Baked Bean Soup
Take cold baked beans, add twice as much water as beans, and let them
summer till soft. When done, add half as much canned tomatoes and strain.
If too thick add more water. Season to taste with salt and pepper.
One-half pound of salt pork or bacon.
One and one-half pints of water.
Two tablespoonfuls of pea-meal.
Boil the bacon or pork in the water. When the meat is nearly cooked,
add the pea-meal and let simmer until the meat is thoroughly done. Skim
off the fat, season with pepper and serve. Canned salt meat can also be
used to make pea soup, but does not require so long to prepare, as the meat
is already cooked. Season with pepper and very little salt. Serve hot.
APPROXIMATE MEASURES 285
Fried Pea-Meal Mush
One pint of water.
One teaspoonful of salt.
Four tablespoonfuls of pea meal.
Add the pea-meal to the salted water. Boil for twenty minutes. Cool
by pouring out into a plate or mess tin. Slice and fry quickly in hot bacon-
fat (for convalescents).
To one can of tomatoes add an equal quantity of water and let simmer
for half an hour. Mix one tablespoonful of flour with an equal quantity of
beef dripping or bacon fat. Add it to the tomatoes. Season with pepper
and salt. If very acid, a teaspoonful of sugar may be added to disguise the
acidity. Boiled rice or hard-bread crumbs make a very good addition to
tomato soup. Serve hot.
Stewed Tomatoes with Hard Bread
To each can of tomatoes add half an onion chopped fine, salt and pepper
to taste, and if tomatoes are very acid, enough sugar to counteract the acidity.
Cover, and stew for three-quarters of an hour. Hard-bread crumbs are
added to thicken to the consistency desired-
Baked Tomatoes with Hard Bread
Mix enough hard-bread crumbs with the canned tomatoes to absorb the
greater portion of the juice; season with salt, pepper, and thin slices of
bacon laid on top, and bake from three-quarters of an hour to an hour.
Onions, either raw or fried, may be chopped up and added to the seasoning.
Four teaspoonfuls of liquid are equal to one tablespoonful.
Three teaspoonfuls of solid material, as sugar or arrowroot, are equal to
One tablespoon contains one-half a fluid ounce.
One coffee cup, quartermaster's, contains ten fluid ounces.
One coffee cup, usual size, contains eight fluid ounces.
One glass tumbler, usual size, contains eight fluid ounces.
Two coffee cups, or glass tumblers, usual size, are equal to one pint.
One tin cup, soldier's field mess outfit, contains one and one-half pints.
MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS, AND PHARMACY
MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS
Materia medico treats of the materials or drugs used in medicine ;
their origin, composition, physical and chemical properties, and their
Therapeutics is the art of applying the articles of the materia
rnedica to the cure of disease.
Pharmacy is the art of preparing drugs and dispensing them.
Drugs or medicines are derived from the animal, vegetable, and
The active principles of drugs are those constituents which are
active in producing the effects of the drug; morphine, for example, is
the active principle of opium.
Among active principles are alkaloids and neutral principles.
Alkaloids are usually very insoluble in water, but combine with
acids to form soluble salts; they have powerful medicinal effects;
their Latin names end in ina and their English names in ine; mor-
phine, atropine, and quinine are some of the alkaloids of the supply
Nuetral principles are neutral in character ; they are distinguished
by having their Latin names ending in inum and English names end-
ing in in. Among neutral principles of the supply table is santonin.
Organic acids are found in organic substances. Examples : acetic
acid, citric acid.
Mineral acids are obtained from the mineral kingdom. Examples :
288 MATERIA MEDICA, THERAPEUTICS, PHARMACY
sulphuric acid, hydrocloric acid. They neutralize alkalies and when
concentrated act as caustics.
Alkalies or ant-acids neutralize acids and in some forms act as
caustics. Examples: bicarbonate of soda, potassa.
Fixed oils are non-volatile, and are decomposed by boiling with
water and an alkali, the resulting products being soap and glycerin.
Examples : olive oil, castor oil.
Volatile or essential oils exist in plants from which they are ex-
tracted By distillation with water; they evaporate when exposed to
the air and have penetrating aromatic odors. Examples : oil of
cloves, oil of pepermint.
Medicines are sometimes classified according to their most notice-
able effects, thus :
Anodynes are remedies which relieve pain. Examples : opium,
Anesthetics are agents which temporarily destroy sensation ; they
are subdivided into General Anesthetics and Local Anesthetics.
General anesthetics are volatile substances whicn, when inhaled,
destroy consciousness and sensation. Examples : ether, chloroform.
Local anesthetics act directly upon the nerves of the part with
which they are brought in contact, destroying sensation temporarily.
Examples : cocaine, phenol.
Anthelmintics are agents used to expel worms from the intestines.
Example : calomel.
Antidotes are remedies against poisons; thus the alkaline sul-
phates are antidotes for phenol.
Antipyretics are agents which reduce fever. Examples : quinine,
Antiseptics are substances which prevent or retard septic decom-
position by destroying or arresting the development of the bacteria of
Astringents, of which alum is an example, are substances which
couse a constriction of the tissues.
Carminatives are agents which cause the expulsion of gas; the
essential oils are carminatives.
Cathartics, purgatives, and laxatives are medicines which increase
the action of the bowels ; rochelle salts is an example.
Diaphoretics are agents which increase the secretion of sweat.
Dover's powder is a diaphoretic.
MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS 289
Disinfectants are substances which destroy the specific germs
which infect people with disease. Phenol and corrosive sublimate
Diuretics increase the flow of urine. Example: sweet spirits of
Emetics cause vomiting. Ipecac and apomorphine are emetics.
Expectorants are agents which aid expectoration. Ammonium
chloride is an expectorant.
Hypnotics produce sleep. Veronal and chloral are hypnotics.
Narcotics are agents which produce stupor. Example : opium.
Styptics are substances which arrest bleeding. Alum is a styptic.
Certain drugs affect the skin, urine, or feces in a way that should
be known to those charged with their administration :
Drugs which may produce an eruption on the skin: Arsenic,
acetanilid, antipyrin, belladonna, bromides, chloral, copaiba, iodides,
opium, acetphenetidin, quinine, salicylic acid, turpentine.
Drugs which color the feces: Iron black; bi-smuth slate color
or black ; calomel green.
Drugs which color the urine: Carbolic acid dark green; rhu-
barb yellow ; santonin saffron color if the urine is acid, purplish-
red if alkaline.
Drugs which have a tendency to become liquid on exposure to air,
by the absorption of moisture, are said to be deliquescent or hygro-
scopic, while those which lose their water of crystallization and
become dry and powdery are called efflorescent.
ADMINISTRATION OF MEDICINES
Medicines are given by the mouth and stomach, by the rectum, by
the skin, blood-vessels, and subcutaneous cellular tissues.
By the mouth and stomach is the method ordinarily employed.
Medicines which are irritating to the stomach should be given well
diluted and after meals.
The rectum is sometimes employed for the administration of
medicine when the stomach will not retain them.
Remedies are injected into the veins direct only in case of great
The administration of drugs by the subcutaneous cellular tissue is
called the hypodermic method; it is employed when prompt action is
desired. Alkaloids like morphine and strychnine are especially suit-
290 MATERIA MEDICA, THERAPEUTICS, PHARMACY
able for this method, and large quantities of normal salt solution are
frequently so employed.
Substances are also introduced into the circulation by simply rub-
bing them into the unbroken skin. Fats and oils and remedies in-
corporated with them are often used in this way. Syphilis is fre-
quently treated by inunctions of mercurial ointment.
Doses are only relative and cannot be represented in exact figures,
since they are subject to so many influencing circumstances. The
principal of these are age, size and weight, habit, idiosyncrasy, in-
terval between doses, time of administration, condition of stomach
or (if externally applied) of skin, disease, climate, method of
administration, form of drug used, etc.
Dosage in children: Doses ordinarily given are those for adults;
to compute the suitable quantity for a child, either of the following
rules may be made use of :
1 i ) Young's method : Divide the age by the age -(- 12 ; thus, sup-
pose the child is 3 years old p^-=A=J : hence we give one-fifth
of the adult dose.
(2) Cowling's method : Divide the number of the following birth-
day by 24; thus, child's age is 3, next birthday is ^=\ : hence
dose is one-sixth that of adult (this gives a slightly smaller dose
than does Young's rule).
Children bear opium badly, and hence the dose should be propor-
tionately small. Comparatively large doses of belladonna, jaborandi,
aconite, mercury, arsenic, quinine, and cathartics in general are borne
When given hypodermic ally, the dose of medicines is two-thirds
of that used by mouth. When given by rectum, it is four-thirds of
the dose by mouth.
MEDICINES AND MEDICAL AGENTS OF THE ARMY AND NAVY
Acacia (Gum Arabic). A gummy exudation from Acacia Senegal
and other species of Acacia. A glassy-looking substance in frag-
ments ; insipid taste, soluble in water, used as a vehicle. The pow-
der is white.
Mucilago Acaciae (acacia 340; lime water 330; water to 1,000).
MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS 291
Acetanilidum (Acetanilid). A derivative of aniline. A colorless
crystalline powder, odorless, with a slightly burning taste, soluble in
179 parts water. Used in neuralgia.
Dose : Gm.
Acetphenetidinum (Acetphenetidin. Phenacetin). A phenol de-
rivative. White scales or crystalline powder, odorless and tasteless.
Soluble in 925 parts of water or 12 parts of alcohol. Antipyretic and
antineuralgic. Dose : ^ Gm.
Acidum Aceticum (Acetic Acid). A clear, colorless liquid, hav-
ing a strong vinegar-like odor and an acid taste
Acidum Aceticum Dilutum (acetic acid 100; water 500).
Dose: 2 Cc.
Acidum Boricum (Boric Acid). Colorless scales or a light white
powder; odorless and slightly bitter. Soluble in 18 parts of water.
Used as a mild antiseptic. Dose : Gm.
Acidum Citricum (Citric Acid). Usually prepared from lime or
lemon juice. Colorless, odorless, acid-tasting crystals; efflorescent
in dry air and deliquescent in moist air; soluble in 0.54 part water.
Dose : | Gm.
Acidum Gallicum (Gallic Acid). An organic acid usually pre-
pared from tannic acid. Fawn-colored needles, astringent, slightly
acid, permanent. Soluble in 83.7 parts water and 4.14 alcohol.
Used as an astringent. Dose : ^ Gm.
Acidum Hydrochloricum (Hydrochloric Acid). A colorless,
fuming liquid which should be kept in glass-stoppered bottles.
Acidum Hydrochloricum Dilutum (Hydrochloric acid 100, water
219). Dose: I Cc.
Acidum Hydrocyanicum Dilutum (Dilute Hydrocyanic Acid;
Dilute Prussic Acid). A colorless liquid containing 2 per cent of
absolute hydrocyanic acid, and having the odor of bitter almonds.
As it is very poisonous, it should not be tasted except with great
caution. Should be kept in dark amber-colored bottles in a cool
place. Dose: o.i Cc.
Acidum Nitricum (Nitric Acid). A colorless, fuming liquid;
very caustic ; should be kept in glass stoppered bottles.
Acidum Nitricum Dilutum (nitric acid 100, water 580).
Dose : 2 Cc.
Acidum Oxalicum (Oxalic Aid). Colorless crystals, very poi-
sonous. Surgical use, externally only. Fatal results have followed
292 MATERIA MEDICA, THERAPEUTICS, PHARMACY
mistaking this substance for sulphate of magnesia, which it resem-
bles. The two may be distinguished by heating a few of the
crystals to a red heat on the end of a spatula; oxalic acid will be
completely dissipated, while sulphate of magnesia will not. An-
other distinction lies in the fact that oxalic acid decolorizes solution
of permanganate of potash, while sulphate of magnesia does not.
Acidum Phosphoricum Dilutum (Dilute Phosphoric Acid). A
colorless, odorless liquid, which should be kept in glass-stoppered
bottles. (Phosphoric acid 100, water 750).
Dose: 2 Cc.
Acidum Salicylicum (Salicylic Acid). An organic acid existing
naturally in some plants, but generally prepared from phenol. Light,
fine, white needles, or a crystalline powder, with a faint odor and
sweetish taste. Soluble in 308 parts water. Used in rheumatic
troubles. Dose : \ Gm.
Acidum Sulphuricum (Sulphuric Acid). A colorless, oily, very
corrosive liquid. Should be kept in glass-stoppered bottles.
Acidum Sulphuricum Aromaticum (Aromatic Sulphuric Acid).
Sulphuric acid in, tincture of ginger 50, oil of cinnamon I, alcohol
to 1,000.) Dose: i Cc.
Acidum Tannicum (Tannic Acid). An organic acid obtained
from nutgalls. A light yellow powder with a faint odor, and
strongly astringent taste. Soluble in about 0.34 part of water. Used
as an astringent. Dose : ^ Gm.
Acidum Tartaricum (Tartaric Acid). An organic acid occurring
in colorless crystals or a white powder ; odorless and with an acid
taste; soluble in 0.71 part of water.
Aconiti Tinctura (Tincture of Aconite). 10 per cent strength.
Used to quiet the heart. Dose: -| Cc.
Adeps Bensoinatus (Benzoinated Lard). (Benzoin 20, lard
1,000; in warm weather substitute 5 per cent of the lard by an equal
quantity of white wax). Used as a basis for ointments.
Adeps Lance Hydrosus (Wool-Fat. Lanolin). The purified fat
of the wool of sheep, freed from water. A light-yellowish, tena-
cious, unctuous mass ; insoluble in, but miscible with large quantities
of water. Used as a basis for ointments.
Adrenalini Chloridum (Adrenalin Chloride). An active principal
obtained from the adrenal glands.
MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS 293
Used locally to control bleeding from the nose and throat.
/Ether (Ether). A transparent, colorless liquid, having a char-
acteristic odor and a burning sweetish taste. Its vapor when mixed
with air and ignited explodes violently.
Used chiefly as an anesthetic, by inhalation.
Dose internally I Cc.
Athens Spiritus Compositus (Compound Spirits of Ether. Hoff-
man's Anodyne). (Ether 325, alcohol 650, ethereal oil 25.)
Used as a stimulant and carminative.
Dose : 4 Cc.
Athens Spiritus Nitrosi (Spirits of Nitrous Ether. Sweet
Spirits of Niter). A clear, volatile liquid of a pale yellowish tint,
fragrant odor and burning taste. Used as a diuretic and carmina-
tive. Dose: 2 Cc.
^Ethylls Chloridum (Ethyl Chloride). An extremely volatile
liquid kept in hermetically sealed glass tubes.
Used chiefly in the form of a spray as a local anesthetic by virtue
of its freezing properties. Also sometimes used as a general anes-
thetic by inhalation.
Alcohol (Alcohol). A colorless volatile liquid containing about
95 per cent by volume of absolute alcohol. It is obtained by the
distillation of grain.
Alcohol, Methyl (Wood Alcohol). A colorless, poisonous liquid
of a disagreeable odor obtained in the destructive distillation of
wood. It is used as an adulterant in cheap liquors and toilet prep-
arations and as fuel, and when taken internally has caused many
Aloe (Aloes). The inspissated juice of the leaves of Aloe vera
and other species of Aloe.
Aloe Pulvis (Powdered Aloes). A brownish-yellow powder of
bitter taste, used as a laxative.
Dose : Gm.
Aloini Pilules Composite (Compound Aloin Pills). Contain 8
mgm. each of aloin, podophyllum resin, and extract of belladonna,
0.8 mgm. of strychnine, and 2.7 mgm. of oleoresin of capsicum.
Dose: 1-2 pills.
Alumen (Alum). The powder is white, with a sweet, astringent
taste ; soluble in 9 parts water.
Used as an emetic and as an astringent.
Dose: | Gm.
294 MATERIA MEDICA, THERAPEUTICS, PHARMACY
Ammonia: Aqua (Ammonia Water). A 10 per cent aqueous
solution of ammonia gas. A colorless, volatile liquid, which deteri-
orates on keeping ; should be kept in glass-stoppered bottles in a cool
A powerful stimulant.
Dose : i Cc. well diluted.
Ammonia Spiritus Aromaticus (Aromatic Spirits of Ammonia).
(Ammonium carbonate 34, ammonia water 90, alcohol 700, aromat-
ics q. s., water to 1,000.) A yellowish liquid used as a stimulant.
Dose : 2 Cc. well diluted.
Ammonii Bromidum (Ammonium Bromide). Colorless crystals
or a white crystalline powder, odorless and of saline taste; soluble
in 1.2 parts of water; irritating to the stomach; should be adminis-
tered in plenty of water.
Used as a sedative. Dose : i Gm.
Ammonii Carbonas (Ammonium Carbonate). White, translucent
or opaque masses, having a strong odor of ammonia. Only the
translucent portions should be dispensed.
Used as a stimulant. Dose : Gm.
Ammonii Chloridum (Ammonium Chloride). A white, odorless
powder, with a cooling taste.
Used as an expectorant. Dose : | Gm.
Ammonii Chloridi Trochisci (Ammonium Chloride Troches).
Each contains 130 mgms. ammonium chloride and ^ gm. extract of
licorice. Dose: I lozenge.
Amylls Nitris (Amyl Nitrite). A clear, yellow liquid of a pecu-
liar, penetrating odor. A powerful stimulant, used by inhalaton
only. Dose: 0.2 Cc.
Antimonii et Potassii Tartras (Tartar Emetic). Colorless crys-
tals or a white granular powder ; odorless and with a sweetish taste.
Soluble in 15.5 parts of water.
Dose : as an expectorant, 5 milligrammes ; as an emetic,
Antipyrinum (Antipyrin). A colorless, almost odorless, crystal-
line powder obtained from coal tar, having a bitter taste ; soluble in
less than i part of water. Dose : Gm.
Apomorphina Hydrochloridum (Apomorphine Hydrochloride).
The salt of an alkaloid derived from opium. White crystals acquir-
ing a greenish tint after exposure to light. Used hypodermically as
an emetic. Dose : 5 milligrammes.
Aqua Hydrogenii Dioxidi (Solution of Hydrogen Dioxide.
Peroxide). (10 per cent by volume.) A colorless, odorless liquid
rapidly deteriorating upon exposure. Used chiefly externally to
cleanse suppurating wounds.
Ar genii Nitras (Silver Nitrate). Colorless crystals, soluble in
0.54 part of water, and decomposed by light.
Used externally prncipally.
Dose: 10 milligrammes.
Argenti Nitras Fusus (Lunar Caustic). White or gray pencils.
Argyrol. A proteid silver salt, occurring in black hygroscopic
scales, containing 30 per cent metallic silver. Soluble in all propor-
tions in water. Used chiefly locally in inflammation of mucous
membranes, and in 20-50 per cent solution.
Dose: | Gm.
Arseni et Hydrargyri lodidi Liquor (Solution of Arsenous and
Mercuric Iodides). (Donovan's Solution.) Used in skin diseases
and syphilis. Dose : i-io Cc.
Arseni Trioxidum (White Arsenic. The Acidum Arsenosum of
1890). An opaque, white, poisonous powder; odorless and taste-
less. Soluble in about 100 parts of water.
Dose : 2 milligrammes.
Asafetida (Asafetida). A gum-resin from the root of Ferula
fatida and other species of Ferula. Yellowish-white masses.
Aspidii Oleoresina (Oleoresin Aspidium). A thick, dark-green
liquid, depositing a granular substance on standing; this granular
part should be well mixed with the liquid portion before dispensing.
Used especially against tape-worms.
Dose : 2 Cms.
Aspirin. A salicylic acid compound. Colorless crystals not very
soluble in water; readily soluble in alcohol. Used as a substitute
for salicylic acid. Dose : \ to i Gm.
Atropina Sulphas (Sulphate of Atropine). The sulphate of an
alkaloid obtained from Atropa Belladonna and other plants of the
same family. A white, odorless, bitter powder ; very poisonous.
Used especially to dilate the pupil.
Dose : 0.4 milligramme.
296 MATERIA MEDICA, THERAPEUTICS, PHARMACY
Balsamum Pcruvianum (Balsam of Peru). A viscid, dark-
brown liquid, of agreeable odor. Used as a wound dressing.
Balsamum Tolutanum (Balsam of Tolu).
Belladonna; Emplastrum (Belladonna Plaster).
Belladonna Foliorum Extractum (Extract of Belladonna Leaves).
Used chiefly externally.
Dose: 10 milligrammes.
Benzoini Tinctura Composita (Compound Tincture of Benzoin).
Used chiefly by inhalation with the vapor of hot water.
Dose : 4 Cc.
Bismuthi Subgallas (Bismuth Subgallate. Dermatol). An amor-
phous, yellow powder, insoluble in water, odorless and tasteless;
colors the stools black. Used in diarrheal diseases.
Dose: ^ Gm.
Bismuthi Subnitras (Bismuth Subnitrate). A white powder,
odorless, tasteless, and insoluble in water. Used in diarrheal dis-
eases. Colors the stools black.
Dose : ^ Gm.
Buchu Fluidextractum (Fluidextract of Buchu). A greenish-
black liquid. Used as a diuretic.
Dose : 2 Cc.
Caffeina Citrata (Citrated Caffeine). A white, odorless, bitter
powder. Used as a diuretic and heart stimulant.
Dose : -J Gm.
Colon Phosphas Pr&cipitatus (Precipitated Phosphate of Cal-
cium). An amorphous, white powder, insoluble, odorless, tasteless,
and permanent. Used chiefly in tuberculosis.
Dose : i Gm.
Calx (Lime). Hard white or grayish-white masses. Soluble in
760 parts of water. Slakes in the air. Used to prepare lime water.
Calx Chlorinata (Chlorinated Lime). A white powder with the
odor of chlorine, and decomposing on exposure to air. Used as a
disinfectant. Dose: ^ Gm.
Camphora (Camphor). White masses, sparingly soluble in
water, but readily soluble in alcohol and in oils. Used principally
externally. Dose : Gm.
Camphora et Opii Pihda* (Camphor and Opium Pills). Each
pill contains 65 mgms. opium and 130 mgms. camphor.
Dose : I pill.
Cantharidis Emplastrum (Cantharidis Plaster. Blistering Plaster).
Cantharidis Tinctura (Tincture of Cantharides). An alcoholic
extract of powdered Spanish Flies. Used chiefly externally.
Dose : Cc. well diluted.
Capsici Pulvis (Powdered Capsicum. Red Pepper). A red
powder. Dose : 65 milligrammes.
Capsici. Tinctura (Tincture of Capsicum). Used chiefly exter-
nally. Dose : Cc. well diluted.
Capsici Fluidextractum (Fluidextract of Capsicum). Used in the
same manner as the tincture.
Dose: 0.05 Cc.
Cardamomi Tinctura Composita (Compound Tincture of Car-
damomum). Used chiefly as a bitter tonic.
Dose: 4 Cc.
Cera Flava (Yellow Wax).
Ceratum Resince (Rosin Cerate. Basilicon Ointment). (Rosin
350, yellow wax 150, lard 500). External use.
Chloralum Hydratum (Hydrated Chloral. Chloral.) Colorless,
transparent crystals, with an aromatic odor and bitterish taste.
Freely soluble in water and alcohol. Used as a hypnotic.
Dose : I Gm. dissolved in water or whisky.
Chloroformum (Chloroform). A clear, colorless liquid of char-
acteristic odor and sweetish, burning taste. Should be kept in amber-
colored, glass-stoppered bottles in a cool, dark place. Used chiefly as
an anesthetic by inhalation. Dose : J Cc.
Chromii Trioxidum (Chromium Trioxide. Chromic Acid).
Should be kept in glass-stoppered bottles and great care taken not to
bring it in contact with organic substances such as cork, sugar, alco-
hol, etc., as an explosion may result. Needle-shaped crystals of
purplish-red color ; corrosive, deliquescent, very soluble in water.
Used solely as a caustic in crystals or solution.
Chrysarobinum (Chrysarobin). A neutral principle extracted
from goa powder. An orange-yellow, crystalline powder, odorless,
tasteless, and very insoluble. Used externally.
Dose : 30 milligrammes.
Cinchona Tinctura Composita (Compound Tincture of Cinchona).
Used as a tonic and in malarial diseases.
Dose : 4 Cc.
Cocaine Hydrochloridum (Cocaine Hydrochloride). A salt of
298 MATERIA MEDICA, THERAPEUTICS, PHARMACY
an alkaloid obtained from several species of coca. A colorless, odor-
less, crystalline powder ; soluble in 0.4 part water.
Used chiefly as a local anesthetic.
Dose: 32 milligrammes.
Codeincc Sulphas (Codeine Sulphate). A salt of an alkaloid from
opium. A crystalline powder, odorless, with a faintly bitter taste.
Used as a sedative. Dose : 30 milligrammes.