Copyright
Charles Field Mason.

A complete handbook for the sanitary troops of the U. S. army and navy and national guard and naval militia online

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juice and press the meat. Add a little salt and serve.

If the temperature of the water exceeds 160 Fahrenheit the beef juice
becomes brown and flaky. A half-pound of beef should give from three to
four tablespoorifuls of juice.

Beef Tea (Bottled)

Select and prepare the beef as for bottled beef juice, except that to each
half-pound of meat a cup of cold water should be added, pouring the water
over the beef after it has been put in the jar. The liquid thus obtained will
resemble the beef juice in every respect except strength. Add a little salt
and serve.

Beef Tea with Hydrochloric Acid

Select and prepare the beef as above. Put into a bowl and pour over it
one cupful of cold water, to which five drops of dilute hydrochloric acid have
been added. Let the whole stand for two hours in a cool place. Strain,
add salt to flavor, and serve cold. This tea may be heated; but the albumin
which coagulates and appears as brown flakes should not be strained out,
for it is the nutritious portion of the tea.

Beef (or Mutton) Broth

One pound of lean beef (or mutton).

One quart of water.

One teaspoonful of salt.

Soak the meat, previously chopped fine, in the cold salted water for at
least two hours, in the vessel in which it is to be cooked, keeping it on ice
or in a cool place during this time. Then expose to moderate heat. Keep
the vessel covered and allow the broth to simmer, keeping up the original
quantity of water, for three hours at least. Let it cool overnight, skim off
the fat in the morning, and keep covered in a cool place until needed. Heat
and serve as required.

Chicken Broth

Fowls are better to use for broth than young chickens. Pluck and pre-
pare by singeing with a blazing newspaper, straw, or dry grass. Remove
all refuse entrails, oil bag, crop, lungs, etc. Wash well in cold water, then
cut up and disjoint. To each pound of chicken add a quart of cold salted
water and simmer for two hours ; then boil for two hours. Add rice or
powdered hard bread or soft bread crumbs in the proportion of one table-



SEMISOLID OR LIGHT DIET 275

spoonful to each quart of water. Vegetables, such as onions, garlic, carrots,
celery, and parsley, may be also 'used, a tablespoonful to the quart, and
should be put in when the broth is first put on to cook. Strain, remove the
fat, and serve hot.

Canned Soups

To render canned soups ready for eating, simply raise them to the boiling
point by immersing the cans in boiling water for half an hour to thoroughly
heat the contents; or empty and heat the contents in a granite saucepan.
After diluting with the proper amount of water, following directions on the
cans, they are ready to serve. Before heating any canned article a hole
should be punctured in the upper end of the can.

Clam Broth, (Canned)

This may be served hot or cold. If the broth is desired plain, add an
equal quantity of water to the clam juice and heat to the temperature required.
Do not boil. Clam broth can also be given iced. If fresh milk is available,
equal parts of milk and clam juice may be heated up together.



SEMISOLID OR LIGHT DIET



Poached Eggs

Pour sufficient boiling water into a clean cooking utensil and add salt
in the proportion of one teaspoonful to the quart of water. Place it on the
stove to boil. Break a fresh egg into a small dish, and when the water boils
slide the egg gently into it. When the albumen or white is firm, or at the end
of two minutes, lift the egg out of the water with a skimmer and place it on
a piece of hot, nicely-browned toast or hard-tack. Sprinkle with a little salt
and pepper and serve hot.

Soft Cooked Eggs

Put into a saucepan as many eggs as are to be cooked. Pour over them
water enough to cover. The water should have been brought up not quite
to the boiling point. Let the eggs stay in the water from seven to ten minutes,
and the result is an evenly cooked egg throughout. When the water is
poured on the eggs do not set the pan on the fire. No further heating is
required, but the water should not be allowed to cool down too rapidly.

Omelet
Two eggs.

Two tablespoonfuls of milk, cream, or water.
One-fourth teaspoonful of salt.
Pepper to taste.

Beat up the yolks and whites of the eggs separately. Add the salt to
the yolks. Mix the whites and yolks together with the milk, cream, or



276 MESS MANAGEMENT AND COOKING

water. Place a small piece of butter or bacon fat in a pan or plate hot
enough to melt it. Pour in the omelet, and with a sharp knife loosen the
edges as they solidify and fold over the omelet into a half-circle. When
done, turn but on a plate and serve hot. When milk can not be had, water
may be used.

Spanish omelet has minced onion added to the above. An excellent addi-
tion to the plain omelet is a dressing made of canned tomatoes and boiled
crumbled hard bread, strained, seasoned, and heated together. Never use
flour in an omelet, as it can not be cooked sufficiently in the short time that
should be given to eggs.

Baked Custard

One pint of fresh milk.

Two eggs.

One-third teaspoonful of salt.

Two tablespoonfuls of sugar.

Small piece of cinnamon.

Put the cinnamon in the milk and pour into a saucepan to heat. Break
the eggs into a bowl with the sugar and salt, and beat until well mixed but
not light. When the milk comes to a boil pour it over the eggs. Stir slowly
to dissolve the sugar. Strain the mixture into cups, set them in a deep pan
of boiling water, and bake for twenty minutes in a moderately hot oven.

Dry Toast

Cut the bread in slices one-third of an inch in thickness. Toast may be
made either by drying bread in an oven and then placing on a toaster over
the fire, or the bread may be allowed to dry and brown in the oven. Toast
that is moist and soft in the middle should -never be given to an invalid.
Have it dry, crisp throughout, and of a golden-brown color. Serve hot,
either dry or buttered.

Milk Toast

Put a cup of milk into a saucepan and let it heat to the boiling point.
Have ready three slices of nicely browned bread. Put a little salt in the milk
and pour it over the toast. A little butter may be spread on the latter, but
it is a more delicate dish without it. Serve hot.

Oatmeal Porridge

Three tablespoonfuls of oatmeal or rolled oats.

One pint of boiling water.

One-fourth teaspoonful of salt.

Dissolve the salt in the water, then add the oatmeal. Cook for two hours
in a double boiler. Rolled oats require cooking only half an hour. Oat-
meal is very appetizing when served cold in mold shapes, and it will frequently
be eaten in this way when it would be refused if served in any other form.
Variations may be made by using farina, browned rice (browned in the



277

oven before steaming and molding), arrowroot, etc., giving further change
by serving occasionally with sweetened fruit juices, fresh, dried, or canned,
instead of cream or milk.

Farina Mush, or Porridge

Three tablespoonfuls of farina.

One pint of boiling water.

One-half teaspoonful of salt.

The water must be boiling before putting in the farina. Boil for half an
hour. It may be served with fresh milk, or condensed milk diluted one to
four parts of boiling water, or with stewed dried fruit, such as prunes,
peaches, or apples. Cold farina mush may be sliced and fried for the use of
convalescents.

Plain Boiled Bice

One-half cup of rice.

Two cups of boiling water.

One-half teaspoonful of salt.

Pick the rice clean. Wash thoroughly in two waters, pouring off the
last when ready to put the rice into the boiling water. Add the salt to the
water. Pour in the rice and boil steadily for half an hour. In order to see
if the rice is done, take out some of the grains and crush between the fingers.
If done, they will mash easily and feel perfectly soft. Do not stir the rice,
as this will cause it to fall to the bottom and burn. Serve with sugar and
fresh or condensed milk or with stewed fruits.

Steamed Bice

Wash the rice thoroughly in two waters. Use in same proportions as
are given for boiled rice. Use a double boiler. Have the water boiling in
lower boiler. Place the above mixture of rice, boiling water, and salt in the
upper chamber, and let cook for one hour. Do not stir. Keep the rice
covered while steaming, and keep the lower boiler well supplied with boiling
water. Serve as with boiled rice.

Milk Porridge

The flour for milk porridge should be prepared in the following manner:
Tie up in a muslin bag or towel as much flour as desired and boil for four
or five hours, then bake in an oven until dry. To make the porridge, grate
two tablespoonfuls of the dried flour, mix it with cold water into a paste,
and add to it one pint of boiling milk or boiling water. Boil for ten minutes.
If water alone is used to make the porridge, condensed or fresh milk may be
used in addition, in equal parts or diluted one-half with water.

Condensed milk used in this recipe is made in the strength of one part
of condensed milk to four of water. Salt is added in proportion of one tea-
spoonful to the quart of boiling milk or water.



278 MESS MANAGEMENT AND COOKING

Lemon Jelly

One-fourth box of gelatin (one-half ounce).

One-fourth cup of cold water.

One-fourth cup of fresh lemon juice (about the amount yielded by two
lemons).

Three tablespoonfuls of sugar.

One and one-fourth cups of boiling water.

Put the gelatin to soak in the cold water, about twenty minutes being re-
quired for this process. When dissolved, pour on the boiling water. Add
the lemon juice and sugar. Stir thoroughly and strain through a fine-meshed
cloth into a china or granite-ware mold, cooling in a refrigerator or by
placing in a pan of cold water. Never use tin molds for lemon jelly.

Coffee Jelly

One-fourth box of gelatin (one-half ounce).

One-fourth cup of cold water.

One cup of boiling water.

One-half cup of strong coffee.

Two tablespoonfuls of sugar.

Soak the gelatin in the cold water for half an hour. Pour on the boiling
water, then put in the sugar and coffee. Strain it through a cloth into a
mold or dish in which it may be cooled, either in a pan of iced water or in a
refrigerator. Coffee jelly may be served with cream and sugar.

Have the coffee strong, two tablespoonfuls of coffee to each cup of water.
Where vanilla extract is available, one-half teaspoonful will be advanta-
geously added to the above recipe.

Wine Jelly

One-fourth box of gelatin (one-half ounce).

One-fourth cup of cold water.

One-half cup of sugar.

One-half cup of sherry wine.

One and one-fourth cups of boiling water.

One small piece of cinnamon.

Put the gelatin and cold water together in a dish large enough to hold
the whole mixture. Let it soak for half an hour, then pour the boiling water
(in which the piece of cinnamon has been simmering) over the softened gel-
atin. Add the sugar and wine, strain through a clean cloth into a china
or granite-ware mold, and cool in a refrigerator or a pan of cold water.

Stewed Dried Apples, Apricots, or Peaches

Wash the fruit thoroughly. Soak for four or five hours in the cold water
it is to be cooked in, using only a sufficient quantity of water to cover. Heat
in a covered granite-ware saucepan, simmering slowly for two hours. Do
not boil. If the fruit is allowed to simmer it will not burn or need stirring,
which breaks it up and makes it look unsightly. Apricots need plenty of
sugar, but this should not be added until five minutes before taking off the



SEMISOLID OR LIGHT DIET 279

"fire. Lemon juice or lemon peel may be added to poorly flavored apples, a
tablespoonful of the juice or the peel of half a lemon to the pound of fruit, or
spices may be used for flavoring. 'The use of brown sugar in stewing dried
fruit is to be preferred, because of the better flavor which it gives.

Baked Apples

Select fair, sound, and preferably tart apples. Wash and wipe them and
cut out the cores, removing all the seeds and husks. Cut off any dark spots
on the outside. Put the prepared apples into a granite or earthenware dish.
Put into each apple from one-half to one teaspoonful of sugar, according to
the acidity of the fruit, and a bit of lemon peel. Pour boiling water into the
dish about one-fourth inch deep, and bake in a moderately hot oven. When
perfectly soft all through, the fruit is done. The time for baking varies,
according to the species of apple, from half an hour to two hours.

Canned Fruit, Serving of

Remove from cans several hours before using and put in porcelain or
granite-ware dish to cool. Canned fruit is much improved by cooling,
being more palatable and refreshing than if served direct from the can.
Never allow fruit to remain in cans when once opened. This applies par-
ticularly to very acid fruit, and also to meats, fish, or vegetables.

Baked Potatoes

Have the potatoes of a uniform size, so that all may be done at the same
time. Wash them thoroughly and bake in a hot oven from forty-five to
fifty minutes. They are recognized as being done by the soft, yielding
sensation given on pinching.

Boasted Potatoes

Bury under the hot ashes of an open fire (camp) for half an hour or more.
The thoroughness of cooking is recognized as with baked potatoes. Break
open by squeezing. Brush the ashes off first.

Boiled Potatoes

Wash the potatoes well. Pare carefully so as not to waste. Put them
on to cook in boiling salted water, enough to cover, and let boil for thirty
minutes. It requires more time for large-size potatoes. When easily
pierced with a fork they are done. Drain off the water, and dry them on top
of the stove by moving the boiler back and forth for a minute or two. Serve
as quickly as possible after they are cooked.

Mashed Potatoes

Prepare as for boiled potatoes. When cooked, drain off the water and
mash in the dish in which they were boiled. Add butter, pepper, and salt
to taste, and lastly put in a lijttle milk or cream. Whip up lightly and serve
immediately. Keep the dish covered until served.



280 MESS MANAGEMENT AND COOKING

Scraped Beef

Cut a piece of steak from the round, about half a pound in weight and
about an inch thick. Lay it on a clean meat-board and with a dull knife
scrape out the pulp until there is nothing left but stringy fiber. Season the
scraped pulp with salt and make it into small cakes. Broil for two minutes
either by direct heat over a clear fire, or by heating a clean pan or plate and,
when hot, placing the meat on it. Have both sides cooked sufficiently.
This is a safe food for a patient beginning to take solid nourishment. Scraped
beef may be prepared very easily over an alcohol lamp.

Scraped Beef Sandwiches

Place a piece of round steak on a meat-board and scrape out all of the
pulp with a dull knife; add to the pulp a little salt and pepper and enough
raw beef juice to make it into a firm jelly. Have stale bread cut into very
thin slices and spread the beef pulp on them ; cut the sandwiches quite small.
Never use butter in making beef sandwiches.

Broiled Beefsteak

Have a clear, hot fire, either coal or charcoal. Put the steak on a broiler,
place directly over the fire for about a minute, then turn and do the same
with other side. By applying greater heat at the outset the juices are kept
in the meat. It requires from five to seven minutes over a clear fire to broil
a steak an inch thick. Season both sides with salt and a little pepper, but
no butter. Serve hot. A baked potato is a good vegetable to serve with
the above, as is also boiled rice.

Another good way to broil steak is to heat a granite-ware plate on a
stove till it is quite hot. Place the steak on it till one side is done, then turn
it and do the same with other side.

Stewed Chicken

Boil a chicken, prepared as for broth, until tender. Set it away till it is
cool. Skim off the fat ; take the meat and cut it up in cubes or small pieces,
rejecting all skin, gristle, tendons, and bones. To one cupful of the meat
add one pint of the broth, seasoning with salt and pepper. Mix one tea-
spoonful of flour with a little cold water, blend it thoroughly, and add it to
the chicken. Let the whole stew for ten minutes, and serve with toast or
boiled rice.

Minced Chicken on Toast

Prepare the chicken as for broth. When cool, skim off the fat and mince
up the meat fine, rejecting all skin, tendons, gristle, and bone. Season with
salt and a little pepper. Add enough broth, or better yet, cream, if available,
to make it of the proper consistency, or about that of cream. Have ready
some nicely-browned dry toast, pour the minced chicken over it, and serve hot.



THE RATIONS 281

THE HOSPITAL STORES



Beef Extract (Liquid)

To four ounces of cold, sterilized water add half a teaspoonful to one
teaspoonful of the liquid extract. Mix thoroughly; season with salt and
pepper to taste, and, if obtainable, with celery salt.

Where a hot beef tea is required the above preparation may be heated,
care being taken not to remove the nutritious curdy flakes produced by boiling.

Malted Milk

Mix one or two tablespoonfuls of malted milk with a like quantity of
warm, boiled water. Add more water to make up half a pint. Season with
salt to taste.

Boiling water can not be used to advantage in making up this preparation.

Chocolate

Grate one ounce of chocolate. Have ready one pint of boiling milk. Mix
the grated chocolate with some hot milk into a paste, add to it the boiling
milk and boil five or six minutes. Flavor with sugar, one teaspoonful to the
pint. The chocolate issued in the hospital stores is partly sweetened. If
unsweetened chocolate is used, a tablespoonful of sugar is required. If fresh
rmlk is not available, make the chocolate with boiling water and add one
teaspoonful of condensed milk to each half pint of chocolate.

Arrowroot Blanc-Mange

Two tablespoonfuls of arrowroot.

Two-thirds pint of hot water.

Two tablespoonfuls of sherry or brandy.

Two teaspoonfuls of sugar.

Mix the arrowroot into a. smooth paste with three tablespoonfuls of cold
water. Add this to the hot water. Bring to a boil, stirring constantly till
well blended and free from lumps. Let boil for ten minutes. Add the
sugar and sherry or brandy. Beat up quickly and pour into a bowl or mold
to cool. Arrowroot blanc-mange may be made with fresh hot milk or con-
densed milk diluted. If boiling water is used it causes the starch of the
arrowroot, when first poured in, to form into lumps. Hence it is best to
have the water not quite at boiling point.



THE RATIONS



Hard-Bread Toast Water
Two tablespoonfuls of powdered hard bread
One pint of boiling water.
One-half teaspoonful of salt.



282 MESS MANAGEMENT AND COOKING

Add the powdered hard bread, after toasting or parching in an oven, to
the salted boiling water. Boil for ten minutes. Strain through gauze and
serve hot or cold. The toast water may be flavored with sugar, condensed
milk, or whisky.

Hard-Bread Mush or Porridge

One cup of powdered hard bread.

Four cups of boiling water.

One teaspoonful of salt.

Mix and boil for ten minutes. The resulting mush may be eaten with
condensed milk or stewed dried fruit.

Care should be taken to prevent scorching by frequent stirring, and the
water should be boiling in all cases before adding the powdered bread.

Hard Bread as Milk Toast

Toast two or three pieces of hard bread to a good brown color by placing
in an oven or over a clear fire on a toaster. When done, pour enough boil-
ing water over them to soften thoroughly. Dilute two tablespoonfuls of
condensed milk in four times as much boiling water. Drain off the water
from the toasted bread and pour on the milk. Serve hot.

Hard Bread and Dried Apples (Brown Betty)

Soak the dried apples for at least four hours. Grease a baking pan or
dish and place in it first a layer of sliced apples, then a layer of hard-bread
crumbs, or whole hard bread softened in boiling water for ten minutes, with
small quantities of butter or fat pork and sugar, and a little ground cinna-
mon sprinkled over each layer. Continue till the dish is full, having bread
crumbs for the top layer. Moisten with a cup of water, or fresh or diluted
condensed milk, and bake three-quarters of an hour in a moderately heated
oven. When a fork easily pierces the apples the pudding is cooked. It
can be eaten hot or cold with butter and sugar worked up together and
flavored with cinnamon or nutmeg; with a simple sirup of sugar and water,
or with the following sauce :

Sauce for Hard-Bread Pudding

One pint of boiling water.

One tablespoonful of flour.

One-half cup of sugar.

One lemon.

To the water add the flour, mixed into a paste with three tablespoonfuls
of cold water. Boil for ten minutes. Add the sugar and lemon juice,
strained ; or other flavoring to taste.



Broiled

Wash in cold water. Cut into thin slices and broil over clear coals, either
on a broiler or with a fork. Serve immediately.



THE RATIONS 283

Bacon, Fried

Cut into thin slices after washing, roll in hard-bread crumbs, and fry in a
very hot pan which has been greased. Season with pepper and serve imme-
diately. The bacon may be fried without the bread crumbs if preferred.

Bacon, Boiled

Wash the bacon in cold water. Scrape and trim off any rusty or brownish
spots, and, if very hard or dry, soak for a few hours in cold water. Put
it on to cook in enough cold water to cover it well, let it come slowly to a
boil, and then boil steadily until done. As the water evaporates or boils
away, replenish it with more boiling water. When the bacon can be easily
pierced with a fork in the thickest part, it is sufficiently cooked. Save the
fat, it will be useful in frying; and if greens are to be cooked, leave enough
in the water to season them.

Canned Roast Beef Soup

One pound (one-half can) of roast beef.

One pint of cold water.

Salt and pepper to taste.

Cut the beef into small pieces and add it to the cold water. Let the
whole come to a boil and then simmer gently for half an hour. Skim off
the fat and strain, taking care to express all the meat juice and gelatin from
the meat. Season with salt and pepper to taste. A little beef extract, when
added to the above, improves the value and palatability of this soup. A
tablespoonful of hard bread, powdered, may be added if rice and other grains
are not available.

Canned Boast Beef Stew

Two pounds of canned roast beef.

Six small potatoes.

One onion.

Salt and pepper to taste.

Wash, peel, and slice the vegetables. Cover them with sufficient boiling
salted water. Put them on to boil, and when nearly done add the roast
beef, well cut up. Season to taste with pepper and salt, and let the whole
simmer ten or fifteen minutes before serving. If potatoes are not to be had,
hard bread, crumbled and softened in boiling water, may be used with the
meat- Canned tomatoes, in varying proportions, make a good addition to
the stew, as already described. In the absence of any other vegetables, they
may be added to the meat in the proportion of pound for pound.

Canned Roast Beef Hash
Two pounds of canned roast beef.
Six boiled potatoes, small.
One onion.
Pepper and salt to taste.



284 MESS MANAGEMENT AND COOKING

Chop up the meat and vegetables thoroughly. Mix well. Season with
pepper and salt and brown in a hot dish or frying pan, previously greased
with pork or bacon, in an oven or over the fire. When potatoes cannot be
obtained, a very good hash may be made by the use of softened hard bread
or boiled rice in their place.

Canned Salt Beef Stew

Cut up the contents of a two-pound can. Cover with cold water and
bring to the boiling point. Then add vegetables as directed for roast-beef
stew. Season with pepper, but add no salt. Stew for three-quarters of an
hour.

Canned Salt Beef Hash

Two pounds (one can) of salt beef.

One cup of hard-bread crumbs.

One onion.

Bacon fat or beef fat (about the size of an egg).

Water, or soup stock.

Pepper and salt.

Chop up the beef. Add the bacon fat or beef fat, and add sufficient
water or soup stock to moisten the whole. Season with pepper and a very
little salt. Parboil the onion, chop it up, and add it to the mixture. Put
into a frying pan or mess plate and brown on both sides. If desired, the
onion may be fried before adding it to the hash.

Eice Pudding

Two tablespoonfuls of rice.

One tablespoonful of sugar.

One pint of fresh milk.

Nutmeg or cinnamon as flavoring.

Wash the rice and cover with the milk, previously sweetened and flavored.
Set in a moderately hot oven. Stir every fifteen minutes during the first
hour and then once at the expiration of the next half-hour. Bake two hours
and until the brown top forms. This gives a creamy, slightly brown pudding.



Online LibraryCharles Field MasonA complete handbook for the sanitary troops of the U. S. army and navy and national guard and naval militia → online text (page 20 of 38)