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Charles Field Mason.

A complete handbook for the sanitary troops of the U. S. army and navy and national guard and naval militia online

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5tfE UNIVERS/A

























8



A COMPLETE HANDBOOK



FOR THE



OF THE



U. S. ARMY AND NAVY

AND

NATIONAL GUARD AND NAVAL MILITIA

BY

CHARLES FIELD MASON

Colonel Medical Corps, U. S. Army

FOURTH EDITION, REVISED

Approved by the Surgeon-Generals of the Army and Navy



PROFUSELY ILLUSTRATED



NEW YORK

WILLIAM WOOD AND COMPANY

MDCCCCXVIII

3<?0? 07



COPYRIGHT, 1917,

BY
WILLIAM WOOD AND COMPANY



PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION



IN presenting the second edition of this handbook the author
desires to say that every page has been carefully examined, corrected,
and brought up to date. Many of the parts have been entirely
rewritten and numerous new and improved illustrations inserted.
The general size, plan, and scope of the work remain, however,
unchanged.

CHARLES FIELD MASON.

WASHINGTON, January 31, 1909.



PREFACE TO THE FOURTH EDITION



IN this edition it has been deemed advisable to omit the part
on drill regulations for sanitary troops, and to considerably expand
those on nursing, and those on pharmacy.

The appearance of a revision of Army Regulations and of the
Manual Medical Department since the last edition of this book
was brought out, has required a complete rewriting of those
parts, while all the chapters have been carefully revised, corrected
and brought up to date.

CHARLES FIELD MASON.

WASHINGTON, December i, 1916.



TABLE OF CONTENTS



PART I
SANITARY TROOPS IN POST AND FIELD

CHAPTER I PAGE

THE SANITARY TROOPS IN POST 3

Organization of the sanitary troops; instruction; promotion;
duties ; uniform ; rules for hospital administration.

CHAPTER II

THE SANITARY SOLDIER IN WAR 12

Administration zones. Objects of Medical Department Administra-
tion. Duties of the Medical Department. Personnel. Titles of Med-
ical officers. Insignia. Status of personnel. Organization in war.
The service of the interior. Mobilization camps. Concentration
camps. Camp hospitals. Hospital trains. Rest stations. Hospital
ships. The theater of operations. The zone of the advance. Camp
infirmaries. The ambulance company. The field hospital. The sta-
tion for slightly wounded. The line of communications. Base hos-
pital. Convalescent camp. Contagious disease hospital. Trains,
boats and ships. Sanitary squads. Rest stations. Base supply depot.
Advance supply depot. Evacuation hospital. Evacuation ambulance
company. Administration. Resume.

PART II
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

CHAPTER I

THE SKELETON AND JOINTS 37

Bone. Cartilage. Classification of bones. The vertebral column.
The pelvis. Joints. Lower extremity. Thorax. Upper extremity.
Skull. Teeth.

CHAPTER II

THE MUSCLES, CELLULAR TISSUE, AND THE SKIN 48

Muscles, voluntary and involuntary. Action of muscles; the sterno-
mastoid, biceps, diaphragm. The connective or cellular tissue; fat.
The skin and its appendages. Functions of the skin.

(v)



vl CONTENTS

CHAPTER III PAGE

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM AND SPECIAL SENSES 53

The cerebro-spinal system ; brain, spinal cord, and nerves. The sym-
pathetic system ; ganglia and nerves. The special senses ; touch, taste,
smell, hearing, and sight.

CHAPTER IV

THE DIGESTIVE APPARATUS 61

The alimentary principles and their uses ; albuminates, fats, starches
and sugars, minerals. The alimentary canal and digestion.

CHAPTER V

THE BLOOD AND THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM .- 69

The lymphatic system and its functions. The blood ; its composition
and uses. The heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins. The circulation
of the blood. The special arteries and their compression points. Spe-
cial veins.

CHAPTER VI

THE RESPIRATORY APPARATUS 81

The larynx and vocal cords. The trachea, bronchi, and air cells.
The lungs and pleura. Respiration. Air. Ventilation. Heat regu-
lation.

CHAPTER VII

THE EXCRETORY APPARATUS 85

The skin, lungs, and bowels. The urinary organs ; the kidneys,
ureters, bladder, urethra. The urine. The suprarenal glands.



PART III
FIRST AID

CHAPTER I
EMERGENCIES, CONTUSIONS AND WOUNDS

How to act in. emergencies ; removal of clothing. Contusions ;
shock and its treatment; treatment of contusions. Wounds, incised,
lacerated, contused, punctured, poisoned, gunshot. Wound infec-
tion; septicemia and pyemia. Treatment of wounds; first-aid
packets. Wounds of the skull, of the chest, of the abdomen, of the
bladder. Bites of insects, of tarantulas, scorpions, and centipedes ;
bites of snakes of rabid animals. Tetanus ; anthrax. Poisoned
arrows, etc.



CONTENTS vii

CHAPTER II PAGE

HEMORRHAGES , pg

Capillary bleeding; nose-bleeding, bleeding from a tooth socket.
Venous bleeding. Arterial bleeding, primary, intermediate, and sec-
ondary. Treatment of arterial bleeding; compression with the fing-
ers; with the tourniquet; the Spanish windlass. Bleeding from
special arteries; in the upper extremity, the lower extremity, the
neck, the tongue, the lips, the face, the scalp. Bleeding from the
lungs, the stomach, the bowels.

CHAPTER III
DISLOCATIONS AND SPRAINS 103

Dislocations, definition of; symptoms, diagnosis from fracture and
sprain; treatment. Special dislocations; shoulder, lower jaw, fingers,
knee-cap.

Sprains; definition; symptoms, treatment. Sprained ankle.

CHAPTER IV
FRACTURES . . . 108

Fractures, definition of ; compound, simple, comminuted, compli-
cated, impacted, green-stick; causes of; symptoms. Treatment; of
simple fractures; setting, splinting; of compound fractures. Healing
of fractures. Splints. Special fractures; of the skull, spinal column,
ribs, pelvis, nasal bones, lower jaw, clavicle, arm, forearm, meta-
carpals, fingers, thigh, knee-cap, leg, foot.

CHAPTER V

FOREIGN BODIES 119

In the eye. In the ear. In the nose ; maggots in the nose. In the
throat. In the air passages. In the stomach and intestines. In the
skin.

CHAPTER VI

THE EFFECTS OF HEAT AND THE EFFECTS OF COLD 122

Heat-stroke. Heat exhaustion. Burns and scalds ; burns from cor-
rosive acids and caustic alkalies. General freezing. Frost-bite.
Chilblain.

CHAPTER VII

INSENSIBILITY AND FITS 126

Fainting. Concussion and compression of the brain; apoplexy.
Lightning stroke. Electric shock. Acute alcoholism. Epilepsy.
Bright's disease of the kidneys. Opium poisoning.



viii CONTENTS

CHAPTER VIII PAGE

ASPHYXIA 130

Forms of asphyxia; causes, treatment. Artificial respiration;
Scbaefer's method, Marshall Hall's method. Drowning.

CHAPTER IX

POISONING 136

Caustic acids. Caustic alkalies. General management of cases of .
poisoning. Emetics, antidotes, combating the tendency to death.

Special poisons; phenol (carbolic acid), wood-alcohol, food-pois-
oning, ptomaine poisoning, "knock-out drops" (chloral), arsenic,
corrosive sublimate, nitrate of silver, phosphorus, strychnine.
Skin poisons ; poison-ivy, poison oak, poison sumach.



PART IV

NURSING

CHAPTER I

THE WARD 141

Wards in post hospitals ; arrangements, heating, and ventilation.
Field hospital wards. The wardmaster. Night nurse. Ward clean-
ing.

CHAPTER II
WARD MANAGEMENT 147

The new patient. Serving diets. Administering medicines. The
use of the hypodermic. Dying patients. Care of the dead. Autop-
sies.

CHAPTER III

BEDS AND BED-MAKING 152

The hospital bed ; its preparation ; changing bed linen. Changing
the bed. Changing the mattress. Beds for operative cases. Fracture
beds. The bed-rest. Air and water mattresses. Bed sores.

CHAPTER IV

BATHS AND BATHING 157

Purposes for which baths are given. Classification of baths.
Sponge baths. Sedative bath. Hot-water baths. Hot-air and steam
baths. Cold baths. The Brandt System. The cold sponge. Bed
tub-bath. Alcohol bath. Bakes. Electric light bath. The foot bath.
Sitz bath.



CONTENTS ix

CHAPTER V PAGE

ENEMATA, IRRIGATIONS, DOUCHES, CATHETERIZATION, ETC 163

Enemata, classification of. Laxative enema ; nutrient enema;
medicinal enema. Irrigation.

Urethral injections. Douches; spinal; nasal, eye, ear. Catheteriza-
tion. Irrigation of the bladder. Catheterization of the ureter.

CHAPTER VI

EXTERNAL APPLICATIONS 169

Hot-water bags, bottles, etc. Poultices. Stupes. Cold compresses.
The ice bag. Ice-water coil. Mustard plaster. Liniments. Dry
cups. Biers' cups. Blisters. The Paquelin cautery. Lunar caustic.
Blue stone. Nitric acid.

CHAPTER VII

TEMPERATURE, PULSE, AND RESPIRATION 175

Normal and subnormal temperature. Fever ; classifications of
fevers. The clinical thermometer. Charting temperature. The
pulse; varieties of. Respiration; varieties of. Pulse, respiration, and
temperature ratio.

CHAPTER VIII

SYMPTOMS AND CLINICAL RECORD 179

Symptoms; subjective, objective, feigned; the attitude and ex-
pression ; mental conditions ; the eyes ; the hearing ; the skin ; the
tongue, mouth, and teeth ; cough ; the appetite ; vomiting ; the stools ;
suppression, retention, and incontinence of urine; cough; hiccough;
pain; hallucinations and delirium; sleep. Clinical records; history,
treatment, charts.

CHAPTER IX
BANDAGING . 185

The triangular bandage and its application to various parts of the
body; the slings. The roller bandage; sizes; method of rolling;
rules for applying; the figure of eight; the spica; the knotted turn;
recurrent of the head; recurrent of a stump; application to various
parts of the body. Flannel and rubber bandages. Fixed bandages;
plaster-of-Paris bandages.

CHAPTER X

INFECTION AND DISINFECTION 200

Definition. Disinfectants; dry heat, flowing steam; boiling water,
corrosive sublimate, phenol, cresol, quick-lime, chlorinated lime,
formalin, sulphur. Prevention of spread of infectious diseases. Dis-
infection of sputum, feces, urine, vessels, infected clothing, bedding,
beds, rooms, tentage.



x CONTENTS

CHAPTER XI PAGE

INSTRUMENTS AND APPLIANCES 208

Description of the ordinary instruments and appliances. Special
appliances and apparatus of the medical department of the army;
compressed air apparatus ; electric batteries ; restraint apparatus ;
steam sterilizing apparatus; aspirating case, emergency case. Diag-
nosis tags. Field equipment; desk; food box; commode chest;
acetylene chest; regimental combat equipment; mess chest.

CHAPTER XII

THE OPERATING-ROOM AND SURGICAL NURSING 242

The bacteria of surgical infection. Toxemia, septicemia, and pyemia.
Preparation of the patient for operation ; after-care ; dressing.

Preparation in the operating-room. The sterilizer. Sterilization of
instruments, trays, dressings, sutures, and ligatures; metal and glass
syringes ; rubber goods, web catheters ; water. Normal saline solution.
Drains. Disinfection of the hands and field of operation. Care of
instruments, etc., after the operation. Operations in the field.

CHAPTER XIII

NURSING IN THE INFECTIOUS DISEASES. How INFECTIONS SPREAD. VAC-
CINES AND ANTITOXINS. TYPHOID VACCINATIONS 252

Typhoid fever. Dysentery. Cholera. Malaria. Yellow fever.
Cerebro-spinal meningitis. Gonorrhea. Chancroid. Syphilis. Pul-
monary tuberculosis. Pneumonia. Influenza. Follicular tonsillitis.
Diphtheria. The eruptive fevers. Mumps. Erysipelas. Wound
infections. Plague. Typhus.



PART V
MESS MANAGEMENT AND COOKING

CHAPTER I

MESS MANAGEMENT 259

The mess; sources of supply in post and field. The rations. The
diet

CHAPTER II

COOKING . . . 2 55

The kitchen. Effect of cooking on foods. Boiling, stewing, soup-
making, roasting, baking, broiling, frying. Bread-making.



CONTENTS xi

CHAPTER III PAGE

RECIPES 270

Liquid diets. Semisolid or light diets. The hospital stores. The
rations. Approximate measures.



PART VI
MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS AND PHARMACY

CHAPTER I

MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS 287

Drugs ; active principles ; classification. Administration of medi-
cines; dosage. Army and Navy supply tables.

CHAPTER II
PHARMACY 311

Definitions. Pharmaceutical operations. Official and non-official
preparations. Directions for making emulsions, pills, ointments,
powders, and suppositories. Weights and measures. Filling prescrip-
tions. Incompatibility.



PART VII
HYGIENE. POST AND CAMP SANITATION

CHAPTER I

WATER 337

Daily allowance. Surface and ground waters. Purification of
water; the Lyster sterilizing bag; the Darnall siphon-filter; other
processes. Waterborne diseases. Collection of samples.

CHAPTER II

AIR AND VENTILATION 343

Composition of air; impurities. Floor space and cubic air space.
Ventilation; natural and mechanical. Heating by stoves, furnace,
hot water, steam.

CHAPTER III

THE DISPOSAL OF WASTES 349

Disposal in posts ; by pits, pans, water carriage. House drainage.
Bacterial methods for purification of sewage. Disposal in the field;
with moving commands; construction of sinks; in fixed camps; gar-
bage; cremations. Sanitation of camps.



xii CONTENTS

CHAPTER IV PAGE

DISEASE PREVENTION 355

Typhoid, malarial, and yellow fevers, and their transmission by
insects. Diarrhea. Dysenteries. Eruptive fevers; vaccination and
vaccinia. Cholera.

CHAPTER V

SANITATION IN THE FIELD 364

Camp sites. Tents. Water supply. Care of the feet. Charing.
Lice.

CHAPTER VI

PERSONAL HYGIENE 367

Cleanliness. Dhobie itch. Teeth; hair. Clothing. Venereal dis-
ease. Alcoholism. Food and drink. Exposure to the sun. Chilling
at night.

PART VIII
RIDING, PACKING, AND DRIVING

CHAPTER I

RIDING 37 1

The equipment of the horse. Riding without and with the saddle.
Stable duty.

CHAPTER II

PACK SADDLE AND PACKING 389

The Medical Department pack outfit; to use.

CHAPTER III

DRIVING 393

The escort wagon. The army wagon. The ambulance. Harness.
Care of animals, wagons, and harness in the field.



PART IX
ARMY REGULATIONS

ARMY RECUATIONS 413

Medical Department. Hospital Corps. Garrison Service. Field
Service. General Hospitals. Service of Hospitals. Hospital Build-
ings. Sick Call. Medical Supplies. Artificial Limbs. Manual for
the Medical Department. Field Hospitals and Ambulance Compa-
nies. Hospital Corps Detachments. Analyses of Water. Reports,
Returns, and Records. Hospitals and Medical Attendance. Service
of Hospitals, general. General Hospitals. Supplies and Materials.
The Sanitary Service in War.



CONTENTS xiii

PART X

CLERICAL WORK PAGE

CLERICAL WORK 459

List of reports rendered daily, trimonthly, monthly, bimonthly,
quarterly, semiannually, annually, occasionally; on breaking up of
hospital; on being relieved of medical property. List of Records.

PART XI

MINOR SURGERY

CHAPTER I

ANESTHESIA, GENERAL AND LOCAL 467

General anesthesia; preparation for; ether; chloroform. Anes-
thesia in the tropics. Local anesthesia; ethyl chloride; cocaine;
eucaine; Schleich's method. Spinal anesthesia.

CHAPTER II

ASSISTING AT OPERATIONS. MINOR OPERATIONS 472

Preparation for operation. Handling instruments. Sponging.
Incised wounds ; suturing. Contused and lacerated wounds. Boils.
Carbuncles. Felons. Abscesses. Gum-boils. Ulcers. Piles.



CHAPTER III

MINOR OPERATIONS, CONTINUED 476

Subcutaneous saline infusions. Rectal continuous saline infusion.
Intra-venous infusions; salvarsan. Antitoxin injections. Acupunc-
ture. Aspiration. Lumbar puncture. Mercury injections for syphilis.
Taking blood specimens. Use of the stomach tube. Forced feeding.
Introduction of metallic catheters and sounds into the bladder.
Hernia and trusses. Toothache and tooth extraction. Electric bat-
teries.

CHAPTER IV

ADHESIVE PLASTER, STRAPS AND STRAPPING 485

To retain splints. Extension in fracture of the thigh. Strapping
for fracture of the ribs. Sayre's strapping for fractured clavicle.
Strapping a swollen testicle. To draw wound edges together.
Removal of adhesive plaster.



A COMPLETE HANDBOOK

FOR THE

SANITARY TROOPS

OF THE

U. S. ARMY AND NAVY

AND

NATIONAL GUARD AND NAVAL MILITIA




CHAPTER I

THE SANITARY TROOPS IN POST

THE Medical Department consists of one Surgeon General, chief
of said department, a Medical Corps, a Medical Reserve Corps tem-
porarily, a Dental Corps, a Veterinary Corps, an enlisted force
(Sanitary Troops), the Nurse Corps and contract surgeons.

The enlisted force of the Medical Department consists of the fol-
lowing personnel : Master hospital sergeants, hospital sergeants, ser-
geants (first-class), sergeants, corporals, cooks, horseshoers, sad-
dlers, farriers, mechanics, privates (first-class), and privates. Master
hospital sergeants are appointed by the Secretary of War, but no
person can be appointed master hospital sergeant until he shall have
passed a satisfactory examination under such regulations as the
Secretary of War may prescribe before a board of one or more
medical officers as to his qualifications for the position, including
knowledge of pharmacy, and demonstrated his fitness therefor by
service of not less than twelve months as hospital sergeant or ser-
geant, first class, Medical Department, or as sergeant, first class, in
the Hospital Corps; and no person may 'be designated for such
examination except by written authority of the Surgeon General.
Original enlistments for the Medical Department are made in the
grade of private, and reenlistments and promotions of enlisted men
therein, except as hereinbefore prescribed, and transfers thereto from
the enlisted force of the line or other staff departments and corps
of the Army are governed by such regulations as the Secretary of
War may prescribe. The total number of enlisted men in the Medical
Department should be approximately equal to, but not exceed,
except as hereinafter provided, the equivalent of five per centum

(3)



4 SANITARY TROOPS IN POST AND FIELD

*^ ' |

of the total enlisted strength of the Army authorized from time to
time by law but in time of actual or threatened hostilities, the Secre-
tary of \Yar is authorized to enlist or cause to be enlisted in the
Medical Department such additional number of men as the service
may require. The number of enlisted men in each of the several
grades designated below may not exceed, except as hereinafter pro-
vided, the following percentages of the total authorized enlisted
strength of the Medical Department, to wit : Master hospital ser-
geants, one-half of one per centum ; hospital sergeants, one-half of
one per centum ; sergeants, first class, seven per centum ; sergeants,
eleven per centum ; corporals, five per centum ; cooks, six per centum ;
privates, first class, forty-five per centum, and privates, nine per
centum. The number of horseshoers, saddlers, farriers, and me-
chanics may not exceed one to each authorized ambulance company
or like organization.

Enlisted men may be transferred from the line to the medical
department as privates. Married men are not accepted as recruits,
nor transferred from the line for service in the department. Can-
didates for enlistment should apply to a post medical officer or to a
recruiting officer. Applicants who have graduated in pharmacy,
or who have had training as nurses in civil hospitals, should present
certificates of their special qualifications. Slight physical defects
which, under existing orders, would disqualify for the line, do not
disqualify for enlistment in the department, provided they are not
of such a character as would interfere with the full performance
of the duties of a sanitary soldier in garrison or in the field. If a
candidate is accepted he is forwarded to a company or detachment
for instruction in; i. Discipline and the duties of a soldier; 2. Care
of animals and equitation; 3. Bearer drill and field work; 4. Anat-
omy and physiology; 5. First aid and personal and camp hygiene,
including the sterilization of water and disinfection; 6. Nursing;
7. Army Regulations ; 8. Cooking ; 9. Materia medica and pharmacy ;
10. Elementary hygiene; n. Clerical work. All privates are in-
structed in the first six subjects, and those who show special aptitude
take the complete course.

Instruction in the first three subjects is continuous throughout
the year; the other subjects are included in the regular winter course
of instruction covering a period of thirty-four weeks.

Field hospital and ambulance companies maintained in time of



THE SANITARY TROOPS IN POST 5

peace are also utilized so far as practicable in teaching recruits the
work of the sanitary field organizations. The course of study
taught recruits while with these organizations is supplemented by
practical instruction at posts and in the field after their assignment
to other commands.

The course for noncommissioned officers comprises the following
subjects: Sanitary administration, pharmacy, clerical work, minor
surgery, mess management and Army Regulations. Privates, first
class, and privates who are candidates for appointment as noncom-
missioned officers are required to take this course ; and in addition
the regular course prescribed for their grades, or any part of it, if
deemed necessary by the officer in charge of instruction.

Privates, first class, or privates who have shown special proficiency
may be recommended for promotion by the surgeon. To test their
capacity for performing the duties of a noncommissioned officer,
they may be first detailed as lance corporals. Before being appointed
sergeants they must pass an examination as to (i) Physical con-
dition; (2) character and habits, especially as to the use of stimu-
lants and narcotics; (3) discipline and control of men; (4) knowl-
edge of regulations; (5) nursing; (6) dispensary work ; (7) clerical
work; (8) principles of cooking, and mess management; (9) Hos-
pital Corps drill; (10) minor surgery and first aid, including extrac-
tion of teeth. The board will require the candidate to prepare a
full set of papers pertaining to the medical department, and to drill
a detachment sufficiently to demonstrate his thorough knowledge
of the drill regulations.

The written examination will embrace the following subjects :
(i) Arithmetic; (2) materia medica; (3) pharmacy; (4) care of
sick and ward management; (5) minor surgery and first aid; (6)
elementary hygiene. Ten questions will be asked in each subject.
Proficiency in penmanship and orthography will be estimated from
the papers submitted.

Sergeants who have served a year as such, or enlisted men of the
hospital corps who served as hospital stewards of volunteers or acted
in that capacity for more than six months during and since the
Spanish-American war, may be appointed sergeants, first class, upon
the recommendation of the Surgeon General, provided they have
successfully passed a more extensive and detailed examination in
the above subjects than is required for promotion to the grade of



6 SANITARY TROOPS IN POST AND FIELD

sergeant. A reexamination before his first reenlistment may not be
required if his commanding officer and the department surgeon con-
cur in the statement that the candidate has performed his duties
efficiently; but a reexamination is called for before a second re-
enlistment, after which no fuither examination is ordinarily
required.

Army Regulations provide, for at least one noncommissioned
officer and four privates at each permanent military post, with an
additional noncommissioned officer for every additional four
privates; six privates when the garrison is two hundred, and two
privates additional for every additional one hundred of strength.

The uniform for ordinary wear is the same as that of the line
except that the facings are of maroon-colored cloth and that the
caduceus is the emblem of the corps. Privates, first class, are dis-
tinguished from privates by wearing a caduceus upon the sleeves
of the blouse above the elbow. For duty in the wards, kitchen, dis-
pensary, and operating-room a uniform of white cotton duck is
worn.

The duties of the sanitary troops in time of peace are chiefly con-
cerned with the care of the sick, sanitation and preparation for war ;
that they are many, varied, and important may be gathered from the
scope of the scheme of instruction detailed in the following pages.

The peace hospitals of the army are of three classes, post hospitals,
department hospitals, and general hospitals; post and general hos-
pitals are distinguished from each other by the fact that the former
usually receive only the sick of the post to which they belong, while
the general hospitals receive the sick from widely separated com-
mands. Some of the general hospitals are of a special nature, such
as that of Fort Bayard for the treatment of tuberculosis, and the
general hospital at Hot Springs, Arkansas, for the treatment of cases
requiring a course of bathing.

Department hospitals correspond in all respects to general hos-
pitals except that they are under the control of the Department
Commander.



Online LibraryCharles Field MasonA complete handbook for the sanitary troops of the U. S. army and navy and national guard and naval militia → online text (page 1 of 38)