Charles Francis Massy Sir Lepel Henry Griffin.

The Panjab chiefs: historical and biographical notices of the ..., Volume 2 online

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granted as a return for his services, the value of which is set
forth in a letter of the Board of Administration in the follow-
ing terms : " He is the only Sikh oflScer in the Panjab who
not only remained faithful to his trust, but, by his ability and
address, managed to keep his regiment faithful also." Shortly
after he had taken up the honourable and responsible duties of
his new command at Amritsar, hearing one day that two drunken
European soldiers were making a disturbance in the bazar,
he went to persuade them to return to their barracks in Fort
Qovindgarh. While he was trying to get them to leave the
city, one of them seized a sword lying in a shop and killed the
old man by a blow on the neck. Thus died, after long years
of service, every one of which was marked by some stout
action or feat of arms, one of the bravest and most blameless
of a gallant and loyal race. The Governor-General of India,
in a letter written on receiving news of the murder, while
expressing the personal esteem he felt for the deceased,
speaks of his death as ** a public loss to the State he had
served so well." In the same letter the Viceroy sanctioned

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the continuance of the Bs. 300 jagir to tHe heirs male of
Colonel Jiwan Singh in perpetuity, and in addition sanctioned
the allotment of Bs. 2,000 per annum in cash pensions to
several members of the family. The Commander-in-Chief
published a special General Order lamenting his loss.

The next brother, Sardar Sham Singh, a cavalry oflBcer
under Kharak Singh, lost his life at the hands of a roving
band of dacoits when on his way to Peshawar to rejoin his
regiment from leave in 1843. His widow and three sons
were each granted a small pension by the British Govern-
ment. Sardar Fateh Singh joined the Sher Dil Begiment
some time after his brother, and was confirmed subsequently
as a Subadar in the 19th Panjab Infantry. He served
throughout the Mutiny with distinction, and retired on an
invaUd pension in 1869.

Sardar Kahan Singh began his career under General
Avitabile, and was present in the Ehaibar Pass actions and
throughout the Yusufzai Campaign. He served with the
Sher Dils in the Satlaj Campaign. He conunanded the Jail
guard at Lahore and suppressed the prisoners' revolt in
1848-49. He then entered the 30th Panjab Infantry, and
went through the Mutiny as a Subadar. He rose to be
Subadar-Major, and served through the Bhutan Campaign of
1864-65, retiring shortly afterwards. He died in 1876.

The yoimgest of the six brothers, Sardar Ishar Singh, was
also trained by Colonel Jiwan Singh ; and from being an
oflBcer in the family regiment became a Subadar in the 19th
Panjab Infantry. With the latter he served throughout the
Mutiny, and was decorated with the Order of Merit for his
conduct at Dehli. He died in 1863 of heart disease, leaving
one son, Basant Singh, who is now a Deputy Inspector of
Police in the Panjab.

Colonel Jiwan Singh left two sons. Sardar Sant Singh,
the elder, first saw active service under General Avitabile at

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Peshawar when he was quite a boy. When his father was
murdered, the Viceroy specially sent him as an Assistant to
General John Nicholson, then employed in bringing the
Bannu frontier into order. On the outbreak of the Mutiny
he was given a separate command of two himdred men of his
father's old corps and entrusted with independent duties in
Kangra. As a reward for his services he was appointed an
Inspector of Police, and continued to do good work in his
new capacity until his retirement on pension in 1867. His
two widows now receive a joint yearly pension of Rs. 350.

The younger brother, Sardar Jagat Singh, has also done
much to emulate the brilliant career of his father. Bom in
1838, he was a mere boy when Sir John Lawrence called on
the family to furnish recruits for Dehli in 1857. He at once
joined at Kangra with one hundred and twenty men, and was
given a commission as Subadar in the 29th Panjab Infantry.
Young as he was, he was appointed Subadar-Major during
the Mutiny, a position he held until his retirement in
1882. He served with the 29th in the Bhutan and Jawaki
Expeditions, and went through both phases of the Afghan
Campaign. He won the Order of Merit for conspicuous gal-
lantry at the storming of the Paiwar Kotal on 2nd December
1878, and was granted the Order of British India. All
British officers who have come in contact with him, and
notably General John Gordon, who is best qualified to judge,
testify how worthily he has upheld, by his gallantry, military
capacity and simple courtesy, the proud record of his house.

He lives at Kalalwala, and employs his abiUties and
personal influence in the service of Government as President
of the District Board. He has a family of four sons and four
daughters. The eldest daughter is the wife of Sardar
Jamneja Singh, 1st Panjab Cavalry, son of Sardar Indar
Singh, Attach^ to the Lieutenant-Governor of the Panjab.
The eldest son, Partab Singh, has married the daughter of

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Sardar Hari Singh^ son of Sardar Lai Singli Talwandi, of the
Bandhawah family.

Sardar Jagat Singh has an estate of two hundred and
fifty acres, which yields an annual income of Rs. 1,000. He
enjoys the following jagirs : the revenue of Mauza Sangah,
Bs. 300 per annum, assigned to himself and his heirs male in
perpetuity. Rupees 350 per annum, being the share assigned
to him out of the jagir of his father, Colonel Jiwan Singh.
Military pension of Rs. 2,128 per annum. The income of
two himdred and fifty acres of land, amounting to Rs. 1,100
per annum, granted by Government as a reward for his
distinguished military services.



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Likbft fl h*£^t SiikliA Singh* Jodh Elbigh«
I Amirfliiiglu

JMUSingh. BhagBingh. DAyalBinglu DalBisgb* FatehSingk,
KiBiK Sniai. Budba Singly

Ghmnan, the founder of the Sidhu Jat tribe, came originally
from Bhata, in Malwa, about three hundred years ago, during
the reign of the Emperor Akbar, at the invitation of the famous
Chaudhri Changa, whose daughter he married, and settled near
Taran Taran in the Amritsar district, where he founded a
village named Sidhu, which is still the residence of one part
of the family. The four branches of the family now of any
importance will be treated of in order; but although once
very powerful and in possession of large jagirs, the Sidhus
have now fallen into decay and have little or no political

Kapur Singh, the seventh in descent from Ghuman, the
founder of Sidhu, lived during the reign of Mahomed Shah,
and first became distinguished as the successful plunderer of
an imperial caravan proceeding with rich gifts from Dehli to
Mecca. The caravan was, however, robbed on strictly
religious principles, and the silver doors of the Darahcmi of
the Amritsar temple bear witness to this day to the piety
of the robbers. Kapur Singh obtained both wealth and
reputation by this exploit ; and his wife and the wife of the
powerful Sardar Gujar Singh happening to be both pregnant
at the time, it was agreed that if a boy and a girl were bom
they should be at once betrothed. The wife of Kapur Singh
""^ soon after gave birth to a son, the famous Jodh Siugh ; and
Sardar Gujar Singh's wife giving birth to a girl the children
were betrothed, and when they grew up were married. The
^hree sons of Kapur Singh acquired separate estates. Sukha

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Singh took possession of Uthian ; Lakha Singh of Awan ; and
Jodh Singh seized at different times a great part of the
Sowrian pargana, inclusive of the Ilakas of Jagdeo, Ghani-
wala, Karial and Sowrian, worth about Es. 1,50,000. The
estates of Sukha Singh and Lakha Singh may have been each
worth Rs. 20,000. The reputation of Jodh Singh for bravery
was great. He joined Ban jit Singh just before the attempt on
Lahore in 1799 ; and that Chief is reported to have said that
Jodh Singh's adhesion to his cause outweighed the hostility of
all the other Bhangis. It is certain that his influence with
Chet Singh of Lahore had much to do with Banjit Singh's
peaceful occupation of the city.

Sardar Jodh Singh held his possessions intact through a
long life of war and commotion ; and his son Amir Singh was
equally fortunate, and was treated with great consideration by
Maharaja Banjit Singh. But soon after the death of Amir
Singh in 1825 the whole estate was confiscated, with other
jagirs belonging to the different members of this family, and
the irregular force of the Sardar was placed under the com-
mand of Prince Sher Singh. The five sons of Sukha Singh
received Bs. 5,000 a year in addition to the pay of the
military appointments they held.

Karam Singh, the present representative of the family,
served in many campaigns, including those of Teri,
Peshawar and Hazara. He received under the Darbar
Bs. 1,800 per annum, subject to the service of three sowars.
He joined, with other members of his family, the rebel army
in 1848, and his jagir and allowances were consequently
resumed ; but he received a pension of Bs. 240, and also had
proprietary rights over half the village of Uthian, where he

Since annexation the family has gradually sunk in im-
portance, and none of its members now take any share in
public life.

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jMa Singh



8her Singh
p. 1814.

Badbn Bhom B.Onmmkh Utam Singh
Singh. Singh. Sinsh p. 18M.

9. ido. i

Atar Singh
p. 1887.






Dewa Singh.

p. 1884.



8. Xamib SnroB Payal
p. 1887.

Gnrbakhsh Singh
p. 1840.


ICit Singh.



Singh Jagai Singh
p. 1888. p. 1800.

NarinjaA Singh
p. 1888.

Sant Singh
p. 1878.


p. 18



The original home of the Chaohi family is not certainly
known^ though, being of the Kohli Khatri tribe, its ancestor
in all probability emigrated from Bhatnir to the Panjab,
where he settled at Salargah in Cbach, whence the title Chachi
of the family is taken.

Sardar Tahal Singh first entered the service of the
Ehatar Sardars, but later joined Sardar Charat Singh
Sukarchakia when that Chief was becoming powerful, and
received from him jagirs to the amount of Bs. 36,700 at Mian
Daud Khel, Lawa and Dalar. This was in the year 1741.
Tahal Singh made conquests on his own account, and captured
the forts of Dawar and Mapal from the Fathans of Makhad,
both of which places he held till 1786. On the death of Tahal

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Singh his three sons succeeded to all his jagirs. Jasa Singh
died soon after his father; but Sardars Sher Singh and Fateh
Singh throughout the early years of Ranjit Singh's reign
did excellent service, and received large additions to their
estates at Bharatpur, Sahiwal, Kunja and elsewhere to the
value of Rs. 53,000. The brothers served at Kask in the Find
Dadan Ehan district against the Janjoahs at Findi Gheb and
Jhang, and joined the first unfortunate expedition against
Kashmir in 1814, in which both were slain. On their death
the Find Dadan Khan jagirs and that of Abdal in Gujranwala
were resumed. Gurmukh Singh and Sadhu Singh were taken
into the Ghorchara Kalan, in which the former remained till
his death in 1829. He left one daughter, who married Nahal
Singh, who took the name of Ohachi, and was allowed to hold
his father-in-law's jagir of Chakori in Gujranwala.

TJtam Singh, eldest son of Sher Singh, succeeded to the
family estate in Gujrat and Gujranwala, and the same year
the Maharaja gave to the second son, Atar Singh, the Lawa
estate which had formerly been in possession of the family.
TJtam Singh served with his contingent at the seige of
Multan in 1818, and afterwards retired to Lawa, where he was
killed in 1826 in a revenue afiray with the zamindars. The
Maharaja resumed all his jagirs, with the exception oi Mian'
Daud Khel and Lawa, worth Bs. 21,200, which descended to
his son Jiwan Singh. The new Sardar was not perhaps so
fond of fighting as some of his family, but he had his fair share
nevertheless. His contingent consisted of sixty-five horse, five
zamburas or camel swivels, and a kettlednmi, the sound of
which was well known all along the frontier. He served at
Bannu, Tank and Mitha Tawana, where he was wounded, axid
at Feshawar, where in the fatal battle of Jamrud his uncle
Atar Singh was slain. For some eight years he was stationed
at Dera Ismail Khan, and had there plenty of work to do, as
the border tribes were fierce haters of the Sikhs and gave him

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much trouble. After the Satlaj War he was posted, with his
son, at Kachi under the orders of General Van Cortlandt,
but soon after returned home, leaving Gurdit Singh with the
contingent. He returned to his post, however, soon after
Edwardes arrived in Bannu, and with his son, who was at
this time a mere boy, served to the close of the Second Sikh
War. Sardar Jiwan Singh was one of the few Chiefs who
remained loyal to the end ; and of his fifty-five horsemen, only
two during the whole siege of Multan deserted to the enemy.
On annexation his service jagirs were resumed ; but his per-
sonal jagirs, amounting to Rs. 7,000, at Mian Daud Khel and
Salargah, the last of which had been in the family ever since
1741, were released to him for life, one half to descend in
perpetuity. Sardar Jiwan Singh died in 1852.

Sardar Gurdit Singh did good service in 1857, raising
a force of twenty -five sowars and guarding the ferry at Wazir-
abad. He also raised five sowars for service in Oudh, and
received in recognition of his loyalty a khilat of three
hundred rupees.

Of the three sons of Jit Singh Chachi, Gurbakhsh Singh
the eldest was killed in 1845 at Firozshahar. The second son,
Mohar Singh, who had served in the same regiment as his
brother, was in 1848 in the Ghorchara Kalan under Ganpat
Rai. He went over with Sardar Sher Singh to Mulraj at
Multan, and obtaining from the Atariwala Chief a grant of the
whole of the Lawa jagir, in which he was legally a third
sharer, he went ofE to take possession. But Amir Davi and
Hukam Davi, the widows of Atar Singh and Gurbakhsh Singh,
held out gallantly in the Lawa fort ; for the Chachi women
can fight as bravely as the men ; and Sher Mahomed Khan
Tawana coming to the rescue of the ladies, Mohar Singh was
compelled to return to Sher Singh completely disappointed,
and his rightful share of the jagir was confiscated for his rebel-
lion. He entered the service of the English Government in

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1857 and, marcluDg down into Hindustan, died in harness
like most of his family.

Sardar Mohar Singh, eldest son of Qurdit Singh, is now
at the head of the Chachis. He and his brother Jagat Singh
live at Jhilam and look after the family property in that
district. The second brother, Sardar Dayal Singh, lives at
Wazirabad, Gujranwala, and holds the post of Sub-Registrar.

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Piwan Singh.

Bbttnran Sbuch. 8. Dluunun Singh. KarMn Singh. 8. Sham Singh Bam Singh.

In. 1818.
^__ I

8. GandL Singh Bari'singh «"^ ^^."^ ^^'^'^

n. 184ff. n. 1880.

Ladha Singh Nahal Singh Hahtab Singh Mai Singh

B. 1868; n. 1864. n. 1886. B. 1880.

Ganda Singh Balwjlxx SxvaB | | BakhahiBh

B. 1880. B. I860. Arian Singh Snohet Singh B^^jg^L

B. 1869. B. 1870. ». 18^


B.KarpalSingh Dayal Singh Partab Singh JawaU Singh.
Kimjahlir B.1830. B. 1827. B. 1082.

B.1882. I '


Kahan Waaaka Nandn Ghodun Sardnl Gnrbakhsh
Singh Singh Singh Sinjrh Singh Singh

B.l^. B.1640. B. 1800. B.1861. B. 1860. 8.1800.

( I [ Rairhbir

Gnrmakh Jawahir Ikbal Singh

Singh Singh, Singh B. 1881.

sTliMS. a. 1872. B.1%0.

In the old days of the Mahomedan power, long before
the Sikhs obtained possession of the Panjab, an ancestor of
Sardar Jhanda Singh went to Pak Patan to visit a celebrated
mendicant, probably Baba Farid, who resided there, hoping
to obtain an heir by the blessing of the holy man. For long he
waited upon him and prepared his food, and at length
obtained the blessing he sought. From this religious service
he obtained the name, of Marwian, or steward, which still
belongs to the Botalia family.

Dhana Singh was an associate of Sardar Nodh Singh, and
after his death served under his son Sardar Charat Singh.
He died in 1765 leaving two sons, Diwan Singh and Hiba
Singh, who followed the fortunes of the Sukarchakia Chief;
and when he obtained possession of a great part of the
Oujranwala district they came in for a fair share of the
spoil, receiving Botala, Fahladpur, Ealsian and other villages.

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When Sardar Mohan Singh obtained possession of Banmagar
he assigned to Diwan Singh an allowance of Rs. 1,000 per
annum from the salt * duties, which was held by him and his
descendants till 1848.

Diwan Singh was murdered by his nephew Ratan Singh,
son d Hiba Singh ; and his young son, Sham Singh, generally
called Shamo Singh, was summoned to Court by the
Maharaja and was confirmed in the possession of a part of
his father's estates. He rapidly rose to power and received
large jagirs, which at one time amounted to Rs. 50,000.
He was called Eunjahia, from Kunjah in the Gujrat district,
one of his jagirs, and the name is still held by his cousin,
Sardar Earpal Singh Kunjahia.

Sham Singh wais killed at the battle of Baisa in 1813,
being then twenty-seven years of age. The Maharaja treated
his young son, Jhanda Singh, with great kindness, but in 1819
resumed the jagir of Kunjah, giving him in exchange Sihari
in the Sialkot district. Jhanda Singh's first military service
was in Punch, where Diwan Dhanpat Rai and MirBaz Khan
had been giving trouble, and shortly afterwaards he was order-
ed to Hazara. He accompanied the Maharaja in the cam-
padgn of 1821-22, when Mankera and Dera Ismail Khan were
takent and received for his gallantry valuable presents.

About this time Jhanda Singh married his sister to Sher
Singh, son of Sardar Hukam Singh^ and a lakh of rupees was
spent on the occasion by either party. Never since has so
splendid a marriage taken place in the Gujranwala district.
Ranjit Singh, who had heard of the festivities, and that the
mother of Sardar Jhanda Singh had boasted of possessing two
pardas* of rupees, sent to Hukam Singh and Jhanda Singh^
saying that as they could afford to spend so much on a
marriage, they must each find it convenient to pay Rs. 50,000
for the good of the State.

• Panla, » FiMi|ftbi word for » terge bMfcol of otey and wiokor^work, gmtnSlj
mad for itoriBg grain.

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Sardar Jhanda Singh's ohief servioes were on the frontieri
in Ghaohi Peshawar^ Yusuf zai and Hazara. He was a man
of energy and ability, and the Maharaja showed his apprecia*
tion of his character by giving him charge, under Sardar
Hm Singh Nalwa, of the most unruly part of the country.
His services here were numerous and important, a^d are
detailed in a Sanad of 1834 under the seal of Nao Nahal
Singh, by which the villages of Botala and Fahladpur are
granted to Jhanda Singh and his heirs in perpetuity. In
1836 Jhanda Singh accompanied Prince Nao Nahal Singh
in his Derajat expedition. During part of the Kabul Campaign
he was Governor of fort Attock, and was able to give
assistance to the British army in the way of supplies and

The fortunes of Sardar Jhanda Singh were not much
disturbed by the many revolutions which occurred after the
great Maharaja's death. When Sher Singh ascended the
throne, his affection for Ganda Singh, cousin of Jhanda
Singh, caused the latter to become influential at Court, though
Sher Singh only added Rs. 600, which he soon afterwards
resumed, to his jagirs. By Sardar Jawahir Singh he was
made Adalati^ or Chief Justice of Lahore, in conjunction
with Diwan Hakim Bai, and held office till the close of the
Satlaj Campaign.

In 1847 he was sent to Hazara as Naib Nazim, or
Deputy Governor, under Sardar Charat Singh Atariwala
and Captain Abbott, and in November of the same year he
received, at the suggestion of the Resident, the honorary
title of Bahadar with the affix JJjal Didar^ nirmal budhf-
meaning ' open countenance and pure mind.' In May 1848,
soon after the outbreak atMultan, it was determined to send
a Sikh force down the Sind-Sagar Doab to aid in drawing
a cordon round the city to prevent the spread of rebellion,
and Jhanda Singh was selected to command the force. His

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conduct on this occasion was admirable, and Captain Abbott
wrote in high terms of him. Not very long after this, part
of the Char^njit regiment of horse under the Sardar*s
command joined the rebels, and Abbott began to entertain
doubts of his loyalty. He had been, at his urgent desire,
sent with his force to Multan ; but when within a few miles
of the city he was recalled by the Resident, much to his own
disappointment, as his inclination ever carried him where
blows were thickest. The influence which Jhanda Singh
possessed over Sardar Chatar Singh, Governor of Hazara,
was very great ; and in August, when that Chief was fast
throwing off all pretence of loyalty, Jhanda Singh was sent
with a confidential agent from Gulab Singh, son of the
Governor, to endeavour to recall him to a sense of his duty.
He was totally unsuccessful, and at the time most thought
that he was willingly so, and that he had done his utmost
to widen and not to close the breach. But in those days the
best men were suspected, and no one knew whom to trust.
The Sardar was ordered back to Lahore and placed in
arrest, but he was soon after released ; and during the last
four or five months ot the war he and his sowars kept the
road open between Lahore and Bamnagar, and thus performed
most valuable service. No proofs of duplicity or disaffection
on Jhanda Singh's part have ever been forthcoming ; and he
was unsuccessful with Sardar Chatar Singh, because another
and a stronger influence was urging that Chief to rebel.

On annexation all the personal estates of Sardar Jhanda
Singh, amounting to Rs. 15,560, were confirmed to him for life.
To his eldest son, Nahal Singh, Rs. 3,550 of the above
estate was to descend for life, but Nahal Singh died in
January 1864; and his younger brother Mahtab Singh,
who died in 1885, only received Rs. 500 per annum, with the
exception of the jagirs of Botala and Pahladpur, worth Rs.
1,500, which were upheld in perpetuity.

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Sardar Jhanda Singh lived at Botala, Gujranwala. He
was appointed a Jagirdar Magistrate in 1862, and possessed
considerable influence in the district. He was well known
as a liberal and enlightened gentleman. He expended about
twenty-five thousand rupees upon public bathing-tanks,
dharamsalaa, and other benevolent works. He died in 1881,
regretted by all classes. Of Jhanda Singh's life jagirs, a
portion, valued at Rs. 2,000, less a nazarana deduction of
one-fourth, together with the perpetual jagir grant of Rs.
1,500, was sanctioned to his heirs, namely, Sardar Balwant
Singh, son of Nahal Singh, Mahtab Singh, and the sons of
Mul Singh, who died l>efore his father.

Sardar Jhanda Singh's son Nahal Singh had been
commandant of one thousand horse under Prince Nao Nahal
Singh in the Chariari Dera with a jagir of Rs. 8,550 in
Ohapal and Kot Shah Mahomed. This jagir, included in
his father's estate, lapsed on Nahal Singh's death in 1864. His
son Balwant Singh is now at the head of the family. He was
allowed a life grant of Rs. 1,200 per annimi in the Gujranwala
Tahsil, and later on, when his grandfather died, enjoyed
a farther grant as already stated. He owns two thousand
ghumaos of land in three Tahsils of the Gujranwala district,
yielding an annual income of about Rs. 1,500. He is an
Extra Assistant Commissioner in the province, and is one of
the leading Viceregal Darbaris in his own district. The
case of his first cousins, Arjan Singh and Suchet Singh, is

Online LibraryCharles Francis Massy Sir Lepel Henry GriffinThe Panjab chiefs: historical and biographical notices of the ..., Volume 2 → online text (page 10 of 29)