Charles Francis Jenney.

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shown.

There was an industrial exhibition of high order in the hall of
George F. Brackett. On the evening of August fifth, a ball
was held in the Island Inn. Fireworks were set off from the
crest of Manana the next evening.

The Monhegan Cornet Band, organized in the fall of 1913,
rendered most acceptable music. The members of tlie banc!
were: Ulysses T. Wallace (leader), Edward M. Brackett,
Earl S. Field, Eldorus McClain, and Maynard A. Orne,
cornets; Ellsworth H. W'allace, baritone; Maynard Brackett,
Dwight Stanley, and William S. Stanley, alto horns; William
J. Orne, bass horn; George M. Smith, tuba; Charles Field and
George A. Green, trombones; Dexter L. Richards and Otis L.
Thompson, clarinets; George Bellows and Linwood A. Davis,
snare drums; and W. Irving Stanley, bass drum. The
chorus under Mrs. Schmidt's direction added much to the
programme.

Mr. Smith's address was from the heart; in fitting words he
voiced the welcome of the residents of the historic island to
those who were present.

The remarks of Mr. Lee largely consisted of an appreciation
of the island and the joys of individual discovery of its
manifold charms.

The address which Mr. Baxter was unable to deliver had
particular reference to Captain John Smith and his voyage.
It was printed in the Lewiston Journal of August 6, 1914.
That of Mr. Jenney, rewritten and much enlarged, forms the
basis of the accompanying essay.

The inscription upon the bronze tablet was by the Rev.
Henry S. Burrage, D. D., State Historian, whose absence in
England prevented his further participation. The legend is
reproduced at the end of this appendix. There are at least
two other memorials in New England to Smith; one upon
Star Island, Isle of Shoals, and the other at Cohasset,
Massachusetts.



1)7

A lisl of committees follows:

Maine Historical Society — Hon. Joseph E. Moore, Thomaston, Hon.

Barrett Potter, Brunswick.
General — George E. Smith, Chairman, William S. Stanley, George Clowes

Everett, Secretary.
Reception — Daniel Mansfield Davis, William Claus, Charles H. Ebert,

.\rthar W. Peirce, Bert Poole, Miss Alice A. Swett, Mrs. Edwin C.

Jenney, Mrs. Arthur W. Peirce, Mrs. Charles F. Jennej'.
Finance — Frank C. Pierce, Linwood A. Davis, Arthur W. Peirce, Edwin

C. Jenney, Frederick C. Staples, Charles F. Jenney.
Entertainment — Mrs. George Clowes Everett, Mrs. Edward F. Brackett,

Miss Angle C. Tribler, Miss Elthea P. Sterling, Mrs. Daniel

Stevens, Mrs. Frederick A. Stream, Miss Olga Stevens.
Art Exhibition — George Bellows, Charles H. Ebert, Frederick J. \\'augh,

Wilson Irvine.
Industrial Exhibition — Misses Nellie M. Humphrey, Mattie J. Winchen-

baeh, Myra E. Stanley, Elva I. Brackett, Mildred E. Brackett,

Josephine F. Davis, Alice M. Davis.
Ball — Frank C. Pierce, Edward H. Snow, Mrs. Frank C. Pierce, Mrs.

Charles F. Jenney.
Decorations — John Field, Frederick A. Stream, Dexter L. Richards,

Daniel Mansfield Davis, Miss Elthea P. Sterling, Mrs. George

Bellows, Mrs. Charles H. Ebert, Mrs. George Clowes Everett,

Mrs. Frederick A. Stream.
Construction — William S. Stanley, George Pedley, Thomas Fernald,

William I. Stanley, Linwood A. Davis.
Fireworks — Eugene W. Osgood, Frank C. Pierce.
Programme — Frederick C. Staples, Charles F. Jenney.



CAPTAIN JOHN SMITH

ADVENTURER IN MANY OLD WORLD COUNTRIES

A PIONEER IN THE NEW WORLD

GOVERNOR OF VIRGINIA

CAME HERE WITH TWO VESSELS IN 1614

ANCHORED IN THIS ISLAND HARBOR

.\ND EXPLORED THE COAST FROM PENOBSCOT BAY TO CAPE COD

DISCOVERING A LARGE OPPORTUNITY

FOR ADDING TO ENGLAND'S GLORY BY COLONIZATION

HE RETURNED HOME AND SPENT HIS REMAINING YEARS

IN ADVANCING AMERICAN ENTERPRISES

BECAUSE OF HIS GREAT INTEREST IN THE FUTURE OF AMERICA

AND TO COMMEMORATE HIS CONNECTION WITH THIS ISLAND

THIS TERCENTENARY TABLET IS PLACED

BY MONHEGAN RESIDENTS

1914



68

II.

The Monhegan Light and Manana Fog Signal Stations.

(Compiled from information furnished by the Bureau of
Light Houses.)

The estabhshment of a lighthouse on Monhegan Island
was provided for bv act of Congress, approved on May 7,
1822, appropriating $3,000 therefor. The contract for' the
erection of the tower and keeper's dwelling was made on
Nov. 1, 1823, and that for the illuminating apparatus, on
December 20, 1823, the apparatus consisting of ten lamps,
with 16-inch reflectors, producing a red and white light at
each revolution. The height of this light above the sea, or
high-water mark, was 170 feet. On June 24, 1850, a contract
was entered into for rebuilding the tower. On its completion
the number of lamps was increased to fourteen, with 21-inch
reflectors. In 1856, the present second-order Fresnel lens was
installed.

The light produced is fixed white, varied by a white flash.
The lens, the shape of which is hke a huge acorn, is mounted on
eight brass trucks which rest on a flat, hardened steel plate
upon which it revolves, the motive power being furnished by
clock work operated by a heavy weight ; moving very slowly it
makes one revolution in eight minutes, a new face flashing into
view for a period of 5.6 seconds in each minute. The lens is
octagonal; in each of the eight faces there is a panel with a
centerpiece or bulls-eye, flat on the inside and convex on the
outside. Around each centerpiece is a series of circular rings
or prisms which collect the otherwise diverging rays; thus
those which emanate from above and below the focus are
refracted and sent out to the horizon parallel to the beam from
the bulls-eye. The beam from each panel or face has 160,000
candle power and is called the flash. If there were no prisms
around the bulls-eyes, there would be no separate rays.
However, the rays, concentrated as described, constitute the
flashes and result in the dark spot or eclipse between them.
The fixed light of 1400 candle power is caused by rays filtering
through the lens between the flashes, for the lens is wholly
transparent. Thus an observer stationed fifteen miles away
can see a dim light in the intervals between the flashes.

Above and below the panels described are other prisms
which are arranged like the leaves of a window blind. These
refract and reflect light from the part of the lens abo\'(' and
below the concentric rings, thus directing horizontally the
rays passing through them.

The illuminant was sperm oil from the time of the establish-
ment of the station to the year 1865 when a change was made



69

to lard oil. This was used until 1883, when kerosene, the
present illuniinant, was introduced. On September 25, 1912,
an incandescent oil vapor lamp was installed, increasing the
intensity of the flash from 59,000 to 160,000 candlepower.

The lamp burns a vapor or gas, using a special Welsbach
mantle with no chimney. The oil is contained in a fifteen
gallon brass tank and is fed through a small copper tube to a
preheating tank in the lens below the mantle under a pressure
of seventy pounds per square inch supplied by a hand air pump
mounted on the supply tank. Since the lamp must be heated
in order to generate gas with which to light it, alcohol is used
for that ijurpose; after it is lighted it furnishes its own heat.
The flow of oil to the lamp is controUcfl l)y a three-wa.y valve
within the lens. In one position the valve is clo.sed, in another
the oil is let into the preheater, and in the third the preheater
is drained. To put the hght out, the preheater is drained
and the light goes out at once. The present hght is 178 feet
above highwater mark, and its flash is visible in clear weather
at a distance of twenty miles.

The act of Congress, approved on August 3, 1854, appro-
priated the sum of .1?3,.^00 for the establishment of a fog signal
and the erection on Manana Island of a dwelling for its keeper.
The following year there was installed a bell weighing 2500
pounds. This bell for a time was struck by hand during
foggy weather, but later machinery was provided for its op-
eration. In 1870, a six-inch Ericsson engine and a ten-inch
DavoU trumpet, giving blasts of fifteen seconds' duration
with silent intervals of forty seconds, was installed; and two
years later this equipment was replaced by a six-inch steam
fog whistle, giving two blasts of five seconds' duration each
minute. In 1877, a new fog signal was installed which emitted
blasts of fifteen seconds' duration at intervals of forty seconds.
In 1900, the characteristic of the fog signal was changed to
blasts of ten seconds' duration with silent intervals of twenty
seconds. In place of the first-class Davoll trumpet, in 1912
there was installed a first-class air siren, giving a group of
three l)lasts of three seconds' duration every sixty seconds.

KEEPERS OF THE LIGHT STATION.

Thom.\s B. Seavy Jiilv 2, 1824-Angust 18, 1834

George B. Wormell August 19, 1834-Julv 2, 1841

Samuel Albee July 3, 1841-March 31, 1845

Francis Pierce April 1, 1845-June 8, 1849

John Hatch June 9, 1849-November 20, 1849

James Wallace, 2nd Nov. 11, 1849-April 7, 1853

Thomas Orne* April 8, 1853-March 2, 1857



♦Formerly a resident on the island. The name then had usually been written as Horn.



70



Francis A. Handley
Joseph F. Humphrey
Mrs. Betsy Humphrey
Sidney G. Studley
William Stanley
Daniel Stevens
Herbert Robinson
Maurice M. Weaver



March 2, 1857-March 29, 1861
March 29, 1861-Deceiiil)pr 5, 1862
April, 1862-August, 1880
August, 1880-March, 1883
March, 1883-September, 1902
September, 1902-May 31, 1919
June 1, 1919-June 30, 1922
Julv 1, 1922-



ASSISTANT KEEPERS.



Sylvester Davis*
Thomas Kinney*
David N. Bond
D. Lermond
Henry T. Studley*
Elisha B. Davis
Thomas Hall*
Francis A. Brackett*
Bradbury Emerson,* 1st Asst.
Sidney G. Studley, 2ncl "
Andrew J. Marston,* 1st "
Frank E. Adams,* " "

Sidney G. Studley
Fred F. Humphrey
Charles M. Griffin
Walter S. Adams
Leo Allen
Jerome C. Brawn
Charles H. Newman
Maurice M. Weaver
Lester Leighton
w. w. corbett
Harold L Hutchins



October 15, 1855-February, 27, 1857
February 27, 1857-March 29, 1861
February 27, 1857-January 31, 1859
February 1, 1859-March 29, 1861
March 29, 1861-November 19, 1870
March 29, 1861-November 9, 1872
November 19, 1870-May 29, 1871
Mav 29, 1871-December, 1872
December 13, 1872-October 30, 1873
December 14, 1872-March, 1878
December 26, 1873-February 28, 1876
March 16, lS76-April 11, 1876
March, lS78-August, 1880
August, 1880-June, 1901
June, 1901-March, 1904
March, 1904-October, 1907
October, 1907-April, 1909
April, 1909-October, 1909
October, 1909-Sept.eml)er, 1911
September, 1911-March, 1913
March, 1913-June, 1914
June, 1914-Scptember 30, 1920
November 1, 1920-Janiuiry 31, 1922**



KEEPERS OF THE FOG SIGNAL STATION.



Frank E. Adams
John W. Williams
Charles S. Williams
Daniel Stevens
Frank C. Pierce
Charles G. Dy'er



April 11, 1876-March 24, 1878
March 25, 1878- January, 1883
January, 1883-Juiie, 1890
June, 1890-September, 1902
September, 1902-November 2, 1916
November 3, 1916-



ASSISTANT KEEPERS.



Frank C. Pierce
Edward S. Farren
Eugene W. Osgood



February, 1895-September, 1902
September, 1902-March,1913
March 1913-



Before 1876 the fog signal station was in care of the keepers of the light.



♦Indicates that these men were detailed in charge of the fog signal on Manana Island.
**The position of assistant keeper was abolished on January 31, 1922.



71

III.

Post Office.*

(Compiled from information furnished by the Post Office
Department.)

Service was estabhshed in 1883 from Port Clyde to Mon-
hegan on Tuesday and Saturday, the schedule providing that
the carrier should leave Port Clyde at 1 p. m., arrive at
Monhegan at 6 p. m., leave Mongegan at 7 a. m., and
arrive at Port Clyde at 12 m. Effective on March 22, 1884,
an order was issued that Port Clyde be omitted and the route
begun at Boothbay, the carrier leaving Boothbay at 12:30 p. M.,
arriving at Monhegan at 6:30 p. m., leaving Monhegan at
6:30 A. M., and arriving at Boothbay at 11:30 a. m.

The route and schedule were reversed June 1, 1885, Monhe-
gan being made the head of the route.

In 1889, upon the division of Boothbay, the terminus on the
mainland became Boothbay Harbor. The schedule in
effect for the contract term beginning July 1, 1889, was as
follows: Monhegan to Boothbay Harbor, three times a week
on Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday, from April 1 to Novem-
ber 30, and twice a week on Tuesday and Saturday, from
December 1 to March 31 of each year. No change was made
until June 1, 1902, when an order was issued increasing the
service to six times a week, from June 1 to September 30 of
each year and the winter service to three times a week.

Effective July 1, 1908, service was established between
Thomaston and Monhegan, six times a week between June 1,
and September 30, service being performed the remainder of
the year from Monhegan to Boothbay Harbor, three times a
week, by a schedule satisfactory to the department.

The postmasters at Monhegan, and the dates of their
appointments are as follows: Lewis L. Lowell, March 27, 1882;
Edmund P. Stevens, Mav 14, 1883; Mary Stevens, August 11,
1884; Daniel M. Davis,' April 14, 1891; and Elva B. Moody,
August 8, 1919.



♦See also page 60 ante. Since the main part of this essay has been in print, Mr. George
C. Danforth of Augusta has kindly furnished a copy of the original field notes as to the
establishment of the triangulation station on Station Hill of the U. S. Coast and Geo-
detic Survey, in which under the date of September 6, 1852, it is stated: "Post-office
is Friendship. The mail every Thursday. Letters are carried to and from the island
by private opportunities which occur frequently,"



72
IV.

^'ALUATION.



1841






$20,095


1860






23,740


1870






24,345


1880






10,305


1890






11,516


1900






22,824


1910






69,453


1916


Real Estate


$87,920






Personal Estate


6,850


94,770


1917


Real Estate


89,724






Personal Estate


11,729


101,453


1918


Real Estate


90,619






Personal Estate


9,225


99,844


1919


Real Estate


91,685






Personal Estate


10,215


101,900


1920


Real Estate


90,268






Personal Estate


6,237


96,505


1921


Real Estate


93,044






Personal Estate


5,677


98,721


1922


Real Estate


95,021






Personal Estate


5,941


100,962



73

V.
Civil War.

In the Civil War, Monhcgan men did valiant service on land
and sea. No quota rolls exist, and those who enlisted are
credited to other places.

The roll of honor is as follows:

Henry Blanchard. The place and date of his birth have
not been ascertained. His father, James Blanchard of
Provincetown, Massachusetts, on April 25, 1830, married a
second wife, Eliza A. Bond, who, surviving him, brought up
the subject of this sketch. As to her, see infra under David M.
Bond. Henry Blanchard was in the Navy in 1862-3 upon the
U. S. S. San Jacinto. In 1872, he sailed out of Gloucester on a
fishing voyage to the Grand Banks, and the vessel and her
crew were never heard from.

David Morrill Bond, son of David N. and Roxanna A.
(Holmes) Bond, was born in Jefferson on April 9, 1844.
David N. Bond was born in that town on November 30, 1809,
and died in Corinth on June 30, 1861. His wife was born in
Belfast on May 18, 1814, and died in Waldoboro on October 4,
1853. On April 23, 1857, he married Eliza A. (Bond) Blanch-
ard, widow, who was born in JefTcrson on July 14, 1811, and
who died in St. George on December 23, 1892. David N.
was an assistant keeper of the Monhegan light from February
27, 1857, to January 31, 1859. After his death, his widow
returned to Monhegan where David M., his brothers, and
Henry Blanchard lived when they enlisted. David Morrill
Bond served in the Navy for one year in 1862-3, and for the
greater part of the time was in Albermarle Sound, N. C.
On June 25, 1865, he was killed by falling from aloft while on a
voyage from Cuba to New York in the l«irk Hunter of Port-
land, and was buried at sea.

John H. Bond (brother of David M.) was born in Waldoboro
on September 27, 1846, and now resides at Hempstead, Long
Island, N. Y. He enlisted in the Navy on August 24, 1864,
for one year, serving on the U. S. S. Sahine. He was dis-
charged at Newport in August, 1865. Since the war Capt.
Bond has followed the sea. In May, 1873, in St. George, he
married Rosa S. Seavey who is still living.

Lucius H. Bond, (brother of David M.) was born in
Jefferson on July 27, 1841, and died unmarried at St. George,
on August 11, 1917. He enlisted on April 30, 1861, in Com-
pany H, 6th Maine Infantry; he was mustered in at Portland
on July 15, 1861, for three years; was honorably discharged on



74

January 13, 1863, for disability; reen]isted in Company L, 2d
Maine Cavalry on December 12, 1SG3; mustered in at Augusta
on December 24, 1863, for three years; mustered out and
honoral)ly discharged on December 6, 1865. He resided in
Martinsville in St. George for many years.

Francis Geyer, son of Henry and Elizabeth (Studley)
Geyer, was born in Monhegan on September 21, 1845. While
residing in Friendship, on August 12, 1862, he enlisted in Co I,
20th Maine Volunteers, and was mustered in at Portland on
August 29, 1862, for three years; he was transferred on
September 6, 1863, to Co. K, 3rd Veteran Reserve Corps; and
was musteretl out and honorably discharged on July 5, 1865.
He married (1) Hattie M. Fierce, who died in 1868, (2) in
July, 1869, Mary E. Thompson, who died in 1905. He
resides in Friendship.

Albert E. Humphrey, son of Joseph F. and Betsy (Morrow)
Humphrey, who resided with his father, the lighthouse
keeper at Monhegan, was born in Bristol on March 20, 1845.
He enlisted in Company E, 20th Maine Infantry on August 5,
1862; was mustered in at Portland on August 29, 1862, for
three years, and laid down his life for his country at Spot-
sylvania Court House, Virginia, on May 8, 1864. His body
was not identified. This brave man rose from his bed in a
convalescent hospital to take part in the battle, doing this
against the protest of those in charge saying that he would
rather die fighting for his country than in bed.

Edward A. Humphrey, brother of the last, who was born in
Bristol on September 24, 1839, and likewise resided with his
father, was also a member of Company E, 20th Maine Infan-
try, and was discharged for disability on March 2, 1863. He
died a resident of Boston on September 16, 1902.

Augustus P. Richards, son of Vincent P. and Mary
(Burns) Richards, was born in Bristol on March 15, 1845.
He resided in Monhegan, enlisted in the Navy at Portland
on August 24, 1864, and was discharged on June 6, 1865. He
died in Somerville, Massachusetts, on December 25, 1921,
leaving a wife, Harriet N., surviving him.

Charles L. West, son of WiUiam and Maria (Humphrey)
West, was born in Hallowell on February 28, 1842. He en-
listed in the Navy on September 2, 1862, served on the re-
ceiving ship Ohio, and afterward on the U. S. S. San Jacinto.
He died in South Portland on September 16, 1904.

John E. West, brother of Charles L. and about four years
his junior, in 1863 enlisted in the navy for three years and
soon after died at the Naval Hospital in Charlestown, Massa-
chusetts.



75

Blanchard and the Bond l^rothers lived in the house formerly
owned by William Bainljridge Davis; Geyer's residence, while
in Monhegan, was in the Studley house where Otis Thompson
and George Cook now reside; Richards lived in the house now
of Alonzo I. Pierce, and the West brothers in that now of S. P.
R. Triscott.



76

VI.

World War.

Those who served in the military or naval service in this
greatest of all conflicts, are:

LiNwooD FossETT McLain, son of Alexander and Lois
(Jones) McLain, who was born in New Harbor, on January
20, 1888, enlisted on October 2, 1917, and was at Camp Devens,
Massachusetts, until June 1, 1918, serving; in Battery B, 303d
Field Artillery and Company B, 602 Engineers; next, he was
at Camp Laurel, Maryland. He left for France on July 14,
1918, and was at Villeneuve. While in France, he was
transferred to the U. S. Tug (■iralia of which he was acting
Night Captain, with the rank of Master Engineer, senior
grade, and as such was in service in Nantes and Havre. He
was discharged at Camp Devens, on May 26, 1919. At
present, he is master of the U. S. Shipping Board steamship
West Cmnpgaw, which is engaged in transatlantic voyages.

Joseph Adolphe Stevens, son of Daniel and Marie
(Carbonnier) Stevens, who was born in Newcastle, N. H., on
June 7, 1888, reported at Wiscasset on March 30, 1918, and
enlisted at Camp Devens on April 1 of that year. He was
in the 22d Company of the 151st Depot Brigade, serving only
at Camp Devens where he was discharged on December 4,
1918. He is now in the service of the Light House Department.

Roland Silas Stevens (brother of Joseph Adolphe), who
was born in West Harbor, Maine, on May 27, 1892, enlisted at
Camp Devens on October 2, 1917, and served there and at
Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia. At the latter place he was in the
Officers' Training School, and was enrolled in Dental Co. No. 1
in the Medical Department. He had leave of absence in
order to finish his course in the dental school of Tufts College
where he was graduated in 1918. He was discharged on
December 18, 1918. He is a graduate of Dean Academy,
Franklin, Massachusetts, and has practiced at Lynn, Massa-
chusetts, but is at present convalescing from an illness that
has interrupted his professional pursuits.

Fred L. Young, son of Hiram and Janette (Davis) Young,
who was born in Cushing, on January 28, 1889, was inducted
into service at Wiscasset on January 14, 1918. He was at
Fort Williams, Portland, from January 14, 1918, to August 6,
1918, and afterwards in the overseas training camps at St.
Leonards and Limoges. His service in the American Expedi-
tionarv Force in the supply companv of the 72nd Regiment
Artillery, C. A. C. was from August 6, 1918, to March 29, 1919.



77

He was discharged at Camp Grant, Illinois, on April 20, 1919,
and now resides in Friendship.

Everett Leland Wincapaw, son of Frank L. and Carrie J.
(Davis) Wincapaw, who was born on April 4, 1890, was
inducted into service at Fort McKinley, Portland, on Decem-
ber 15, 1917. He served in the American Expeditionary
Force as a member of Battery E, 54th Artillery, C. A. C. and
afterwards in Battery B, 51st Artillery, C.A. C. He left for
France on March 24, 1918, and returned on February 3, 1919,
being discharged at Fort Hamilton on February 14, 1919. He
was at the front fiom April 4, 1918, to November 11, 1918,
and was engaged in attack on the salient of St. Mihiel on
September 12, 1919, and in subsequent operations in the St.
Mihiel section. He now resides in Monhegan.

Monhegan purchased Liberty Bonds to the amount of
$22,150, moi-e than three times its allotment, — a most
remarkable record. Its Red Cross society was exceedingly
active and efficient.

During the war, a station of the coast patrol was established
on the island, at first at the Light House and later at barracks
erected upon White Head.



78

VII.

Ancient Ruins.

"FisheniKMi and settlers also established themselves aljout
this time at Hagadahoc, Merry-meeting, Cape Newagin, Pem-
aquid and St. Oeorge's, as well as at Damariscove and other
islands; though at St. George's it is believed there were not
as yet any permanent residents. Adventurers from other
nations also frequented the coast; and it is said that the
Dutch as early as 1607 and again in 1625 attempted to settle
at Damariscotta. Cellars and chimneys, apparently of great
antiquity, have been found in the town of Newcastle; and
copper knives and spoons of antique and singular fashion, are
occasionally dug up with the supposed Indian skeletons at
the present day, indicating an early intercourse between the
natives of the two continents. Similar utensils and the foun-
dations of chimneys, now many feet under ground, have also
been discovered on Monhcgan, as well as on Carver's island
at the entrance of the St. George's river, where are said to l)e
also the remains of a stone house." Eaton, "Annals of
Warren," (1851) 17. See p. 46 ante; also de Peyster, "The
Dutch in Maine," (N.Y., 1857) and Appendix thereto (1858).



Grateful acknowledgment is made to Mr. George C. Danforth, Chief
Engineer Maine Water Power Commission, for his kindness in permitting
the reproduction of his vahiable map.

On page 37, in line 2.3, for "WilUam Alexander, the first Earl of
Stirling," substitute "William, Lord Alexander, son of the first Earl of


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Online LibraryCharles Francis JenneyThe fortunate island of Monhegan; → online text (page 6 of 7)