Charles Evans.

American bibliography : a chronological dictionary of all books, pamphlets and periodical publications printed in the United States of America from the genesis of printing in 1639 down to and including the year 1820 ;with bibliographical and biographical notes (Volume 3) online

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Online LibraryCharles EvansAmerican bibliography : a chronological dictionary of all books, pamphlets and periodical publications printed in the United States of America from the genesis of printing in 1639 down to and including the year 1820 ;with bibliographical and biographical notes (Volume 3) → online text (page 1 of 54)
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University of California Berkeley


1639 - l82O A. D.

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i 7 S.I- 1 764

Qui scit ubi sit scientia hal>enti est proximus
William Frederick Poole

















Cfyts Doliimc is Defctcatcb







Tu se' lo mio maestro e' 1 inio autore:
Tu se' solo colui, da cu' io tolsi
Lo bello stile, che m' ha fatto onore.
Dante Alighieri

. E


The period included within the third volume of the AMERICAN BIBLIOGRAPHV finds the
art of printing, after one hundred and twenty-five years from its introduction, in 1639, finally
established in all of the thirteen original States of the American Union ; and it may be of interest
to briefly summarize by whom the first presses were founded, and the times and places where the
introduction of printing occurred in the several American Colonies. In chronological order this
record is as follows : First, Massachusetts, at Cambridge, by Stephen Daye, in 1639. Second,
Pennsylvania, at Philadelphia, by William Bradford, in 1685. Third, New York, at New York
City, by William Bradford, in 1693. Fourth, Connecticut, at New London, by Thomas Short, in
1709. Fifth, Maryland, at Annapolis, by William Parks, in 1726, Sixth, Rhode Island, at
Newport, by James Franklin, in 1727. Seventh, Virginia, at Williamsburgh, by William Parks,
in 1730. Eighth, South Carolina, at Charleston, by Eleazer Phillips, junior, in 1732. Ninth,
North Carolina, at Newbern, by James Davis, in 1751. Tenth, New Jersey, at Woodbridge, by
James Parker, in 1755. Eleventh, New Hampshire, at Portsmouth, by Daniel Fowle, in 1756.
Twelfth, Delaware, at Wilmington, by James Adams, in 1761. Thirteenth, Georgia, at Savannah,
by James Johnston, in 1762. How closely connected in interests the communities in each
Province were may be inferred from the fact that during the century and a quarter the printing-
press had been established in only twenty-three centres, of which Pennsylvania had six; Con-
necticut three; Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and North Carolina, two each ; and the remaining
Provinces only the centre where printing was begun. How populous these communities were
may be estimated from the statement of Ezra Stiles, in his sermon on Christian union, in 1760,
that : " Four thousand British planters settled New-England, and in one hundred and twenty
years their posterity are increased to five hundred thousand souls."

The introduction of printing during the eighteenth century was usually begun, or
followed soon after, by the publication of a newspaper. Up to the close of the present volume
about sixty newspapers had been established and continued for varying periods of publication.
Of this number, four were established in Connecticut; one in Delaware; one in Georgia; two in
Maryland; eleven in Massachusetts; one in New Hampshire; thirteen in New York; three in
North Carolina; fifteen in Pennsylvania; three in Rhode Island; four in South Carolina; and one
in Virginia. Of all the Colonies, New Jersey alone was without a newspaper, and, it may be
added, without a common centre for one, for Woodbridge, where James Parker had established
his press, was chosen as his birthplace, and not for its availability as a centre for publication.
A phase of their publication, worthy of more extended notice, is the adaptability shown by the
mothers and wives in assuming the duties of editorship of these journals when death or disaster



overcame their husbands or sons. Such women as Cornelia Bradford at Philadelphia; Catherine
Zenger at New York; Margaret Draper at Boston; Anne Franklin, and Ann Barber at Newport;
Sarah Goddard at Providence ; Mistress Watson at Hartford ; Anne Catharine Green at Annapolis ;
and Elizabeth, and Anne Timothy at Charleston, illustrate the high type of Colonial womanhood
and the mutual interdependence of the family relations in pioneer times. While the trial of
John Peter Zenger in New York, in 1735, had established the principle of the freedom of the
press in that Colony, the experiences of the Reverend Dr. William Smith in Pennsylvania, in
1758; of Daniel Fowle in Massachusetts, in 1754; and John Wilkes in London, in 1763, shows
that the principle was not yet of universal application.

Up to this time the different governments in the Colonies may be said to have been
constituted and governed upon foundations which rested upon the teachings of religion, severe
but salutary, and the progress of the people was, on the whole, peaceful and progressive; but the
literary record shows a gradual weakening of this wholesome restraint, and a disposition to
substitute for the law of God, the law of man. The growing preponderance of the work of legis-
lative bodies shows that the representatives of the people had begun with that cheerful alacrity
which animates the makers of laws which are presumed to be binding on everyone, but the
makers, to manufacture that conflicting body of laws which is at once the pride and vexation,
the amusement and despair of a law-abiding, law-ridden people, inextricably bound with chains
of their own forging, and with no Lycurgus in sight to codify and release them from their
inconsistencies. The natural result of living under laws which sounded as well as the laws of
Moses followed in course. Wars followed naturally upon them. The people grew restive under
them ; and the native Indian was made to feel the full force of the civilizing influences which
powerful nations are always ready to bestow upon the weak. There is abundance of evidence in
this and the preceding volumes to show that up to the time of the death of George the second,
in 1760, the Colonies were one in thought and feeling with the Mother Country. Her triumphs
were hailed as the triumphs of her Colonies. Her griefs they regarded as their own. The
declaration of war with France, in 1756, found ready response in the Colonies, who gave as a
sacrifice thirty thousand of their men, and a half million pounds of treasure, to uphold the power
of England in America. The Old French War, while it sapped their resources, also developed
and showed them the powers latent in themselves. It shows a people thoroughly alive to the
dangers of French and Indian aggression, and to the need of union of the Colonies to oppose
them. During the struggle, the attitude of the ministry developed lots of the old Adam under
the clerical garb, and, as in the later Revolutionary War, the soldiers did not want for scriptural
authority, or personal example, to counsel, inspire, and encourage them to deeds of valor, as
well as to welcome them back with thanksgiving at the successful conclusion of the war. That
war, however, was hardly concluded before the first mutterings of the coming storm of revolution
followed the publication of the two Acts of Parliament, one, for continuing and making per-
petual an Act passed, in 1733, for "encouraging the trade of the Sugar Colonies in America,"
which imposed heavy duties on sugar and molasses imported into the Colonies ; the other, the
celebrated "Stamp Act," which went into force in the following year, 1765.

By Act of Parliament, in 1752, the old style of reckoning the year according to the Julian
Calendar, ceased with the close of the second day of September, the succeeding eleven days being
dropped, and the following day became the fourteenth of September, the month containing but
nineteen days. The American Almanacs generally adopted the Gregorian Calendar in conformity
with the Act. Perhaps it is well to state in this connection, that the general practice of this
work has been to consider the Almanac of each year printed in the year previous to the one for
which it is designed. For obvious reasons it is, and has been the custom in England for the


publisher to have his Almanac for the new year ready for the trade on the twenty-first of Novem-
ber, and so generally has this been the custom that that day is known as "Almanack-day." In
this country the practice has been more irregular, some issues appearing as early as October.

The literary record of the Colonies is, in the main, a record of the influences exerted by
the Colleges upon the spiritual and literary life of the people. The history of Harvard College
is coexistent with the history of printing, and presents an unbroken record of high literary
achievement from its beginning in 1636. In 1755, the first of the annual Dudleian lectures at
Harvard was delivered by President Holyoke. The Pietas et gratulatio, of 1761, is not only the
handsomest specimen of the printer's art produced in the American Colonies, but, in a higher
sense, it is an expression of the literary culture of the oldest educational institution in the Colo-
nies. In itself it represents one of the mile-stones of progress. Judged by present day standards
it is a remarkable volume, and our Universities may well ponder the question whether the scholar-
ship they produce can equal, in classical learning, that produced in the first College a century
and a half ago. The destruction of the College Library by fire, in January, 1764, was a public
calamity which bibliographers and students may well deplore for the loss of the printed records
of early American literature then destroyed. William and Mary College, next founded, in 1693,
appears for the first time, through its Charter and Statutes, in the literary record of the year 1758.
The literary current of Yale College has been strong and steady since its founders dedicated the
College to literature by their first act in its founding, in 1700. In the present volume, Rector
Thomas Clap, who, from his firm, unyielding qualities might well be styled the last of the Puri-
tans, by his Religious constitutions of Colleges, published in 1754, aroused a controversy in which
his conduct of the affairs of the College was strongly criticised, and as warmly defended. The
College of New Jersey, now popularly known as Princeton University, chartered in 1746, first
appears, with its earliest known Theses, and the Catalogue of the Library, in the record of the
year 1760. The College of Philadelphia, now the University of Pennsylvania, originally opened
as an Academy and Charitable School in January, 1751, received its Additional Charter in the
record of the year 1755. The College of New York, successively known as King's College, and
Columbia College, appears first in this record, through its Charter, in 1754, and its Additional
Glmrter, in the year 1755, although the denominational control of the new College had, pre-
viously, been the subject of a spirited controversy between adherents of the Church of England
on the one side, and of the Reformed Dutch Church, and Presbyterian Church on the other, in
which Francis Makemie's Narrative of his imprisonment for preaching one sermon, in 1707, was
reprinted at the expense of the Presbyterians as part of their controversy with the Episcopalians.
The Indian Charity School, founded at Lebanon, Connecticut, by the Reverend Eleazar Wheelock,
through whom it is considered the beginning of Dartmouth College, is represented, in the record
of the year 1763, by the first part of the Narrative of its founding. Rhode Island College, now
Brown University, appears for the first time in the record of the year 1764, with the Act of
establishment, prepared by the Reverend Dr. Ezra Stiles. In addition, the printed records show
that an Academy was instituted at Charleston, South Carolina, in 1750; which was followed by
the Philadelphia Academy, as noted above, in 1751 ; and by the Germantown Academy, in 1760.

Up to the close of the present volume, ten Libraries had issued Catalogues of their collec-
tions. In chronological order these were : Harvard College Library, in 1723 and 1725. Phila-
delphia Library Company, in 1733, 1735, 1741, 1746, 1757, and 1764. Yale College Library, in
1743 and 1755. Charleston Library Society, in 1750 and 1762. Philadelphia Union-Library-
Company, in 1754. New York Society Library, in 1758. Burlington Library Company, in 1758.
College of New Jersey Library, in 1760. Loganian Library, Philadelphia, in 1760, and Redwood
Library, Newport, in 1764.


New England, in this period, was visited by the two evils most dreaded by its inhabitants.
The earthquake of November, 1755, was the most serious ever known in that section, and while
owing to the sparsely settled country no great material damage was done, the printed records
show how generally the pulpit was inspired by its terrors to awaken the people to their spiritual
needs. The other was a serious outbreak of smallpox in Boston, in the winter of 1751-1752.
The medical history of New England has been largely a record of warning and instruction how
to avoid this scourge which had decimated the native Indians before the arrival of the first set-
tlers. So well known was the terror of the inhabitants of New England for this disease that, in
1777, the British Major Donkin made the vicious suggestion "such is their dread and fear of that
disorder," that the most compulsive measure to disband the American rebels would be to "dip
arrows in matter of small-pox, and twang" the inoculation into them. In March, 1760, the
Town of Boston was also desolated by a fire which in the short space of seven hours consumed
between three and four hundred houses. And this was followed, in January, 1764, by the
disaster of the burning of Harvard Hall and the College Library at Cambridge.

In 1754, a Bill debated in the Massachusetts General Court, for laying au excise on wine
and distilled spirituous liquors retailed and consumed within the Province, to raise money to
prosecute the French War by means of a Provincial Stamp Act, led to spirited denunciations of
the measure in a number of anonymous pamphlets which denounced the tax as a violation of the
British Constitution. One of these tracts, entitled The Monster of monsters, was especially offensive
to that legislative body, who condemned it to be burned by the hands of the common hangman,
and Daniel Fowle, who was charged with printing it, was arraigned and imprisoned for the
offence, which was really committed by his brother, Zechariah Fowle. His account of his trial
and imprisonment, entitled A Total eclipse of liberty, printed in the following year, forms another
and interesting chapter in the history of the liberty of the press in this country. His persecution
finally drove him and his press to New Hampshire, in 1756, where he became the first printer in
that Province. In the same year he began the publication of The New-Hampshire Gazette, now
the oldest newspaper continuously published in the United States; and, in 1761, printed a collec-
tion of the Acts and laws of tlie Province.

In Massachusetts, William Douglass' Summary was concluded by his death in 1752. And
in the same year Reverend John Barnard issued his New version of the Psalms. In 1753, Samuel
Hopkins issued his Historical memoirs relating to the Housatunnuk Indians; and the controversy
l>etween the Plymouth Company and the Proprietors of the Township of Brunswick regarding
title to lands on the Kennebeck River is a subject of public interest. In 1754 was published
Jonathan Edwards' Enquiry into freedom of the will. In 1758, Thomas Priuce edited a revised
and improved edition of The New-England Psalm-book, with an interesting historical preface.
In 1757, John Green and Joseph Russell began the publication of Tlie Boston Weekly Advertiser,
which was continued to the commencement of the Revolutionary War, and reprinted Governor
William Shirley's Memoirs of the principal transactions of the last war, from the London edition.
In 1760, they achieved the high-water mark of Colonial printing with the Pietas et gratulatio of
Harvard College. In the same year Benjamin Mecom printed James Otis' Rudiments of Latin
pi-osody. In 1763, Stephen Sewall issued his Hebrew grammar, designed to supersede, at Harvard
College, the Grammar of Judah Monis, which had been in use there for nearly thirty years. In
1764, Lieutenant-Governor Thomas Hutchiuson issued the first volume of his important History
of the Colony of Massachusets-Bay ; William Wood's New-England prospect was first reprinted,
and James Otis issued Tlie Rights of the British Colonies asserted and proved.

In Rhode Island, James Franklin printed at Newport, in 1755, Stephen Hopkins' True
representation of the plan formed at Albany for tmiting all the Northern Colonies, which, however,


failed to meet the approval of the Colonies at this time; and, in 1758, founded The Newport
Mercury, which has been continuously published up to the present time; bis successor, Samuel
Hall, printing the Catalogue of the Redwood Library, in 1764. In 1762, William Goddard estab-
lished the first press in the Providence Plantations, and in the same year founded The Providence

In Connecticut, at New London, Timothy Green, junior, founded, in 1758, The New-
London Summary, which was continued to his death in 1763. In that year Timothy Green, third
printer of that name, founded the New-London Gazette, which was continued for more than eighty
years. In 1754, James Parker established the first press' in New-Haven, and in the following-
year founded the Connecticut Gazette, with John Holt as editor and partner, and continued its
publication to the year 1764, when, after a short suspension, his successor as postmaster,
Benjamin Mecom, revived it until his removal to Philadelphia in 1767. In 1758, James Parker
and Company reprinted William Livingston's Review of the military operations in North-America,
in vindication of Governor William Shirley's conduct in the French War. In 1759, a spirited
controversy following the call and ordination of Reverend James Dana to the Church in Walling-
ford, issued from Parker's press at New-Haven. In 1764, Thomas Green established the first
press in Hartford, and in the same year founded The Connecticut Courant, which has l>een
continuously published to the present time.

In New York, in 1752, Henry L)e Foreest printed Roger Sherman's Caveat against injustice,
of which only a single copy is known; and James Parker printed the Laws of Neio-York, digested
by William Livingston and William Smith junior, the second volume of which was printed by
William Weymau, in 1762; and began to print The Independent reflector, edited by William
Livingston, which was continued into the following year. In the same year, Hugh Gaine estab-
lished his press, and founded The New-York Mercury, which he continued for thirty-one years;
printing also the first of the series of Hutchins Almanacs, which have been continued annually
until the present century. In 1759, William Weyman, who had previously been associated with
James Parker, founded The New-York Gazette, which he continued to the end of the year 1767.
In 1761, Weyman printed the Evening service of Roshashanah and Kippur, the ritual of the Span-
ish and Portuguese Jews, and the first Jewish service-book printed in what is now the United
States. In 1763, Benjamin Mecom began printing his short-lived New-York Pacquet. In the
same year, John Holt printed the Laws, statutes, ordinances and constitutions of the City of New-
York, in the mayoralty of John Cruger. And, in 1764, Hugh Gaine printed the Journal of the
votes and proceedings of the General Assembly from 1691 to 1743, edited by Abraham Lott, junior.

In New Jersey, the still unsettled controversy with the Proprietors of the Eastern Divi-
sion continued, Parker and Weyman printing for both sides of the controversy in New York,
until James Parker established his press at Woodbridge, in 1755, when his office printed for the
side of the settlers, and Weyman printed for the Proprietors. In 1760, Parker printed for the
College of New Jersey, the second edition of Robert Ross' Introduction to Latin, which he had
first printed in New York in 1752; and, in the same year, Catalogue of books in the library. Fol-
lowing these, in 1764, with An Account of the College of New- Jersey, which contained an engraving
of Nassau-Hall. Learning and Spicer's handsome edition of The Grants, concessions, and original
constitutions of the Province of New-Jersey was printed, in 1758, by William Bradford, in Phila-
delphia, and is the largest work printed by him, and the best printed book issued from his press.

In Pennsylvania, Benjamin Franklin and Johann Bohm reprinted, in 1751, Johann Arndt's
Des Hocherleuchteten Theologi, of nearly fourteen hundred pages, which was the largest book
printed in Philadelphia in the eighteenth century. In 1752, Franklin and Hall printed Samuel
Johnson's Elementa philosopJiica ; and, in 1755, Geographical ensays, by Lewis Evans, containing


A General Map of tlte Middle British Colonies, in America. The Poor Richard Almanack for 1758,
in which the sayings of Poor Richard were gathered, is the last of the series edited by Benjamin
Franklin, although it continued to be printed and published annually by the firm of Franklin
and Hall. In 1757, Christoph Saur reprinted, in two volumes, John Everard's Some Gospel
treasures, which in every way is superior to the three original editions printed in London in the
seventeenth century. In 1760, Peter Miller and Company printed the second volume of A Col-
lection of tJie laws of Pennsylvania, in continuation of John Kinsey's Collection, printed by
Benjamin Franklin in 1742; and the Catalogus Bibliothecce Loganiance. In 1761, William Brad-
ford printed the first edition of James Lyon's Urania, the largest music book of its kind up to
this time. During this period there is evident efforts in the Colonies to cultivate a more system-
atic use of psalmody, and the use of instrumental music in worship. In 1762, Peter Miller and
Company printed the important collection of The Cftarters and Acts of Assembly of the Province of
Pennsylvania, edited by Lewis Weiss and Charles Brockden ; and Henry Miller founded Der
Wdchentliche PhiladelphiscJie Staatsbote, which was continued by him to 1779. In 1763 appeared
the second edition of The Holy Bible, in German, printed by Christoph Saur, the younger, who
proudly states in his preface- "So then the Holy Writ, called the Bible, appears on the American
Continent for the second time in the German language to the renown of the German nation, no
other nation being able to claim that the Bible has been printed in their language in this division
of the globe." Saur also printed in this year Die Wandlende Seel, a German translation from the
Dutch of J. P. Schabalie, a Mennonite minister, in which the participants in great Biblical
events are made to tell their own stories. Noah's account of his narrow escape, of his botanical
and zoological collections, and of the good conduct of the imprisoned brutes is told in an enter-
taining and pleasant manner. This German translation has been frequently reprinted. And, in
1764, began the free publication of Bin Geistliches Magazien, with possibly one exception the
first distinctively religious magazine published in the American Colonies, which he continued
irregularly to 1770. In number 12, a poem by Alexander Mack is printed with the first German
types cast in America, which were made in Germantown. The closing year of this volume was
one of intense local excitements in Philadelphia, the principal one growing out of the still
unsettled Indian problem. There was a small settlement of semi-christianized Indians, numbering
about twenty, including women, children and old men, upon the Conestoga. They were said to

Online LibraryCharles EvansAmerican bibliography : a chronological dictionary of all books, pamphlets and periodical publications printed in the United States of America from the genesis of printing in 1639 down to and including the year 1820 ;with bibliographical and biographical notes (Volume 3) → online text (page 1 of 54)