Charles Fergus Binns.

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FRANKLIN INSTITUTE LIBRARY

PHILADELPHIA, PA.



6



. ^



THE MANUAL



PRACTICAL POTTING



THE MANUAL



OF



PRACTICAL POTTING



REVISED AXD EX LA RO ED
FOURTH ETtlTIOX



SPECIALLY COMPILED BY EXPERTS

AND KDITED BY

CHARLES F. BINNS



"/^LONDON

SCOTT, GEE E'N^W D ' & SON

"THE POTTERY GAZETTE" OFFICES
8 BROADWAY, LUDGATE HILL, E.C.



CANADA: THE COPP CI.AKK CO. LTD., TORONTO
UNITED STATES: D. VAN NOSTRAND CO., NEW YORK

1907
[All rights remain wilh Scott, Greenwood cC- Son']



THE GETTY CENTER
LIBRARY



PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION

The proprietors of the Pottery Gazette, in presenting
the Manual of Practical Potting to the trade, desire
to say that no pains have been spared to make the
work of unique value to those engaged in the
business, their sole aim being to render it so com-
plete in every particular that it might become to be
universally regarded as the chief text- book for
reference wherever the manufacture of ceramics is
followed.

The information contained in the manual cannot
fail to be of interest to every manufacturer desirous of
perfecting his productions to the highest excellence.
The various formulae now published for the first time
are the outcome of years of study and repeated ex-
periment on the part of several members of the trade,
whose individual experience has been of an ex-
ceptionally practical nature. The classification of
the information given into a chain of connection has
rendered them easy of instant comprehension by the
intelligent operator.

V



vi PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.

The progressive improvements in the manufacture
of china and earthenware which have taken place
during the last forty years have indisputably raised
the art to a pitch of excellence unequalled in the
whole of the world's history — a culmination of cir-
cumstances mainly attributable to untiring practical
and scientific research and experiment.



PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.

A SECOND edition of the Manual of Practical Potting
being demanded, the compilers have revised the whole
work with the view of bringing the information up
to date.

A number of new recipes have been acquired, and
are incorporated in the Ijody of the work, while some
ol)vious errors have been corrected.

In the recipes built up by the labours of the
bygone masters of the potter's art there seems to the
scientific mind much that is obsolete, but there is, at
the same time, something to be learned from them.
Old methods have been superseded, but the results
attained long ago are still pre-eminent in some direc-
tions. It is well, therefore, not to cast aside the work
of a former generation as unworthy of attention ;
perchance even the scientist can be taught, and the
best man is always he who is willing to learn.

it must not, however, be supposed that any great
number of the recipes here given are old ; very many
of them are in use at the present time in the best
English manufoctories, while some apply, as is neces-



viii PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.

sary for the completeness of the work, only to the
cheaper grades of ware. The clever potter will use
tliese mixtures as suggestions, and, taught by his
superior skill, will modify them to suit his own
purpose.



CONTENTS.



luiroiliictioii — The Rise and Progress of the Potter's An

ChAI'TKH I. — BODIKS.

China and Porcelain JJ(jdies .
Parian Bodies .....
Semi-Porcelain and Vitreous Bodies
Mortar Bodies ....

Earthenware, Granite, and (J. (J. Bodies
Miscellaneous Bodies
Sagger and Crucilde Clays
Coloured Bodies ....
Jasper Bodies .....
Coloured Bodies for Mosaic Painting
Encaustic Tile Bodies
Body Stains .....
Coloured Dips ....

Chapter II. — Glaz

China Glazes .
Ironstone Glazes
Earthenware "Glazes
(ilazes without Lead
Miscellaneous (41azes
Coloured Glazes
Majolica Colours

CHArXER III.— (iiOLD AXD Goi.D COLOUUS.

Gold

Purple of Cassius .

Marone and Ruby .

Enamel Colour Bases

Enamel Colour Flu.xes

Enamel Colours

Mixed Enamel Colours

Anticjue and Vellum Enamel Colours

Under-Glaze (."olours



7
15
18

as

24
29
30
32
36
44
4.")
46
47



55
64
66
83

84
85
iJl



93
97

98

99
107
112
119
121
125



CONTENTS.



PAGE

Under-Gla/.e Colour Fluxes 125

Mixed Under-Glaze Colours 141

Flow Powders 144

Oils and Varnislie- 145

Chapter IV. — Meaxs and Method.s.

Reclamation of "Waste Gold 146

The Use of Cobalt • .... 147

Notes on Enamel Colours 148

Li(|uid or Bright Gold 150

Chapter V. — Classification and Analv.sis.

Classification of Clay Ware 152

Lord Playfair's Analysis of Clays 153

The Markets of the World 154

Time and Scale of Firing . 156

Standard Weights of Potters' ^laterials 157

Decorated Goods Count . . . . _ 158

Chapter VI.

(Comparative loss of Weight of Clays 159

Chapter VII.

Slop Ground Felspar Calculations 163

Chapter VIII.

The Conversion of Slop 13ody Recipes into Dry Weight . . . 168

Chapter IX.

Tiie Cost of Prepared Earthenware Clay ..... 174

(Jhapter X.— Forms and Tables.

Articles of Ai)prenticeship 186

Manufacturer's Guide to Stocktaking 188

Table of Relative Values of Potters' Materials .... 190

Hourly Wages Table 191

Workmen's Settling Tal)le 192

('om2")arative (xuide for Earthenware and China Manufacturers in

the Use of Slop Flint and Slop Stone 193

Foreign Tcn-ms apjilied to Earthenware and China Goods . . 194
Table for the Conversion of ^letrical Weights and Measures on the

Continent and Soutli Ainei'ica . ...... 195

Index 199



THE RISE AND PROGRESS OF THE
POTTER'S ART IN ENGLAND.



The art of liusl)aiulmau ranks as the only competitor in
antiquity witli tlie potter's craft in the history of the world's
industries, data uni»|ue and iuduljitaljle Ijeing abundantly
manifest to prove the correctness of this assertion.

The earliest exponents of the potter's art have rendered
most remarkable aid in elucidatiiig abstruse theories con-
cerning the literature and manners and customs of nations,
the record of which would have been otherwise entirely lost.
From this cause alone the practice of the potter's art excites
a deep and peculiar interest, irrespective of any other con-
sideration to which its operations may tend.

Xo liranch of manufacture presents so intimate and
ancient an alliance between art and utility as that of the
potter, whose earliest productions take their rise from a date
wliich in tlie Eastern Hemisphere is lost in the darkness of
remote antiquity. The ceramic art, both in its theory and
practice, unites a combination of qualities unknown in any
otlier expression of human skill. Xo other industry pre-
sents so many divers considerations, all of them of the
utmost interest, and each one rich in economic and scientific
ajjplication.

Finding its materials at or near the surface of the earth,
pottery displays Uianufactures the most simple and yet the
most varied — tlio easiest to fabricate, and, tliough fragile, of
1



2 RISE AND PROGRESS OF THE POTTER'S ART.

incomparable durability. The products of these substances
are absolutely endless in their variety, while in their most
successful exponents their beauty may be pronounced as
matchless.

Every species of form, from the classical severity of the
early Greek period to tlie florid luxuriance of the wares of
Saxony, France, and, one may now fairly add, England, here
finds a fitting and worthy medium.

A material which science teaches to present the most
lustrous surface, which is solid, imperishable, and admirably
qualified for the application of varied and brilliant colouring,
offers such inducements to the painter that even the pencil
of the glorious Eaffaelle himself was occasionally employed
in its decorati(3n.

Without doubt the potter's art had its rise in the land
of Egypt, from whence it travelled to Greece ; and to the
refined taste of that country the ceramic industry is indebted
for its most beautiful shapes. The Eomans did nuich to
diffuse the making of pottery in the countries conquered
by them, in this country especially. Ever since the Eoman
invasion potteries have had an existence in different parts of
England, particularly in Staftbrdshire, as is evidenced by the
quantity of pottery fragments that have been upturned in
the course of ages.

The term " pottery " is derived from the Latin jJoterium, the
name given by the Komans to drinking vessels ; but this does
not convey any signification denoting either form or substance.
The word " ceramic," the generic title by which works
in this department of art manufacture are now known, is
derived from the Greek. It primarily signifies the " horn
of an animal." It has obtained its generally recognised
signification from the early use of horns for drinking pur-
poses, whi(;h in their turn gave place to articles made from
plastic materials.



RISE AND PROGRESS OF THE POTTER'S ART. ?>

For luany years tlic manufacture of pottery was of the
most primitive type; l)ut it gradually came to be regarded
as the vehicle for artistic taste, and, in the mediieval ago,
attracted the attention of famous artists on the Continent,
as is evidenced l)y the lovely works, still extant, associated
with the honoured names of I'alissy and Luca della Eobbia,
which for all time will Ije regarded as masterpieces.

Although the potter's art flourished in China prior to the
Christian era, in this country very little was known of it
until the reign of Elizabeth, who endeavoured to found
potteries, with but indifferent success ; indeed, little of im-
portance was acomplished until the close of the sixteenth
century. The first articles of which w^e find mention made
were butter-pots and " tygs," the latter a peculiar species of
handled drinking vessel. Ornamental dishes appear to have
been made at Burslem, " the mother of the potteries," as
early as 1650, the glazing of which was effected by means
of lead. Thirty years Liter the purest accident led to the
substitution of salt for lead in this particular, the first use
of which was made by a potter named Palmer. The w^are
when salt glazed was known as " cranch ware," and the
manufacture proved a source of considerable employment.

The first attempts that were made to imitate the work
of the Eastern potters w\as a decided failure ; but in 1690
two brothers, named Elers, discovered a bed of fine compact
clay at Bradwell Wood, near Burslem, which enabled them
to produce with exact success a fictitious Japanese ware.

The use of calcined and ground flint as an ingredient of
pottery is attributed to the younger Astbury in 1720, and
led to great and higldy inijiortant improvements in the wares
in Staffordshire. The new material was used in combination
with pipe-clay and sand, coloured with oxide of copper and
manganese.

A year later another innovation was introduced by IJalph



4 EISE AND PROGRESS OF THE POTTER'S ART.

Daniel, of Cobridge, from France, in the shape of moulds
of plaster of Paris, wliich s|)eedily l^ecame adopted l>y the
English potters.

The forms and patterns of the wares produced at this
period were generally ol)tained from the silver ])late of the
time ; the colours of the bodies were known as drab or cream-
coloured and white. Painted ware of a crude type also came
into general use a few years later ; l)ut it was not until the
middle of the century that printed ware was introduced.

Such was the condition of English pottery manufac-
ture in the district specially identified with the art when
another Pallissy arose in England in the person of the great
Wedgwood, who was born in the year 1730. At an early
age he worked as a thrower at the potter's wheel in his
elder brother's manufactory ; but the state of his health
compelled him to relinquish this occupation, and he after-
wards followed the natural inclination of a mind richly
endowed both with ingenuity and enterprise. In the year
1759 he succeeded in making a rich cream-coloured ware,
by which he quickly attained a high degree of celebrity, so
much so that he at once became the royal potter. At the
same time Wedgwood sold his w^are at a price which brought
it within the means of general consumption both at home
and abroad. How Josiah Wedgwood enhanced the reputa-
tion of the Staffordshire Potteries is a matter of common
knowledge. Suffice it to say, that since his day the art in
the district has shown no retrograde movement ; on the
contrary, it has gone on increasing year by year in excel-
lence, till at the present time it towers above any of its
foreign competitors.

Contemporaneously with Wedgwood, the china works at
Bow and Clielsea came into prominence, followed by those
of Plymouth, Derby, and Bristol. It was at Plymouth that
tlie first true porcelain of liard paste was made l)y tlie



TIISE AND PROGRESS OF THE TOTTER'S ART. 5

learned Dr. Cookwortliy, although it had previously been
produced by Botteher at Meissen in Saxony, whose success
was so great that he induced the Elector of that country
to establish a royal manufactory of porcelain near Dresden,
which is in existence at the present day, as is also another
manufactory first established through royal influence at
Sevres in France.

The Royal Porcelain Works at Worcester were estab-
lished by Dr. Wall in 1751. Five years later the important
process of transfer printing w^as discovered and adopted at
Worcester, frdui which place it travelled to Coalport in
Shropshire, and thence to the Potteries of Staffordshire.

Besides the names before mentioned as important factors
in the dissemination of the ceramic art in this country,
Messrs. Minton, Spode and Copeland, Eidgway, Davenport,
and many others, have done yeoman ser\'ice in furthering
tlie industry, which has now grown to enormous propor-
tions.

In the year 1700 the whole of the Pottery district only
contained fifty ovens, the small holding capacity of which
permitted only a very restricted output. Again, in the
year of the Great Exhibition, 1851, which did so much to
encourage the potter's art, the number of fictile establish-
ments in Staffordshire only numbered one hundred and
thirty-three ; while at the present time this has increased to
the phenomenal numljer of three hundred and forty in the
Potteries alone, while there is a large nvmiber of pottery
manufactories scattered over different parts of England,
Scotland, and Wales. The sum total of the exports of china
and earthenware from this country alone amounted to con-
siderably over two millions in 1892, to say nothing of the
enormous increase of home consumption. From this it will
be apparent to what considerable proportions the industry
has i^rown durincf the last fortv vears.



6 RISE AND PROGRESS OF THE POTTER'S ART.

The introduction of mechanical aid in place of manual
labour will, to a o'reat extent account for the increment of
production, together with more methodical means for effective
manufacture necessitated by the enlarged demand.

The institution of Government Schools of Art throughout
the country, and tlie liolding of Exhibitions, have done much
both to encourage the necessary artists and designers, and to
bring the taste of the public up to the high standard it now
occupies ; and it is obvious that the ceramic art as it has
itself progressed in excellence has had a Ijenign influence not
only on tlie English race, but all over the world.

Tlie potter's art has still a great future before it, not
only in producing things of increased beauty and utility,
but in finding employment for the teeming masses of the
population of the districts specially identified with its
manufacture.




'M^.






^^



^'>






CHAPTER I.



BODIES.

CHINA AND PORCELAIN BODIES.

In selecting a china body regard must l)e had botl) to the
class of work intended to be produced and to the decree of
fire available. Generally speaking, the more bone there is
in a mixture the greater will be the heat necessary ; but, on
tlie other hand, a body that will stand a severe tire is of
better appearance and finer (juality than a less refractory
one. Some of the following recipes are in use by leading
manufacturers, and amongst them will be found bodies of
almost every conceivable variety : —

I LONGPORT CHINA BODY.

225 lbs. Calcined Bone
150 „ China Clay



82
15



China Stone
Flint



Glaze No. 1.



472



ALCOCK'S CHINA BODY.

70 lbs. Calcined Bone . . . '\

50 „ China Stone . . . ;- Glaze Xo.

40 „ China Clay



160



CHINA AND PORCELAIN BODIES.



ALCOCK'S CHINA FIGURE BODY.

86 lbs. Calcined Bone . . . \

62 „ China Stone . . . , Glaze No. 3.

50 „ China Clay



:j



198



CHINA CASTING BODY.

42 lbs. Calcined Bono
24 ,, China Stone
1 8 „ China Clay
6 „ Fhnt ....



Glaze No. 3.



90

CHINA BODY.

200 ll)S. Gronnd Bono .
130 „ China Stone
150 „ China Clay
10 „ Fhnt



CJlazc No. 4.



400



6 CHINA BODY.

440 11 )s. Calcined Bone . ' .
260 „ China Stone
260 „ China Clay
25 „ Flint



C}]azo No. 4.



985



7 CHINA BODY.

350 lbs. Calcined Bone .
275 „ China Stone
250 „ Cliina Clay



;j



Glaze No. 5.



875



CHINA AND PORCELAIN BODIES.



140 ll).s.

100 „
80 „
10 „



DESSERT CHINA BODY

Calcined lione
China Clay
Swedish Felspar .

Flint



Glaze Xo. 5.



O O A



140 li.s
90 „
80 „
7 „



DESSERT CHINA BODY.

( alcincd Bone

Cluna Stone

China Clay

Blue Clay, finely .sifted



Glaze No. 5.



10



II



12



317


CHINA BODY (i8io)






40 11 js.


Calcined Bono






36 „
25 „


Cliina Clay
China Stone


Glaze No.





9


Flint






103

[


CHINA BODY.






400 ll)s


Calcined Bone
China Stone
China Clay






200 „


- Glaze Xo.





300 „






900




2


CHINA BODY.






300 lbs


Calcined Bont;






150 „
90 „


China Clay
China Stone


( ;iaze Xo.


9


20 „


Flint







560



10
13



CHINA AND rOECELAIN BODIES.



CHINA BODY.

230 lbs. Calcined Bone
120 „ China Clay
100 „ China Stone



. [ Cls



aze No. 10.



14



15



785
i6

120 lbs.
80 „
Add

80 „
40 ,.



SPODE'S BODY.

Bonel

-,,,. , oTound too-ether .

1 ImtJ "= °



China Stone
China Clay



450

^


CHINA BODY.




450 lbs.


Calcined Bone .




230 „
220 „


China Stone
China Clay


- Glaze No. 13.


30 „.


Flint




930
5


CHINA BODY.




370 lbs


Calcined Bone .




250 „
130 „


China Clay
China Stone


Glaze No. 14


35 „


Flint





Glaze No. 15.



17



320

856 lbs.
TOO „
3G0 „



CHINA BODY.



Bone

Stone
China Clay



I'JIG



CHINA AND POKCELAIN BODIES.



11



i8 FENTON CHINA BODY.

290 11)8. ]].)no . . . . I

171 ,, Stone . . |

150 „ Chiua Clay
20 „ Flint .... I



631



19



CHINA BODY.



GOG lbs. liollG

528 „ Stone
39G „ China Clay
GO „ Flint



1G80



20 NANTGARW CHINA BODY (Soft Paste).

175 lbs. Lynn Sand



J.0



Pearl Ash



J



Fritted.



325 lbs. Bone
200 „ Fritt
100 „ Chiua Clay



■]



G25



21 FRITT CHINA BODY.

25 lbs. Lynn Sand



2 „ Pearl Ash .

12Ubs. Fritt
60 „ Bone
50 „ Stone
50 „ China Clay
7i „ Ball Clay.



J



Fritted.



180



12


CHINA A"


22


c


50 lbs.


Bone


40 „


Stone


24 „


China Clay



CHINA BODY.



:f



114



23



CHINA BODY.



50 lbs.


Bone


35 „


Stone


20 „


China Clay



:/



105



24



CHINA BODY.



34 lbs.


Bone




36 „


Stone




32 „


Cliina


Clay



102



25



CHINA BODY.



365


lbs.


Bone






343


))


Stone






216


»


China


CL


'J



:j



924



26



3 GO lbs.
230 „

50 „

20

20 „



LAKIN'S CHINA BODY.

(Jliina Clay
China Stone
Fh'iit
Blue Clav .



680



27



CHINA AND PORCELAIN BODIES.
CHINA BODY.



13



28



80 lbs


Bone




35 „


Cliiiia Clciy




15 „


Blue Clay ...


- Glaze Xo. 8.


80 „


Stone ....




15 „


Flint,




225

;


CHINA BODY.




50 11. s


Bone




40 „


Stone ....




34 „


China Clay




2 „


Flint





126

29 CHINA BODY.

588 lbs. Bone
354 „ Stone
312 „ China Clay

1254

30 CHINA BODY.

856 lbs. Bone
254 „ Stone
432 „ Chma Clay
170 „ Blue Clav



Glaze No. 17.



1712
31 MASON'S CHINA BODY.

28 lbs. Bone
20 „ China Clay

16 „ Stone . . . .1

3 „ Flint . . . .J



67



14


CHINA A!


32


c


35


11 )s. Bone


17


„ China Ola}


20


„ Stone


O


„ Blue Clay



CHINA BODY.



/ .1
33 PORCELAINE FRANgAIS LIMOGES.

50 parts China Clay
40 „ Felspar ....
10 „ Flint ....
G „ Steatite ....



106



34



CHINA BODY.



50 11
35

8

3

4



>s. Bone



100



China Clay
Stone
Flint
Blue Clay



CHINA BODIES.



35


36


37


38


39


40


41


42


Bone .


200


144


24


80


40


240


640


50


Stone .


180


60


16


80


33


260


426


30


China Clay .


75


84


16


35


30


260


387


30


Blue Clay .


80




8


15










Flint .


30


24




15










565


312


64


225


103


760


1453


110





43


44


45


46


47

40


48


49


50


Bone .


40


40


20


42


46


37


31


Stone .


23


40


21


27


24


28


25


23


China Clav .


35


20


48


30


20


20


31


32


Blue Clay .






8




10


6


5


5


Flint .


2




100


1


6


100


2


6


100


100


100


100


100


100



PARIAN BODIES.



15



PARIAN BODIES.

raiiau is tlieoretically an imitation of niailtlc, and is
composed in the main ot" felspar and stone, to which are
added othm- inat(nials in order to simplify the mauufactnre
and liiiiii;'.

China Clay is used on account (jf its refractory nature,
and a little flint is sometimes employed, though an excess of
this will give an unpleasant heavy effect to the body. In the
employment of glass care must be taken to secure uniformity
of composition. English flint glass will be found to give the
best results.



PARIAN FRITT.




80 11 )s. Lynn Sand




35 „ Felspar ....


Calcine at


15 „ Stone ....


Biscuit heat


12 „ Pearl Ash





142



PARIAN BODY



50 lbs. Fritt, No. 1
130 „ Felspar
130 „ China Clay

20 „ Flint Glass



330



PARIAN BODY FOR STATUETTES.

50 11 )S. Fritt, Xo. 1 . . . .

85 „ Felspar . . . -

75 „ China Clay . . . '



210



16 PARIAN BODIES.

4 PARIAN BODY FOR SMALL ARTICLES.

200 lbs. China CLiy . . i

350 „ Felspar ....
25 „ Fliut ....





575




5




PARIAN BODY.




300


11)R. Felspar . . . . (




180


„ China Clay . . . J




480




6




PARIAN BODY.




200


lbs. Felspar . . . . "j
„ China Stone . . . ,-




100




150


„ Cliina Clay . . .J



450

7 PARIAN FOR LACES AND DRAPERY.

60 lbs. Felspar . . . . j

40 „ China Stone

55 „ Cliina Clay , . . j



155



PARIAN BODY



8 lbs. China Clay

G „ Stone

8 „ Felspar

3 „ Flint Glass

25



PARIAN BODIES.



PARIAN BODY.



12 lbs. China Clay
5 ,, Stone
G ,, Felspai'
3 „ Flint Class



17



26



10 PARIAN BODY.

30 lbs. China Clay

30 „ Stone . . . .

38 „ Felspar . . . .

98

11 PARIAN BODY.

40 lbs. Cliina Clay

40 „ Stone . . . .

80 „ Felspar . . . .



160



12



PARIAN BODY.



'24: lbs. Felspar
8 „ China Clay

32



PARIAN BODIES.



Cliina Clay
Stone
Fulsj)ar .
Flint Glass



13


14

G


15

8


8


16


6


8


4


8


2


4
32


2


2


22


20



18



SEMI-POECELAIN AND VITREOUS BODIES.



SEMI-PORCELAIN AND VITREOUS BODIES.

Ironstone, stoneware and vitreous are interchangeable
terms, and are applied to those bodies of which the fracture
is presumed to be granular rather than chalky. Many of
these are termed semi-porcelain Ijecause tliey are partially
translucent wlien well fired, and in fact it is to the fire that
they all owe their strength and quality. The large propor-
tion of Cornish stone used gives to the ware its vitreous
nature, while the flint prevents it becoming too flexible in
the oven. These bodies are subject to loss from over-fire,
which, owing to the large proportion of fluxing materials
present, will cause blisters to rise on the surface.

I LONGPORT SEMI-CHINA BODY.

Fritt 12 lbs. Flint . . . "|

2 „ Carbonate of Potash Calcine in



12 „ Eed Lead
1 11). Cobalt Blue



Biscuit Oven.



27

Mixture 7 IIjs. Fritt
100 „ Fhnt
500 „ China Clay
400 „ Stone .



Glaze No. 2.



1007


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