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Charles Field Mason.

A complete handbook for the sanitary troops of the U. S. army and navy and national guard and naval militia online

. (page 31 of 38)
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Ball strong twine for harness repairs i

Harness: The harness should be examined daily, and any defect
or weakness should be repaired at once. When removed from the
animals at night, harness should be placed where it will dry and not
be thrown upon the ground. The collars should be carefully wiped
off and the dirt removed from the remainder as far as practicable.
Harness should be thoroughly cleaned at least twice a month. For
this purpose use a bucket, lukewarm water, sponge, harness soap,
harness dressing, neat's foot oil, and lampblack. For ordinary
cleaning, the following should be observed : Provide a rack to hang
the harness on. When no better arrangement is at hand, insert one
end of the wagon pole between the spokes of one of the hind wheels,
above the hub. Strap it to the axle and hang the harness on the
pole. Dampen the sponge in water and pass it over the harness
until the dirt has become soft. Rinse out the sponge as often as



DRIVING 411

necessary, renewing the water when it is dirty. Then rub the
sponge on the harness soap until a good lather is obtained, and give
the harness a good heavy coating of it, and rub it until all dirt is
removed. Then work up a thick soap lather, coat the leather part
of the harness with it, and allow it to dry without further rubbing.
When dry, put on a light coat of harness dressing with a clean
sponge, touch lightly, only enough to spread the dressing, and do
not rub. When harness is dry and hard from neglect, after cleaning
as above, take a pint of neat's-foot oil for each single set of harness,
pour the oil into a pan and mix it with lampblack in proportion of
one teaspoonful to each pint of oil. Stir this mixture until it has a
glossy black appearance. In cold weather the oil should be warm.
Apply with a small sponge, rubbing it well in. When thoroughly
dry, apply harness dressing as previously described.



PART IX

ARMY REGULATIONS



ALL soldiers are required to be familiar with so much of Army
Regulations and the Articles of War as is contained in the Soldier's
Handbook.

The following course is for noncommissioned officers and candi-
dates for these grades.

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT THE HOSPITAL CORPS

1404. The members of the Hospital Corps will be enlisted for and
permanently attached to the Medical Department. In time of war
the corps will perform the necessary ambulance service under such
officers of the Medical Department and assistants as may be detailed
for that duty.

1405. Sergeants, first class, and sergeants are appointed by the
Secretary of War on the recommendation of the Surgeon General,
after having passed a satisfactory examination as hereinafter pre-
scribed. Corporals, lance corporals, and privates, first class, upon
recommendation of their detachment or organization commanders
are appointed (i) by the Surgeon General, if serving with troops
under the immediate supervision of the War Department; (2) by
the department surgeon or by the division surgeon of a mobilized
division, if serving with departmental or divisional troops. Acting
cooks are appointed by the commanding officer of a company or
detachment of the Hospital Corps in such numbers as are allotted
to the company or detachment by the Surgeon General, or by the
department or division surgeon, by authority of the Surgeon
General.

Sergeants, first class, and sergeants are given warrants signed by
the Surgeon General. Corporals are given warrants signed by the

(413)



414 ARMY REGULATIONS

officer who appoints them. Ordinarily a warrant issued to a non-
commissioned officer of the Hospital Corps confers grade under all
assignments ; but a limited warrant may be issued conferring grade
for service only with a field hospital company, ambulance company,
or company of instruction designated therein. Upon relief from
assignment to such companies a limited warrant ceases and deter-
mines, and the noncommissioned officer holding the same reverts
to his previous grade in the Hospital Corps.

No person shall be designated for examination for appointment
as sergeant, first class, except by written authority of the Surgeon
General. The candidate must have served as a sergeant not less
than twelve months or as a hospital steward of volunteers or have
acted in that capacity during and since the war with Spain for more
than six months. No person shall be designated for examination
for appointment as sergeant except by written authority of the
Surgeon General, if serving with troops under the immediate super-
vision of ;the War Department, or of the department surgeon, or
the division surgeon of a mobilized division, if serving 1 with depart-
mental or divisional troops.

The examination of a candidate for appointment as sergeant, first
class, or sergeant will be conducted by a board of medical officers
at the station where the candidate is serving. If the proper number
of medical officers to constitute the board is not available at the
station of the candidate he will be sent to the nearest station where
a board can be convened. When the examination is for a limited
warrant, the commanding officer of the organization in which the
candidate is to serve will constitute the board. In all cases the report
of the board will be forwarded directly to the officer authorizing
the examination.

The allowance of enlisted men of the Hospital Corps of each
grade as fixed by regulations and orders will not be exceeded, except
by special authority of the Secretary of War. The proportion of
privates, first class, to privates will not exceed two to one.

1406. A sergeant first class stationed at a place where no post
return is made will make such personal reports as the Surgeon
General may direct.

1407. Sergeants first class, though liable to discharge, will not be
reduced. Sergeants, corporals, lance corporals, and privates first
class may be reduced by sentence of a court martial, by the Surgeon



MEDICAL DEPARTMENT 415

General, by a department surgeon, or the division surgeon of a
mobilized division.

1408. To test the capacity of privates of the Hospital Corps for
the duties of noncommissioned officers, the Surgeon General and
chief surgeons may appoint lance corporals, who will be obeyed
and respected as corporals; but no detachment shall have more
lance corporals at a time than enough to make the proportion of all
noncommissioned officers present for duty one to four privates of
the Hospital Corps. Lance corporals are on the same footing
regarding reduction as corporals.

1409. The commander of a field army, or of a division or brigade
acting independently, is charged with the full control of the transfer
from the line, the enlistment, reenlistment, and discharge of members
of the Hospital Corps of his command.

1410. Enlistments for the Hospital Corps will be made in the
grade of private. Sergeants first class, sergeants, corporals, lance
corporals, and privates first class may be reenlisted in their re-
spective grades and their warrants and appointments continued in
force, provided they reenlist on the day following that of discharge.
Each enlistment and continuance will be noted on the warrant or
appointment by the surgeon. Recruiting officers at general recruit-
ing stations may accept applicants for enlistment or reenlistment in
the Hospital Corps upon the authority of the Surgeon General and
will be guided by his instructions in making the physical examination
of such applicants. Applicants may be accepted with a vision of
20/70 in each eye, correctible to 20/40 with glasses, provided that
no organic disease exists in either eye. After enlistments recruits
will be forwarded to such stations as may have been designated for
them by the Surgeon General.

1411. Enlisted men of the line, musicians excepted, may be trans-
ferred to the Hospital Corps as privates by the commander of a
division, separate brigade, or department, on the application of the
surgeon of the post or command, forwarded through military chan-
nels. The application will state the age, character, physical con-
dition, and habits of the soldier, date of expiration of current
enlistment, and whether made for an existing or prospective vacancy.
If the soldier be over forty years of age his special qualifications
for transfer will be stated.

1412. Married men will not be enlisted as privates in or trans-



416 ARMY REGULATIONS

ferrcd to the corps, and no sergeant who is married shall be re-
enlisted without special authority.

1413. Members of the corps will not be required to perform any
military duties other than those pertaining to the corps. They will
be instructed in such drills, both foot and mounted, as are necessary
for their efficiency. They will not be required to attend ceremonies,
except when directed by the commanding officer, and will ordinarily
be inspected and mustered at the hospital. The forms of inspection
will be in accordance with the prescribed drill regulations for the
Hospital Corps.

1414. To meet the requirements of epidemics or other emergen-
cies and to fill vacancies, members of the Hospital Corps may be
transferred by the department commander, the quota of each post,
as prescribed by paragraphs 1439 and 1440, not being permanently
exceeded. Such transfers will be reported to the Surgeon General.

1415. Accounts of pay and clothing of members of the Hospital
Corps will be kept by the surgeon under whose immediate direction
they are serving. All members casually at a post, camp, or other
station, are under the immediate orders of the surgeon except
prisoners, who will, however, be borne on the muster rolls, morning
report, and returns of the hospital corps detachment. If discharged,
their final statements will be prepared by the surgeon.

1416. At every permanent military post there will be at least one
noncommissioned officer of the Hospital Corps, and an additional
noncommissioned officer for every additional four privates of. the
Hospital Corps.

1417. At every permanent military post there will be at least four
privates of the Hospital Corps, six privates when the strength of the
garrison is 200, and two privates additional for every additional 100
of strength. They will be assigned to the respective duties con-
nected with the hospital service by the surgeon of the post.

1418. The number of noncommissioned officers and privates of
the Hospital Corps to be stationed at general hospitals, arsenals,
engineer stations, and independent posts will be determined by the
Surgeon General under the direction of the Secretary of War.

1419. Special instruction in the methods of rendering first aid to
the sick and wounded will be given to all enlisted men of the Signal
Corps and of the line of the Army by their company officers for at
least twelve hours in each calendar year.



MEDICAL DEPARTMENT 417

1420. All men of the Hospital Corps will be instructed under the
supervision of the surgeon of the post in the duties of litter-bearers
and the methods of rendering first aid to the sick and wounded, and
in the various subjects pertaining to the sanitary soldier.

GARRISON AND FIELD SERVICE

1427. Ambulances are vehicles provided for the service of the
medical department. They will be furnished and repaired by the
Quartermaster Corps. They will be used only for the following
purposes: The transportation of the sick and wounded and the
absolutely necessary nurses or attendants on duty therewith, the
recreation of convalescent patients; the instruction of the Hospital
Corps in the duties of the ambulance service, and in the field in
urgent cases, for the transportation of medical supplies. All persons
are prohibited from using them, or requiring or permitting them to
be used for any other purpose. Ambulances will always be subject
to the call of the surgeon, in garrison, and of the medical officer on
whom responsibility for the transportation of the sick devolves, in
the field, whose duty it shall be to report to the commander of
troops any violation of the above-mentioned provisions governing
their use. When practicable, in garrison, they will be housed near
the hospital.

1428. Ambulances complete will be issued and classed as follows :

1. For mobile army troops, to accompany troops in the field.

2. For post purposes exclusively, e. g., for Coast Artillery sta-
tions, recruit depots, certain mobile army stations which would
require ambulance service after withdrawal of mobile army troops
therefrom, military prisons, supply depots, etc. Department com-
manders will see that such of these posts as require ambulance
service are provided with ambulances which do not belong to the
divisional or other sanitary trains of the mobile army.

3. For general hospitals and for reserve Supply.

Ambulances under class I will be furnished in numbers pre-
scribed for war basis in Tables of Organization; under classes 2
and 3 the number of ambulances to be supplied will be determined
by the War Department on recommendation of the department com-
mander as regards class 2, and of the Surgeon General, as regards
class 3.

1429. At each post one or more privates of the detachment IIos-

27



418 ARMY REGULATIONS

pital Corps will be designated by the surgeon as ambulance driver
only for ambulances not belonging to organized ambulance com-
panies. In addition to his other duties he will care for the ambu-
lance, its equipment, and harness, and see that they are ready for
immediate use; and in the field he will care for the animals also.
In garrison, when it is necessary to use the ambulance for any
transportation purposes, the commanding officer, on the application
of the surgeon, will see that the requisite animals are provided by the
quartermaster and placed at the disposal of the surgeon. At sta-
tions of organized ambulance companies, class 2 ambulances may be
used for garrison ambulance service or the ambulance company may
furnish the garrison ambulance service, at the discrection of the post
commander.

1431^. Transportation assigned to mobile army troops for sani-
tary purposes is classed as follows :

1. The sanitary combat train. (A pack mule to carry equipment
for the regimental aid station.) These pack mules are provided in
time of peace and are assigned to the organizations indicated in the
Tables of Organization. They will be placed at the disposition of
the surgeon when needed for drill of the Hospital Corps in packing,
and will habitually accompany the combat train of the organizations
to which they are assigned, both in peace and war.

2. Ambulances of class i, paragraph 1428. These are marked

with the words " Sanitary Train Division," and with the

number of the ambulance company to which assigned. Ambulance
companies operated in peace are equipped with their quota of ambu-
lances, and the remaining ambulances of the divisional sanitary train
are attached in time of peace to combatant organizations of the
division by the department commander. Ambulances so attached
are available for. garrison service in peace when required, as well as
ambulances of class 2, and will be cared for by ambulance drivers
designated by the surgeon. When the division is assembled, these
ambulances accompany the organizations to which attached, join
the companies to which they are assigned, and complete the ambu-
lance equipment of the sanitary companies not operated in time of
peace.

3. Wagons pertaining to the divisional sanitary train. These will

be marked with the words " Sanitary Train Division " and

the number of the company to which assigned. Companies belong-



MEDICAL DEPARTMENT 419

ing to the sanitary train which are operated in peace are equipped
with their quota of wagons. In addition, wagons of the divisional
sanitary train are attached to combatant organizations, as prescribed
in Tables of Organization, for the transportation of the camp in-
firmary. When the division is assembled these wagons accompany
the organizations to which attached and join the sanitary companies
to which assigned.

1433. Hospital Corps personnel is classified as follows:

1. That portion attached to combatant organizations.

2. That portion assigned to units of the divisional sanitary train
and to administrative offices in the field.

3. That portion assigned to the service of the interior for service
in war, which should include only the minimum of trained men.

All men of the Hospital Corps will be carried on muster rolls and
returns of the Hospital Corps, under "Remarks," as attached to a
definite combatant organization, or as belonging to a unit of class 2,
or to class 3. Department commanders will determine, on recom-
mendation of the department surgeon, the number of men at each
post or station to be assigned to each class, within the limits pre-
scribed in Tables of Organization, and the individual men will be
assigned to their respective classes and those of class I attached to
organizations of mobile troops by the post commander on recom-
mendation of the surgeon. Descriptive lists of men of the Hospital
Corps of classes I and 2 will be kept in duplicate at posts, and all
other papers required when sanitary personnel accompanies troops
to which attached, will be prepared in advance so far as practicable.
Medical officers assigned to stations of mobile army troops, except
those on duty with ambulance or field hospital companies, will be
similarly attached to organizations by the post commander on recom-
mendation of the surgeon. Combatant organizations will carry
attached sanitary troops in red ink on their muster rolls and returns.

1434. On the march each medical officer will habitually be attended
by a mounted private of the Hospital Corps. Riding horses author-
ized in Tables of Organization will not be permanently allowed and
assigned in time of peace for Hospital Corps men attached to com-
batant organizations. When practicable, the Quartermaster Corps
will furnish horses for members of the Hospital Corps on duty in
the field who are authorized to be mounted.

1437. No person, except the proper medical officers or the officers,



420 ARMY REGULATIONS

noncommissioned officers, and privates of the ambulance service,
or such persons as may be specially assigned by competent military
authority to duty therewith, will be permitted to take or accompany
sick or injured men to the rear, either on the march or elsewhere.

1438. When members of the hospital corps are detailed for ser-
vice in the field during Indian wars, or when left with the sick or
wounded under circumstances which justify the expectation that
their rights under the Geneva Convention will not be recognized,
commanding officers will issue to members of the Hospital Corps
revolvers or other available firearms.

GENERAL HOSPITALS

1439. General hospitals will be under the exclusive control of the
Surgeon General and will be governed by such regulations as the
Secretary of War may prescribe. The senior medical officer on
duty therein will command the same and will not be subject to the
orders of local commanders other than those of territorial depart-
ments to whom specific delegation of authority may have been made.
The commanding officer of a territorial department may order to
any general hospital located within the limits of his department and
to the General Hospital at Fort Bayard, N. Mex., any cases of sick-
ness and injury among officers and enlisted men under his command
that are appropriate for treatment at such hospital. Officers and
enlisted men on the active list of the Army who shall have been
transferred to a general hospital for treatment only will, when fit
for duty, be returned to their proper posts or commands by the
commanding officer of the hospital, unless he shall have been other-
wise instructed.

1440. Hospital transports, boats, and railway trains, after being
properly assigned as such, will be exclusively under the control of
the Medical Department, and will not be diverted from their special
purposes by orders of local or department commanders or officers
of other staff corps.

SERVICE OF HOSPITALS

1447. The senior surgeon is charged with the management and
is responsible for the condition of the hospital, which will be at all
times subject to inspection by the commanding officer. The senior



MEDICAL DEPARTMENT 421

surgeon of the post will inspect the hospital every morning, and on
Saturday will also inspect the detachment of the hospital corps.

1450. Patients will, if possible, leave their arms and accouter-
ments with their companies.

1451. Whenever a soldier is detached from his company or other
organization or station for treatment or observation by and under
control of officers of the Medical Department, his company or other
immediate commander will send the soldier's descriptive list direct
to the medical officer in charge of the hospital or other place to
which the soldier is or has been sent. If the list is not received by
such medical officer in due time, he will make a direct call upon the
proper officer to furnish the list. If no change occurs in the soldier's
military status or accounts while he is under control of the Medical
Department, his original descriptive list will be transmitted to the
several officers under whose charge he comes in the course of sub-
sequent transfers, should such ensue, from hospital to hospital, by
hospital ships, hospital trains, or otherwise, or when he is sent to an
organization or station for duty. In case the soldier is returned or
sent to, or receives a furlough at the expiration of which he is to
return to or join, a particular company or other organization or
station, the list will be sent directly to the immediate commander of
such company or other organization or station. When an original
descriptive list is transmitted as hereinbefore directed, it will be
transmitted within, and by successive indorsements upon, a wrapper
whereon each responsible officer will state expressly that there has
been no change in the soldier's military status cr accounts since he
came under the charge of that officer, will specify the period covered
by that statement, and will state what disposition was made of the
soldier. Each officer so transmitting a descriptive list will retain
a proper record of his action.

If, however, changes occur in a soldier's military status or ac-
counts while he is detached from his company or other organi-
zation or station and is under the control of the Medical Depart-
ment, the responsible medical officer will at once open a new descrip-
tive list from the data shown on the old descriptive list received from
the officer last previously responsible in the case, and will make
such additional entries on the new list as the facts may require.
For his own protection, the officer making the new list will retain
and file, with the records of the place at which the new list is made,



422 ARMY REGULATIONS

the old list with its wrapper, if there is any, bearing the indorsements
of officers previously responsible. If subsequent transfers of the
same soldier are made before or when he passes out of the control
of the Medical Department, the new list so opened will be closed
by the proper entries thereon and filed with the records of the place
at which it was made, and a duplicate of the list so filed will be
transmitted from each responsible officer to another by wrapper
indorsement, -as hereinbefore prescribed, so long as no change in
the list is required.

Whenever a soldier detached from his company or other organi-
zation or station and under control of the Medical Department
passes out of that control, his descriptive list (new or old, as the case
may require under the foregoing provisions of this paragraph) will
be forwarded at once by the responsible officer as follows: (a) In
case of discharge, death, retirement, capture, desertion, return to
duty, or upon receiving a furlough at the expiration of which the
soldier is to return to his company or other organization or station,
or upon being dropped, to the soldier's company or other immediate
commander; (&) in case of transfer to another company or other
organization or station, the list (new or old, as the case requires)
to the immediate commander of the company or other organization
or station to which, and a copy of the list, including copies of any
wrapper indorsements pertaining thereto, to the immediate com-
mander of the company or other organization or station from which,
the soldier is transferred; (c) in case of transfer to the Government
Hospital for the Insane, to the Adjutant General of the Army.

In the cases of soldiers detached from their companies or other



Online LibraryCharles Field MasonA complete handbook for the sanitary troops of the U. S. army and navy and national guard and naval militia → online text (page 31 of 38)