of the
multitude. Karly in lo'it a]i])ean'd at Witten-
berg the first collection of evangelical hymns
in the (ierman language, there being but eight in
all, live of which were from the \)vn of Luther.
He com])osed and j»ublished twenty more within
the same year, by which time the enthusiasm of
others had been aroused to activity in this new
field, and the foundations laid for the rich and
matchless hymnology of the German Lutheran
church. The lal)ors of the Reformer in this di-
reetion culminated about iry27, in the j)reparation
of his immortal battle hynni: ''lun feste Burg ist
unser (Jott."

Hut the chief energies of the period now under
review were devoted to the continuance of the
translation of the Bible The work done at the
\\'artl)urg was thorougidy revised, appearing in
complete form in SeptcndxT, 1522. The more
serious task of giving idiomatic ex])respion to the
ruggetl and often doubtful forms of the ancient
Hebrew writers was coiiragcously undertaken.
.\urogalIus, the new ])r(>fessor of Hebrew at the
I'niversity, and Melanchthon rendcretl constant
and valuable assistance, especially in fixing the
exact meaning of the original text, and in discov-
ering the nearest equivalents in Clerman for un-
usual terms, but the imprctsii of the Reformer's


mind was upon every line of the oomplctod work.
As it K'ft tljc pnss, appoarinj; in sections durinj^
tlic vtars l'>L'.*i-ir)i>4, it was fn)ni first to last
Luther's version of the sacred volume. Thouj:h
publishid without mention of the translator's
name, the introductions to the separate hooks, the
terse marpnal notes, and the general preface ex-
altinj; the Kpistic to the Romans, witli its doe-
trine of justification l»y faith, as the k«'y to the
whole Scriptures, left no (lou)>t in any mind as to
its source. No one stopped in that age to think
of the excellence of the tran.^lation. It was
accepted by all classes, save the i»ronounced
paj.i>l.<, as tlie i>ure and simple Word of (lod res-
cued from the mass of human traditions hy the
fearless champion of the truth. Its condemna-
tion hy tlie authorities of the corrupt church hut
eontirmed the conviction that the latter were de-
ceivers who could not endure the light, and in-
creased the jtopular demand for the work. It
remains to-day, substantially unchanged. Not
only has it heen the channel through which the
message (»f divine grace has reached the ma.«ses of
theCJerman nation; hut it has given fixed literary
form to the (lerman language itself, which was at
that time in a formative stage. The peasant's
son, who felt his nation.ality tingling in every
vein, who had ahsorhe<l the wisdom of the schools
and sounded the depths of foreign ttnigues with-
out surrendering his native power of forceful ut-
terance, here voiced the highest truths in forms
8o natural that even his enemies could hut accept
them as final, and the th(Hilogian, seeking the
eternal well-heing of his countrymen, unwittingly
became the literary dictator of tlie nati«»n.

("Iiaiti:k IV.


TnE consciousness of his liij^li callinir as tlio
leader of a ^reat movement emhracini; not ( Jermany
alone, l>ut the entire Western Cluncli, \vas now
fully awak( ned in Lutlier. and his position as
such was recognized even l>y his ])itti*rest ene-
mies, 'i'he zealous paj)ist, Kin«^ Ferdinand, who,
in theal)scnce of his brotlier, the Emperor, wielde<l
the imperial sceptre, informed the latter in l.ri.'J
that scarcely (»ne man in a thousand could he
found in the realm who was not in some measure
infected with the new heresy.

Luther fully realized* the responsibility
■which thus rested ujm.u him and cai-nestly s(tu,L,dit
to lay deep foundations for the future welfare of
Church and State.

The cpicstion of the proper training of the
young and the instruction of the ipiorant mass«>s
in the rudiments of savinir doctrine pressed
heavily U))on him. He had these classes mainly
in view in his exj)osition of the Ten Comman*!-
ments from the ])ul])it in 151(). A\'ith character-
istic distrust of his own fitness for the undertaking:,
he now earnestly requested various friends to
jirepare for general use a scries of simple (piestions
and answers coverinfir the cliief articles of Christian
faith. He at leuL'th secured the oflicial appoint-
ment of Justus Jonas, the ])rovost of the Cni-
vcrsity, and his talented friend. Aj^ricola, for the
work of preparing: uj)on this plana "children's
catechism,'' and ea<_'erly awaited the result of
their labors.


100 Ll'TIlKK. Till-: KKKOKMKR.

W"i\]\ the ij^norant fanatirism whicli regards
gt'iHTal I'lliication as liostilf to i»i<'ty, Liitlicr had
nevtT the sh^rhtest syinpatliy. He hewailcd tlie
illitcniry of the masses. Alrcajly in 1520, in his
Addrc'is to thr yohi/idf, he had ur^^ed tlie necessity
of the eareful trainiii«r of the younp, and now tliat
he found men dceryinj; all edueation, and the
town school of Wittenherj^ transformed into a
bakery, he was tilled with the deejx'st anxiety.
Ajjain and airain he lifted up his voice in hchalf
of the ncirlectcMl youtli, and in l.")24 pul>lisln'd an
earnest a|»|)eal '"to all hur^nniastcrs an<l councilors
in (icrnian lands." imj»lorin«^ them to estal>lish
local schools at the puhlie expense. lie ar;:u(<l
that hut a portion of the money once so freely
s<iuandered ui)on in<lulg<Mices, masses and pil-
grimajxes would sufliee to ensure an ade<juate
training of the risin<; ireneration, and maintain<<l,
with a convincing energy never since excelled,
that the puhlie safety was far more dependent
upon the general intelligence than uj)on arma-
ments or hoarded wealth. Nor were these ap-
peals in vain. Pastor lUigenhagen re-opened the
school at Wittenherg. Educati<>nal work wjls
organized on abroad basis at Magdeburg, Nurem-
berg, and other inlluential centres under the
direction of Luther nnd Melanchthon, the Tni-
versity of A\'ittenberg furnishing enthusiastic
teachers. Luther himself in 1.')!.'') traveled to
Eislcben to participate in the estal»lishmcnt of a
8cho(>l in thei)laceof his birth, which was at once
committed to the oversight (»f his friend, .\gricola.

Full recognition was al.<o given by the Reformer
U) the claims of higher education He main-
tjiined the importance of the study of the ancient
languages, not only because they are the sheath
in which the keen blade of the Spirit is carrie<l,


l)Ut for tlic'ir l)r(iaiU'nin<: inlUu'ncc upon tlio mind.
While (k'lioiiiuin^ philosophy as sliocr folly, and
human culture as vanity, wht^n they attcnijjt to
usurp the plaei' of rdiirion, he regarded all science
antl art as natural allies, an<l ur^'ed their eifltiva-
tion as tending to develop the ])owers which the
Creator lias wisely and L^raeioiisly hest«)We«l upon

Serious financial questions wi re involved in
the great chan^'es wrouudit hy the new doctrines.
What should l)e done with the al)andoned monas-
teries and their valuahle j^roperty ? The lar.La^ en-
dowments for the support of ])ul>lic and private
masses could in many ])laees no longer he em-
ployed in accordance with the will of the testators.
Many bequests to monasteries had heen made hy
nohle families, mainly as a ])rovision for the sup-
port of their indigent nuinhere who, it was
thought, would find in these institutions a seeure
home through life. Those who still cherished the
expectation of a return to the old order of things
protested against the employment of these funds
in any other than a literal accordance with the
terms upon which they had heen given. lUit it
soon heeame evident that such were hut idle
dreamers. The whole organization of society had
heen j)ermanently changed, and some new dispo-
sition must he made of these now useless posses-

No one realized the extent of these difficulties
more keenly nor faced them more hravely than
di<l Luther. He maintained, as a general ]>rinci
j)le, that endowments estahlished for the sup-
port of unchristian methods «>f diviiu^ worship
could now he rightly apj>lied oidy for the further-
ance of the same ultimate end hy ])rojK'r and
Chri-tian niel]i<»ds. lA:iii<j(]i<:d p.istois, regularly-


called, were eiititlrd to the income of parishes
on<-e uiuKr the jurisdiction of Ktuiiish priests, hut
cuuKl not lUniand this where the okl order 8till
prevaiK'd. Monasteries should hecoine 8eh(K>ls
lor the eoninjon iK-ople, and tlieir endowments
might 1k' emi»h»ye(l f(»r any of tlie legitimate pur-
poses t»f edueation or religion. First of all, how-
ever, a suitahle portion <>f the invcstitl funds
shouUl he nturnnl to tlie indigent luirs of those
from whom the donations hail originally eome,
sinee the support of these was a j)art of the design
of the donors. Si'C'ondly, jirovision should hemaiie
for the maintenanee of the aged inmati's of the
eloisti'rs and of the j>oor and unfortunate in every
community. Only when these j)rimary demands
of justice and charity should have heen justly
met might the claims of education and worship
V)e asserted. The views of Luther U]>on these
questions were widely inllucntial, hut sehloin
attained com]>lete triumjth over the schemes of
grasj)ing oflicials or the ru«h' violcnee of an ex-
cited populace. IIelament<'d : ''The world
still he the world, and Satan its prince : I have
done what I could."

In the midst of thtsc general cares, I.uthrr wa.s
constantlv hesieged l)y a multitude of escaped
monks and priests deposed for the expression
of evang( li« al views. He felt a njcasure of per-
sonal responsihility for the helples*^ condition of
such, welcomed them to his tahle, and spare<l no
effort to secure for them o])|K)rtunities of earning
a livelih*o<Ml. We still }H»ssess many letters writ-
t**n hy him in the interest of such individuals to
princes, past<»rs and the <lire<tors of manufactur-
ing j-stahlishments throughout (iermany. He was
jM'<-uliarly intereste<l in the case of nine nuns who
at East4.'r, in 1523, after appealing in vain to their


relatives to scciiro tlicir iL-lcase from unwillin«^
hondage, oscaiK'd l»y iii«;lit fn»in a convent at
Niniptzsc'h and came to Wittenberg. lie pn))-
licly commended their courageous course, found
temporary shelter for tlicm, and was soon gratified
in seeing them nearly all well and j)ermanently
I)rovided for, several having heen married t<» hon-
orable and well-to-do citizens.

People in all manner of distress ap]>lied to
him for aid. To some lie secured the restoration
of proj)erty wrongfully taken from them ; others
were by his intercession relieved from the l>ay-
ment of oppressive fines. Mothers appealed to
him for counsel in regard to the marriage of their
children, and young ladic^s enlisted him as an
advocate in overcoming the oj (position of relatives
to their chosen suitors. He wrote many letters of
consolation to th(» sick, the imi)risoned and the
]>ereaved, displaying the most delicate sympathy
and always connecting his counsel intimately with
some ai)propriate passage of the divine Word.
These private letters not infre<iuently found their
way ([uickly into print and carried comfort every-
where to the homes of the afllicted. They give
us a profound insight into the KefoniKT's tenderly
sensitive nature, and mark him as the most in-
tensely human of all the world's great leaders,
the Ai>uslle I'aul alone excepted.



When Lutlicr liad so heroically niaintaiind In's
j>ositi(»n at Worms, the breach with the Church
of Koine was rceo^nizcil on all liaixls as (•(•niplctc
and <in:il. On all essential points hf had fortified
his doctrinal position, and had no di'sire to rcn<'\v
discussion with his adversaries, who could hut
re-assert their views and cite in their suj)j)ort the
utterances of fallihle men and the notoriously
unreliahle deliverances of po]>es an<l councils.
He soUL'ht now only the further development of
the doctrines which he had found so mnnistak-
al»ly tau.Ldit in the divine Word, and their appli-
cation to the necessities of the awakening church
life. True, his opinions of the ini<|uity (»f the
papal hierarchy and the hlasj)hemous character
of its claims were hut confirmed in the course of
his studies, and he l(»st no suitahle opportunity
to pive open utterance to his implacahle hostility.
Ihit he souj^ht not controversy. As his now ex-
ult.'int foes ass:ule<l him on every hand, he re-
plied their elTusions with silent contempt, or
turnrd tliem over for refutation to the hands of
his followers. A few prtunincnt assailants were,
however, still prante<l the honor of a direct reply,
lest the dijrnity of their names should pive cur-
rency to their perverh'd views.

The University of Paris had loni: dis]»layed

a decree of indeju-ndenee in its relati<»ns to the

papacy which led Luther and his associates to

iinticipate a favoral»le disposition upon its part


Tin: (>M) KNKMY. Ill")

toward their ofTorts to t'lnancip.-itc tlio enslaved
nations. At the tirn«' of the Leipzig Disputation,
Luther had l)een wilHnir to suhniit liis views for
critical examination to tliis unjjrejudieed and en-
liirhtened trihunal. The theoloLnans of the insti-
tution then avoided an expression of tlieir views,
hut had since i)raetieally ran,ire<l tlienjselves upon
the side of his enemies. Now, in A)>ril, 1521,
they east olT all reserve, ])ul>lishinLX a ioui^ list of
citations from his writini^s, which tiiey denounced
as "poisonous, outrageous and ])estilential here-
sies." As these learned men, however, contented
themselves with denunciation, and did not under-
take to refute any of the heretic's ern^rs, the
latter r(\i^arded their assault with unconcealed
contempt. He allowed Mclanchthon to re)»ly in
Latin, and then })ui)lished a translation of hoth
documents, })receded and f(>llowed hy a few
caustic comments of his own, pronouncinf? the
faculty of Paris ''full of the snow-white lejtrosy
of antichristian heresy from the crown of the head
to the sole of the foot." lie shrewdly called
puhlic attention to the fact that, whereas his chief
contention with the enemy had hitherto heen
upon the suhject of papal su])remacy, this valiant
<lefender,of the faith was entirely silent u])on that
point, thus practically concedin<i: his ])()sition in
the great controversy, and revealini: the Imllow-
ness of the hoasted miity of the Romish Church.
An annual l)ull had for a luunlter of years heen
issued from Rome just hefore the Kaster festival,
entitled the Bull of the Supper of the Lord,
emhracing a list of all the (hunnahle heresies
which had ])revailed in the Church. In the year
loJl, the name of Luther a])peared in this t<'rrilic
d«Hument, following those of \\'icklilTe and IIus.s.
Ueceiving a copy at the Warthurg, Luther i)uh-


li.sli(Kl, as ft *'Nt'w Year's (Jrcctinp*' for tlio
rn|M\ a r«<l,T cutitltMl : The Bull of the
Evening Gormandizing of our Most Holy
Lord, the Pope, ciuotiiij^ in tlie caidion iIk*
^vo^(ls nf the Uuth I'sahn: *' His nioutli is full <»f
cursing and deceit and fraud,'' and representing
the great head of tlio Chureh, after a luxurious sup-
per, opcninjx his mouth in drunken frenzy to curse
all the world in harharous and incolierent Latin.

A new assailant apj)ean-d in the same year — no
less a j»ers(>na.i:e than King Henry VIII., of
En<;lantl, who at this jun< turc had special rrasniis
for eultivatin^' the <^ood will of the Pope. Layinj^
aside the di,LMiity heeoniini: his stati(»n, and j»rid-
ing himself upon his rather meagre literary attain-
ments, this monareh of a great nation, who during
the session o( the Diet at Worms had urged the
Kmperor to employ the severest measures for the
suppression of the heretic, now condescends to a
personal attack upon the poor monk in a foreign
land. Professing to defend the Roman Catholic
doctrines of the Lord's Supper, indulgences and
the supremacy of the Pope against the strictures
of Luther in his Jiahylonidn Oiptivitt/^ he de-
nounces the Reformer in the coarsest and vilest
terms. The work was dedicated to the l*ope, and
earned for its author the title, " Defendt^ of the
Faith," which is still j)roudly wt>rn hy the Pro-
testant monarchs nf England, not without some
aversion, we mav fancy, ils they recall its rathiT
duhious origin. A special Hull was issued fn»m
Ronje, assuring to every (»ne wliosht)uld read tliis
royal defence nf the truth an indulgence releas-
ing him from ti-n years' pain in purgatnry, a favor,
we may surndse, not so readily granted when, thir-
teen years latrr, this same king severetl i\\o Kng-
lish chunli fn»m all allegiance to the papal throne.


To cnaMi' all (Icnnans to socuro {hv j.roiiiiscfl iii-
(lulgt'iice, the docuinent was, hy tliirction of
Lutiu'i's inveterate- enemy, Duke CJeoi}^e of Sax-
ony, translateil into their lan^ua-^'c and widely
seattereil. It never, however, apj>r«)aehed the eir-
euhition of the counter-i)ublieation of Luther, in
wliich, after a patient re-statenient and defenee of
the views assailed, the supreme importanee of
faith was stron;^dy asserted, and full ])lay tlien
j^iven to the Reformer's indiLMiation and eontempt,
eoverin«^ the royal antagonist with opprohrium.
*' These two,"* he declared, "Henry and the
Pope, just suit to<^ether — two donkeys hrayin*; to
one another." So terri})le was the rehuke thus
administered, that Luther's own friends were af-
frij^hted, and the iistonished monarch comi>lained
hitterly to the German j)rinees of the grievous in-
jury he had received at the hands of the sliame-
less monk.

A peculiar means of attack employed by a
j)aniphleteer, ())r/ihni.^, in 1523, deserves passing
notice, as illustratiuL; a cliaracteristic of the age.
The helief in the significance of portents, or any
unusual a])pcarance in the natural world, was
aluKJst universal. The puhlieation referred to
describes a calf, born at Freiburg, having a bald
pate, a 'monk's cowl hanging about its neck, a
mouth like a man's, and frcijUently gesticulating
like a preacher in the i»ulpit. Of course this
could only ])orten«l dire disaster to the land, indi-
(*ating clearly enough the monk of Wittenberg as
the cause of the coming calamities, Luther |tn)ved
more than a match for his antagonists, however,
even in the interpretation of such profound mys-
teries, lie replied that the calf was a symbol of
the absurdities of monasticism, foun<l a counter-
part of each diiformity in some featun; of the


effete system, and puMishcd his cxplanati<»ii with
a strikinjx j>ictiirc of the famous heast ainl lA an
etjually strange creature found dead in the Tiher
a (juarter of a century before — an ass, having
some remarkahle resem!)huu'es to the person of
the I'oi»e, the latter case being eh^arly described
l)y tlie jx'U of Melanchthon. As may be imagine«l,
this ilhistratid pul»htation proved very p<>j)ular,
and pik^sed through a number of editions.



We have scon tlio sympathy of Luther with tlie
Iliiinaiiistic movement. Its leaders in (ierniany
were anionic his early assoeiates at the University,
and with many of them he eontiiUKMl to maintain
the friendliest relations. He share<l their love of
learninir, and they sympathize<l with him in his
free eriticism of the blind do<;matisin of the past.

I>ut the Humanists, as a rule, weri' strangers
to the moral earnestness of Luther. They were
Epicureans in temper, if not in profession. They
dreade<l strife and were ready to make almost any
saerifice of their eonvietions if they might only
pursue undisturbed their favorite studies. Not a
few of them were, in the course of the conHiet,
drawn into full sympathy with the religious
moveuK'nt and became very valuable promoters
of the Reformation. P)Ut the majority gradually
withdrew their su})port from Luther, and either
amused themselves by satirizing the contestants
upon either side, or avoided the cpiestions of dis-
pute entirely. Luther spoke scornfully of the
pusillanimous spirit of these enlight<'ned men, but
did not seriously grieve over their departure, as he
had never fully trusted them. His deeply reverent
nature had always been re])elled by the trilling
way in which they dealt witli sacred themes.

More serious was the widening breach between

himself and Erasmus, the acknowledged leader

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