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Charles Eugene Little.

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HISTORICAL LIGHTS.



TWO VALUABLE REFERENCE BOOKS BV
THE AUTHOR OF "HISTORICAL LIGHTS."



Cyclopedia of Classified Dates.

A READY REFERENCE COMPENDIUM OF NOTABLE
EVENTS IN THE HISTORY OF ALL COUNTRIES,
FROM B.C. 5004 TO A.D. 1895. .:• .:* .:• .:•

The histories of about 120 countries jire digested, and the events of ancient, modem,
and recent times, dated, and all geographically classified, and both chronologically
and topically arranged. The work is the result of several years of diligent labor and
re.search, and is the only volume in existence which furnishes an epitome of the-
history of every country down to 1895.

The unique feature of this book is that by which quick reference is facilitated and
a general purview with the notable trend of history is observed ; namely, the classifica-
tion of the events of the civilized world under seven general topics, as Army and Navy.
Art, Science and Nature, Births and Deaths, Church, Letters, Society, and State ; and
these topics are always arranged on two opposite pages. All the dates relate to the
same years, or parts of years, and all the dates of the same period are brought together
before the eye at once — an arrangement by which a comparison of parallel events
in any department of history may be readily made, and the side-lights of any event
examined and studied.

The student of Politics, Science, Religion, and Church History, Sociology, Art, Law,
Medicine, or of any of the Professions or Industries of civilization, or of the known
events of barbarous peoples, will here find abundant and accessible historical data.

Quarto, 1,300 pages. Cloth, Price $10.00.



Biblical Lights and Side Lights^

A CYCLOPEDIA OF TEN THOUSAND ILLUSTRATIONS
AND THIRTY THOUSAND CROSS-REFERENCES, CON-
SISTING OF FACT, INCIDENT, AND REMARKABLE
DECLARATIONS TAKEN FROM THE BIBLE. .:• .:•

For the use of those in every profession who, for illustrative purposes, desire ready
access to the numerous incidents and striking statements contained in the Bible — students,
teachers, public speakers, lawyers, ministers, and others, as also for the family library.

" ' Biblical Lights and Side Lights ' is a specially useful book. It ranks nest to a Concordance.
. . . Mr. Little's work is a great success."— i?e». C //. Spurgeon.

"We have never seen a work on Bible reference so thoroughly systematized. . . . Admirably
arranged. TOPICS AKE TAKEN FROM THE DEMANDS OF RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY,
SCIENCE, ART, SOCIAL LIFE, AND POLITICS. . . . HAS GREAT VALUE FOR EDUCATED
PERSONS IN EVERY CALLING."— A^a^iowa^ Baptist, Philadelphia.

"Will unquestionably prove a mine of information and of illustration."— <?6«ert;er, N. Y.

Royal 8vo, 620 pp. Price, Cloth, $4.00 ; Library Sheep, $5.00.



FUNK & WAGNALLS COMPANY, Publishers,, 30 Lafayette Place, NEV YORK,



HISTORICAL LIGHTS:



SIX THOTJSAI^D QnOTATIO^sTS



FBOM



STANDARD HISTORIES AND BIOGRAPHIES,



WITH TWENTY THOUSAND CROSS-REFERENCES, AND A

GENERAL INDEX, ALSO AN INDEX OF

PERSONAL NAMES.



THESE EXTBACTS CONSIST CHIEFLY OF FACTS AND INCIDENTS. THEY ARE DESIGNED FOA

THOSE WHO DESIRE BEADY ACCESS TO THE EVENTS, THE LESSONS AND THE PBEG-

JEDENTS OF HISTOBY, IN THE PBEPABATION OF ADDRESSES, ESSAYS AND

SEBMONS, ALSO IN PLEADING AT THE BAB, IN DISCUSSING

POLITICAL ISSUES, AND IN WBITINO FOR THE PBESS.






COMPILED BY

10- 77S<0



Eev. CHARLES E. LITTLE,
> «

Author of " Biblical Lights and Side Lights."



Bxaanine History, for it is Philosophy teaching by Experience." — Cablti^.



FUNK & WAGNALLS COMPANY

Toronto London

Naw York



■^'\



v<



Botored, according to Act of Congress, in the year 16S6, bjr

FUNK & WAGNALLS,

Xd the Office of tlie Librarian of Congress at Wastungton, Ji. C'.

Printed In the United States.



f^



PRE FAO E.



Historical statements awaken in the average mind an interest which proves
the existence of a hidden element in them, that does not pertain to a mere record of
facts. The marvels of history, and its prosy facts as well, not only attest the oneness
of human nature and the unity of human experience, but they also forecast a shadowy
premonition of coming events. This thought has found its graceful expression in
the words of a German writer, who says : " All history is an imprisoned epic — nay,
an imprisoned psalm and prophecy."

While historical statements address our curiosity for knowledge, they also
stimulate the imagination to give realistic coloring to the picture presented to the
mind. Hence it is that historical fields will ever prove chosen grounds for reference
and illustration by those who address the public.

This volume is the outgrowth of certain lines of historical readings, originally
designed for the author's personal benefit, and to aid in the preparation of sermons
and addresses. After nearly twenty-five years of reading and brief indexing of
interesting facts and incidents, a mass of quotations has accumulated, and under
the natural law of selection this volume represents the ''survival of the fittest.''

If is not presumed that the field of selection is exhausted, or that omissions haie
not been made of numerous interesting statements. Many lengthy selections have
been excluded by the plan of the book, which permits only brief extracts. It is
merely claimed that a large class of historical facts and fancies which have aided
the compiler in his work are in this ready reference form offered by the publishers
to others who may value historical allusions and quotations in addressing the public
either by the pen or the voice. This collection is both religious and secular in its
character, and the quotations are especially fitting the needs of preachers, pleaders
in court, political speakers, essayists in schools, and writers for the press.

It is also claimed that the topical arrangement of these quotations, and the
extensive cross-reference index, and the index of personal names will greatly facilitate
their use by requiring only a brief search to find them, and making a previous rec-
ollection of the passages unnecessary. In this way they may supply in a large
measure the lack of a ready memory to those who are unable to recall historical
facts and incidents, or have forgotten the volume in which they may be found.
They may be equally serviceable to those who have but little opportunity for
historical readings. These quotations are taken from standard histories and biogra-
phies, and chiefly relate to the early civilized races and the American and English
peoples. Those taken from the Holy Scriptures have been published in a volume
by themselves, entitled " Biblical Lights and Side Lights."

It has been the aim of the compiler to present each quotation complete in itself,
so that it may not be necessary to examine the authority quoted ; yet each may be
verified by the reader and the connections studied by following the reference which
concludes each article. The articles quote the exact words of the various authors,
except where otherwise expressed by brackets. The title, catchword and compiler's
addendum, in brackets, will usually so complete the meaning of the quotation
that it will not be necessary to make further examination of the historical connec-
tions. When more information is desired, it may frequently be found in the large
cyclopaedias by those who have not at hand the authorities to which reference is
made.

A list of authorities quoted in this volume may be found on another page.

Charles E. Little. .
East Orange, N. J., November 3, 1885.



387292



INDEX OF AUTHORS.



AUTHOKS. Titles.

ABBOTT, JOHN S. C... History of Napoleon Bonaparte*

ARNOLD, THOMAS Hannibal.

BAKER, SAMUEL W In the Heart of Africa.

BANCROFT, GEO History of the United States. 6vola.

BLAINE, JAMES Q Tiventy Years of Congress, Vol. L

BOSWELL, JAMES lilfe of Samuel Johnson, l>.I»»

BUNSEN Martin Liuther.

€ARLYLE, THOMAS Robert Burns.

" " History of the French Revolatlon. 4 VOla

" '♦ Frederick the Great. 4 vols.

" " Croethe.

CREASY Fifteen Decisive Battles of the "World,

CUSTIS, GEO. W. P Recollections and Private memoirs of

W^asliington. 2 vols.

DOWDEN, PROP Southey.

FARRAR, CANON Early Bays of Christianity.

FORBES, ARCHIBALD Chinese Gordon.

PROUDE, JAMES ANTHONY Csesar.

" " " John Bunyan.

«1IBB0N, EDWARD The Decline and Fall of the Romaa

Fmpire. 6 vols.

GREEN, J. R I^arger History of the English People.

FOWLER, THOMAS liOcke.

EEADLEY, J. T Life and Travels of General Grant.

HOOD, PAXTON lilfe of Cromwell.

BUTTON, R,H Sir Walter Scott.

IRVING, WASHINGTON lilfe of Christopher Columbus. 4volB.

" " lilfe of Goldsmith.

KNIGHT, CHARLES The Popular History of England. Svdbk

LAMARTINE, ALPHONSE DE Oliver Cromwell.

" " " mary Queen of Scots.

'' « u Turkey.

LESTER, EDWARDS C lilfe of Peter Cooper.

" •• " lilfe of Sam Houston.

MACAULAY, THOMAS BABETGTON History of Englan d. 2 vote.

♦» " » Life of Frederick the Great*

" •• »» William Pitt.

" " " niilton.

MICHELET, JULES Joan of Arc.

MORLEY, JOHN Burke.

MORRISON, J. C Gibbon.

MULLER,MRS Life of George Uliiller.

MYERS, J... Wordsw^orlh.

NORTON, FRANK H... Life of Alexander H. Stepheaa*

PABTON. JAMES Brief Biographies.



INDEX OF AUTHORS.



Brief Biographies include the following names :

Adams, John. Crockett, David. Hudson, Henry. Peel, Sir Eobert.

Adams, Mrs. John. D'Albuquerque, Alphonse. Irving, Washington. Peter the Great.

Adams, Samuel. Davy, Sir Humphry. Jackson, Andrew. His Pizarro, Francesco.

Alfonso I. of Portugal. Decatur, Death of Com. Marriage. Pocahontas.

Aristotle. De Champiain, Samuel. Jefferson, Thomas. Poe, Edgar Allan.

Ark Wright, Richard. Dias, Bartholomew. Jefferson at Home, Thos. Quincy, Josiah.

Arnold, Benedict Douglas, Stephen A. Jerome, Chaancey. Eothschild, Maier.

Audubon. Drake, Sir Francis. Jones, Paul. Eumford, Count.

Aurelius, Marcus. Faraday, Michael. Knox, Henry. Silliman, Prof.

Bismarck, Prince. Fitch, Poor John. La Fayette. Shakespeare, What Is

Bolivar. Frobisher, Sir Martin, Law, John. Known of.

Bryant, Wm. Cnllen. Franklin, Benjamin. Lawrence, James. Sidney, Algernon.

Byron, Early Life of Lord. Franklin, Sir John. Louis Philippe in the U. S. Sparks, Jared.

Burr, Aaron. Fulton, Robert. Madison's Married Life, Sutter, John A

Cabot, Sebastian. Galileo. Prest. Virgil, The Poet.

Cartier, Jacques. Garibaldi. Magalhaens, Fernando. Voltaire and Catharine ot

Catos, The Two. Goodyear, Charles. Mathew, Father. Russia.

Charles xn. Gustavus III. Milton, The Poet. Washington at Home.

Colburn, Zerah. Hahnemann, Doctor. Morse, Professor. Washington, Inauguration^

Copernicus, Nicholas. Hamilton, Alexander. Morton, Dr. W. T. G. of.

Confucius. Hargreaves, James. Mott, Dr. Valentine. Ward, Artemns.

Cook, Captain. Harvard, John. Newton, Sir Isaac. Watt, James,

Cooper, Fenimore. Howard, John. Palmerston, Lord. Webster, DanieL

Cooper, Peter. Horace, The Poet. Parry, Sir William. Whitney, Eli.

Cortez, Hernando. Howe, Ellas. Pascal, Blaise. Tale, Elihu.

PATTISON, MASK ITIllton.

PLUTARCH ...Plutarcli's LiTes^

Including the lives of the following persons:

/Emilins, Panloi. Cato the Younger. Gracchus, Tiberius. Philopoemen,

Agesilaus. Cicero. Gracchus, Cains. Pyrrhus.

Agis. Cimon. Lycurgus. Phocion.

Alcibiades. Cleomenes. Lysander. Pompey.

Alexander. Coriolanus, Cains Marctna. LucuUus. Romulus.

Antony. Crassns, Marcus. Marius, Caius. Sertorius,

Aratus. Demosthenes. Marcellns. Solon.

Aristides. Demetrius. Nicias. Sylla.

Artaxerxes. Dion. Numa. Theseus.

Brutus. Enmenes. Otho. Themistocleft

Caesar, Julius. Fabius Maximns. Publicola. Tlmoleon.

Camillus. Flaminius, Titus Qnintius. Pericles.

Cato the Censor. Qalba. Pelopidas.

RAYMOND, HENRY J Life and Public Serrices of Abrabam lilncoln.

REIN, WILLIAM I,lfe of martin Lntber.

RIDPATH, JOHN CLARK. Popular History of tbe United States.

ROLLIN, CHARLES Ancient History.

SMILES, SAMUEL. Brief Biographies.

Biographies of the following persons:

Arnold, Dr. Combe, Dr. Andrew. Hook, Theodore. Poe, Edgar Allan.

Audubon, John James. Disraeli, Benjamin. Hunt, Leigh Stephenson, Robert

Browning, Elizabeth B. Gladstone, Wm. Ewart. Lytton, Sir Edward Bulwer.

Carlyle, Thomas. Hawthorne, NathanieL Miller, Hugh.

SCHILLER, JOHANN C. P. VON History of tbe Tblrty Vears» 'War,

SHAIRP, PRINCIPAL , Burns.

SMITH, GODWIN Cowper.

STEPHEN, LESLIE Pope.

STODDARD, RICHARD HENRY I.lfe of Wasblngton Irrlme.

SYMONDS, J. A . Shelley.

TROLLOPE, ANTHONY Tbackeray.

TYNDALL, JOHN Count Rumford.

TYTLER, ALEXANDER P Universal History.

WARD, A. W €haucer.



HISTOKICAL LIGHTS.



l.ABiJfDONMENT, Inhuman. Moslems. The
rapine of the Carmathians [a fanatical Turkish
sect] was sanctified by their aversion to the
worship of Mecca ; they robbed a caravan of
pilgrims, and twenty thousand devout Moslems
were abandoned on the burning sands to a death
of hunger and thirst. — Gibbon's Rome, ch. 53.

2. ABANDONMENT, A mortifying. Bp. T.
HaZl. The infamous Timothy Hall, who had
distinguished himself among the clergy of Lon-
don by reading the declaration [issued by James
II. to supplant the Protestant faith], was re-
warded with the bishopric of Oxford. . . . Hall
came to his see ; but the canons of his cathedral
refused to attend his installation ; the university
refused to create him a doctor ; not a single one
of the academic youth applied to him for holy or-
ders ; no cap was touched to him ; and in his
palace he found himself alone. — Macaiilay's
History of England, ch. 9.

3. ABILITIES misapplied. Frederick II. and
Voltaire. [France sent Voltaire to negotiate a

difficult alliance. ] The negotiation was of an ex-
traordinary description. Nothing can be conceiv-
•ed more whimsical than the conferences which
took place between the first literary man and the
first practical man of the age, whom a strange
weakness had induced to exchange their parts.
The great poet would talk of nothing but treaties
and guaranties, and the gi-eat king of nothing
but metaphors and rhymes. On one occasion
Voltaire put into his Majesty's hand a paper on
the state of Europe, and received it back with
verses scrawled on the margin. In secret they
both laughed at each other. Voltaire did not
«pare the king's poems ; and the king has left
on record his opinion of Voltaire's diplomacy. —
Macaulay's Frederick the Great, p. 39.

4. ABILITIES, Numerous. Boman Emp. Jus-
tinian. The emperor professed himself a musi-
cian and architect, a poet and philosopher, a
lawyer and theologian ; and if he failed in the
enterprise of reconciling the Christian sects, the
review of the Roman jurisprudence is a noble
monument of his spirit and industry. — Gibbon's
Rome, ch. 43.

5. ABILITIES overrated. Pompey. Unfortu-
nately he had acquired a position by his nega-
tive virtues which was above his natural level,
and misled him into overrating his capabilities.
So long as he stood by Caesar he had maintained
liifi honor and his authority. He allowed men ;



more cunning than himself to play upon his
vanity, and Pompey fell — fell amid the ruins of
a Constitution which had been undermined by
the villainies of its representatives. His end
was piteous, but scarcely tragic, for the cause
to which he was sacrificed was too slightly re-
moved from being ignominious. He was no
Phoebus Apollo sinking into the ocean, sur-
rounded with glory. He was not even a brill-
iant meteor. He was a weak, good man, whom
accident had thrust into a place to which he
was unequal ; and ignorant of himself, and
unwilling to part with his imaginary great-
ness, he was flung down with careless cruelty by
the forces which were dividing the world.—
Froude's C^sar, ch. 28.

6. ABILITIES shown. In Youth. When Phi-
lonicus, the Thessalian, offered the horse named
Bucephalus in sale to Philip, at the price of
thirteen talents, the king, with the prince and
many others, went into the field to see some
trial made of him. The horse appeared ex-
tremely vicious and unmanageable, and was so
far from suffering himself to be mounted, that
he would not bear to be spoken to, but turned
fiercely upon all the grooms. Philip was dis-
pleased, and bade them take him away. But
Alexander, who had observed him well, said,
"What a horse are they losing, for want of
skill and spirit to manage him !" Philip at first
took no notice of this ; but, upon the prince's
often repeating the same expression, and show-
ing great uneasiness, he said, "Young man, you
find fault with your elders, as if you knew more
than they, or could manage the horse better."
" And I certainly could," answered the prince.
" If you should not be able to ride him, what
forfeiture will you submit to for your rash-
ness ?" "I will pay the price of the horse."
Upon this all the company laughed, but the
king and prince agreeing as to the forfeiture,
Alexander ran to the horse, and, laying hold on
the bridle, turned him to the sun ; for he had
observed, it seems, that the shadow which fell
before the horse, and continually moved as he
moved, greatly disturbed him. While his fierce-
ness and fury lasted, he kept speaking to him
softly and stroking him ; after which he gently
let fall his mantle, leaped lightly upon his back,
and got his seat very safe. Then, without pull-
ing the reins too hard, or using either whip or
spur, he set him a going. As soon as he per-
ceived his uneasiness abated, and that he wanted



LABILITIES— ABSTINENCE.



only to run, he put him in a full gallop, and
pushed <l?iiii ou both with the voice siiid spur.
Philip and all his court were In great distress
for him at first, and a profound silence took
place. But when the prince had turned him
and brought him straight back, they all received
him with loud acclamations, except his father,
who wept for joy, and, kissing him, said, " Seek
another kingdom, my son, that may be worthy
of thy abilities ; for Macedonia is too small for
thee." — Plutarch.

7, ABILITIES, Useless. John Dryden. Reign
of James II. The help of Dryden was welcome
to those Roman Catholic divines who were pain-
fully sustaining a conflict against all that was
most illustrious in the Established Church. . . .
The first service which he was required to
perform, in return for his pension, Avas to de-
fend his [Catholic] Church in prose against Stil-
lingfleet. But the art of saying things well is
useless to a man who has nothing to say ; and
this was Dryden's case. He soon found him-
self unequally paired with an antagonist whose
whole life had been one long training for
controversy. The veteran gladiator disarmed the
novice, inflicted a few contemptuous scratches,
and turned away to encounter more formidable
combatants. — Macaulay's Eng., ch. 7.

§. ABNEGATION of Self. Ma/rtin LutJier.
A.D. 1518. [He journeyed on foot to meet the pa-
pal ambassador at Augsburg.] " My thoughts,"
said he afterward, " on the journey were these :
Now I must die ; and often did I remark. What
a reproach will I be to my parents !" When in
the neighborhood of Augsburg Luther was over-
come by bodily weariness. Faint-hearted friends
had often warned him on the way not to enter
Augsburg. But in reply to them he said, " In
Augsburg, even in the midst of mine enemies,
Jesus Christ also reigns. May Christ live, even
if Martin should die." — Rein's Life of Lu-
ther, ch. 5.

9, ABSENCE condemned. King George II.
A.D. 1736. People of all ranks were indignant
at the king's long stay in Germany [during all
the summer and autumn]. On the gate of St.
James' palace this notice was stuck up : " Lost or
strayed out of this house a man who has left a wife
and six children on the parish. Whoever will
give any tidings of him to the church-wardens
of St. James' parish, so as he may be got again,
shall receive four shillings ana sixpence re-
ward. — N.B. This reward will not be increased,
nobody judging him to deserve a crown." —
Knight's Eng. , ch. 6.

10. ABSENCE, Reasonable. Trial of Charles
II. The judges assembled in the vast Gothic
hall of Westminster, the palace of the Commons.
At the first calling over of the list of members
designed to compose the tribunal [to try the
king] , when the name of Fairfax was pronounced
without response, a voice from the crowd of
spectators cried out, " He has too much sense to
be here. " When the act of accusation against the
king was read, in the name of the people of Eng-
land, the same voice again replied, "Not one
tenth of them !" The oflicer commanding the
guard ordered the soldiers to fire upon the gal-
lery from whence these rebellious words proceed-
ed, when it was discovered that they had been



uttered by Lady Fairfax, the wife of the lord-
general. — Lamartine's Cromwell, p. 42.

11. ABSOLUTION in Advance. Elevation of
Julius II. We understand from Burcard, that,
it was at this time an established custom for
every new pope, immediately after his election,
and as the first act of his apostolical function, to
give a full absolution to all the cardinals of all
the crimes they might thereafter commit of what-
ever nature and degree. — Tytler's Hist. , vol.
2, ch. 14.

12. ABSOLUTION, Costly. Palmlogus (Mi-
chael), the usurper of Constantinople, was ex-
communicated from the Greek Church because
of cruelty. [See No. 1335.] The Christian who-
had been separated from God and the Church
became an object of horror ; and in a turbulent
and fanatical capital, that horror might arm the
hand of an assassin or inflame a sedition of the
people. Palseologus felt his danger, confessed
his guilt, and deprecated his judge ; the act was
irretrievable ; the prize [a kingdom] was obtain-
ed ; and the most rigorous penance which he
solicited would have raised the sinner to the-
reputation of a saint. The unrelenting patriarch
[Arsenius] refused to announce any means of
atonement or any hopes of mercy ; and conde-
scended only to pronounce, that for so great a
crime, great indeed must be the satisfaction.
" Do you require," said Michael, " that I should.
abdicate the empire ?" and at these words he of-
fered or seemed to offer the sword of state. Ar-
senius [the patriarch] eagerly grasped this pledge
of sovereignty ; but when he perceived that the
emperor was unwilling to purchase absolution at
so dear a rate, he indignantly escaped to his
cell, and left the royal sinner kneeling and
weeping at the door. The danger and scandal
of this excommunication subsisted above three
years, till the popular clamor was assuaged by
time and repentance. . . . Arsenius . . . denied
with his last breath the pardon which was im-
plored. — Gibbon's Rome, ch. 62.

13. ABSOLUTION desired. Death of CharUs'
II. A.D. 1685. [The French ambassador] Baril-
lon hastened to the bed-chamber [of Charles II.],
took the duke [of York] aside, and delivered the
message of the mistress [of Charles — the Duch-
ess of Portsmouth, who entreated that a priest be
called, as the king was a Catholic at heart] . The
conscience of James [the Duke of York] smote
him. . . . Several schemes were discussed and
rejected. At last the duke commanded the
crowd to stand aloof, went to the bed and
stooped down, and whispered something which
none of the spectators could hear, but which
they supposed to be some question of State.
Charles answered in an audible voice, "Yes,
yes, with all my heart. " None of the bystanders,
except the French ambassador, guessed that the
king was declaring his wish to be admitted into
the bosom of the Church of Rome. "Shall I
bring a priest ?" said the duke. "Do, brother,"
said the sick man. "For God's sake do, and
lose no time. But no; you will get into trouble."
" If it costs me my life," said the duke, " I will
fetch a priest. " [The priest was secretly brought
and the king absolved.] — Macaulay's Hist, of
Eng., ch. 4.

14. ABSTINENCE, Certainty by. Dr. Sarrmel.
Johnson, a. d. 1778. Talking of drinking wine,.



ABSTINENCE— ABUSE.



he said : " I did not leave off wine because I
could not bear it. I have drunk three bottles
of port without being the worse for it. Univer-
sity College has witnessed this." Boswell :
" Why, then, sir, did you leave it off ?" John-
son : " Why, sir, because it is so much better for
a man to be sure that he is never to be intoxicat-
ed, never to lose the power over himself. I
shall not begin to drink wine till I grow old and
want it." BoswELL : "I think, sir, you once
said to me that not to drink wine was a great
deduction from life." Johnson : " It is a dim-



Online LibraryCharles Eugene LittleHistorical lights : a volume of six thousand quotations from standard histories and biographies → online text (page 1 of 249)