Charles Francis Massy Sir Lepel Henry Griffin.

The Panjab chiefs: historical and biographical notices of the ..., Volume 2 online

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now before Government with reference to the life grants they
are to enjoy in succession to their father, Mahtab Singh, who
died in 1885. He had been an Honorary Magistrate for many
years. They own twelve hundred ghumaos of land in the
Gujranwala and Wazirabad Tahsils, worth about Rs. 800
per annum. Arjan Singh is a Zaildar of Botala and a member
of the District Board. Suchet Singh is studying at the
Aitchison College, Lahore. Mul Singh, youngest son of Sardar

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Jhanda Bingli^ is a Tahsildar on a salary of Bs. 2,400 per
annum. He owns about tliree thousand ghumaos of land in
Gujranwala, yielding an income of about Bs. 3,000.

Of Sardar Ganda Singh's sons, Dayal Singh took up his
abode at Wadala in the Sialkot district about fourteen years
ago. He has been appointed a Sub-Begistrar and Honorary
Magistrate, and his name is on the List of Viceregal Darbaris.
Sardar Partab Singh is an Extra Assistant Commissioner in
the Faujab on a salary of Bs. 7,200 per annum. He owns
the village of Sajada in Tahsil Hafizabad, a portion of Nau-
shera in the Sialkot district, and he has recently purchased
several irrigated plots in the Gujranwala and Wazirabad
Tahsils. His income from those sources is about Bs* 2,000
per aonum. He is a Viceregal Darbari. Jawala Singh specu*
lates in grain and other merchandize, and has lands in the
Wazirabad Tahsil yielding about Bs. 2,000 per annum. He
was obliged to resign his post of Honorary Magistrate in
1884, after having exercised criminal powers for many years.
His name remains on the Viceregal Darbar List. Karpal
Singh, also a Viceregal Darbari, is said to have only the
income of his jagir share to live upon. The four brothers
jointly enjoy a nominal jagir income of Bs. 10,000 per
annum, secured to them under order of the Supreme
Government in 1850. It is made up of the revenues of
eleven villages in Tahsil Daska, Sialkot, and of two villages
in Gujranwala. The actual value of the jagir under revised
assessment is Bs. 9,000.

Hari Singh, brother of Sardar Ganda Singh, died in
1886. His son Ladha Singh enjoys a reduced jagir income
of Bs. 185 per annum, in addition to Bs. 400 derived from
nine hundred bigas of land in Sialkot.

Wasaka Singh, son of Sardar Dayal Singh, is a Naib
Tahsildar. His brother Narain Singh is an Accountant in
the service of the Maharaja of Jamu.

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Sardar Earpal Singh Kunjahia is a distant cousin of
Balwant Singh Botalia. His great-grandfather Diwan Singh,
with Karam Singh and Ram Singh, were assassinated by a
son of Hiba Singh ; and the two surviving sons of Diwan
Singh, Dharam Singh and Sham Singh entered the service of
the Maharaja.

After the death of Sham Singh in 1813 Dharam Singh
received a portion of his jagirs. He served at Multan,
Kashmir, Peshawar and in other campaigns; and when he
grew old, the Maharaja, resuming his jagirs, gave him a cash
pension of Bs. 2,000, and placed his son Ganda Singh with
Prince Sher Singh, who gave him a jagir of Rs. 3,000 from
his own estate. He was a great favourite with the Prince,
whom he accompanied to Tusiifzai, where he was wounded,
and afterwards to Kulu. When the Prince was Nazim of
Kashmir, Ganda Singh held both civil and military appoint-
ments under him, and was employed to reduce the Rajas of
Bhamba and Khakha to obedience. He afterwards served at
Naushera and Bannu.

When Sher Singh ascended the throne he gave to Ganda
Singh additional jagirs, worth Rs. 30,000, about Botala, and
appointed him to the command of the Orderly Dera. He
was with the Maharaja when he was assassinated, and was
severely wounded in the endeavour to defend him. He
was killed in December 1845 at the battle of Virozshahar,
where Karpal Singh was also wounded. A short time
previously he had introduced his sons Karpal Singh and Dayal
Singh to the yoimg Maharaja Dalip Singh, and had obtained
for them a jagir of Rs. 12,000. Shortly afterwards, however,
the jagirs were reduced to Rs. 6,000 by Raja Lai Singh.

Sardar Karpal Singh was in Hazara at the time of the
Multan outbreak, and remained faithful, acting under the
orders of Captain Abbott ; and Dayal Singh was at Lahore
in attendance on the Maharaja.

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After annexation the whole personal jagirs of Sardar
Karpal Singh and his brothers, amounting to Rs. 12,000, were
confirmed, and are enjoyed by them at the present day.

Sardar Karpal Singh resides at Kimjab, about six miles
from the town of Gujrat.

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D. 176S.

Oordayal Singh

B. Hari Singh
0. 1837.

8. Gordit Singh 8. Jawahir Singh B. Panjab Singh S. Arjan Singh

l».188J. ». 1877. ».18fi4 l>.1848.


lOHBA SzvAK Samponin Singh
B. 1842. n. 1874.

Narain Singh
B. 1867.

Kartar Singh

Hardas Singh and his son Gurdayal Singh were followers
of the Sukarchakia Chiefs. The former was killed in action
in 1762, and the latter accompanied Charat Singh and Mahan
Singh on all their expeditions, . and received in jagir the
village of Baloke near Shahdara.

Hari Singh, like Ranjit Singh himself, was bom at the
town of Gujranwala, and was only seven years old when bis
father died. He, however, early distinguished himself, and
at the siege of Kasur in 1807 behaved with such gallantry
that Ranjit Singh made him a Sardar and gave him a jagir.
During the siege of Multan, in March 1810, Hari Singh was
much burnt by a firepot thrown from the walls of the fort,
and it was some months before he was again fit for service.
He then reduced the Mitha Tawana country, which he was
allowed to hold as a service jagir. ^ In 1818 he accompanied
Prince Kharak Singh in the last and successful expedition
against Multan, and the next year commanded one division
of the army invading Kashmir. In 1820 he was appointed
Governor of the conquered province in the room of Diw^n
Moti Ram, who was thought too gentle a ruler for the rude
and unsettled population. Hari Singh did not err on the
side of leniency. He ruled with a strong hand; and the

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Kashmiris hated him so much that the Maharaja was
compelled to recall him in 1821 and re-appoint Moti Ram to
the Governorship.

Hari Singh was ordered to join the army, then on its
way to Mankera ; and Misar Diwan Chand, who was a rival
of the Sardar, tried to persuade the Maharaja that he would
not obey the order. Obedience was not easy to Hari Singh ;
for the wild mountaineers, to the number of twenty thousand,
opposed his passage, and at Fakli he was compelled to halt
with his force of seven thousand men. Pakli had long been
a spot dreaded by merchants, for the hill men of that place
were accustomed to demand a toll on shawl wool and other
Kashmir merchandise. Hari Singh, after vain efforts to
induce the enemy to yield him a passage, attacked them
with vigour and, storming their stockades, defeated them with
great slaughter. After this he imposed a fine of five rupees
and a half on each house in the district, and proceeded south-
wards to join the Maharaja, who was much pleased with his
exploits and forgave him the unpaid balance of the Kashmir

Hari Singh was now appointed Governor of Hazara,
at this time the most turbulent province under Sikh rule.
He was not a man suited to conciliate the Hazara tribes,
for he hated all Mahotnedans fiercely, and was never so
happy as when fighting against them ; but he was brave even
to recklessness, fertile in resource and prompt in action. At
Teri, in 1823, he was commanding a portion of the Sikh army
watching the movements of Mahomed Azim Khan, while the
Maharaja was engaged with the Yusufzai Fathans on the
other side of the Kabul river. In 1824 his harshness excited
an insurrection in Darband, and he was attacked by the
insurgents in great force, and could only maintain his position
with diflBculty till the arrival of reinforcements. On another
occasion his force^ in which were Sardars Chatar Singh and

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Sham Singh Atariwala, and some of the bravest of the Sikh
Chiefs, was attacked by a force of Yusufzais five times as
numerous. Disdaining flight or surrender, the little band
charged the enemy and gallantly out their way through,
with but little loss.

In the beginning of 1827 Sayad Ahmad Shah roused all the
fanatic population of Yusufzai for a holy war against Sikhs and
infidels, and was joined by the Barakzai Chiefs of Peshawar.
Sardar Hari Singh, with twenty-five thousand men, was ordered
to prevent the Sayad from crossing the Indus till the Maharaja
should arrive with reinforcements. But prudence was not part
of Hari Singh's nature, and half his force under Sardar Budh
Singh Sindhanwala crossed the river and entrenched at
Saidu, where it was surrounded by overwhelming numbers
of the enemy. Budh Singh, however, induced the Peshawar
Sardars to desert the Sayad, and sallying from his entrench-
ments defeated the enemy so completely Ihat it was long
before the Sayad was able again to appear in the field.
When Ranjit Singh and Hari Singh arrived the army march-
ed to Peshawar, which was pillaged by the Sikhs. The palace
of the Bala Hisar and many of the chief buildings were
destroyed, the mosques were defiled, and the trees cut
down for fuel. The tribute of Peshawar was increased,
and the Maharaja carried away with him, as a hostage, the
son of Yar Mahomed Khan.

By the Treaty of the 12th March 1833 with Shah Shuja
the Maharaja obtained a cession of Peshawar, the Derajat and
Multan. The Shah's power to bestow anything whatever was
purely nominal ; but soon afterwards Sardar Hari Singh, with
Prince Nao Natial Singh, was sent to Peshawar on pretence
of demanding an increased tribute, but in reality to seize the
oit^. One morning he sent a polite message to the Barakzai
Sardars, informing them that the Prince wished to view the
city, and that it would be well for them to retire to Bagh All

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Mardan Khan while he went round the walls. Accordingly
the whole Sikh force was put in motion, and accompanied by
the young Prince, who was mounted on an elephant, moved
towards the city. . Some of the Afghan troops made a spirited
resistance ; but the Barakzai Sardars fled, and Hari Singh
with his small force of eight thousand men took possession of

After this success, Sardar Hari Singh remained as
Oommander-in-Ohief on the Frontier. In 1835 Dost Mahomed
Khan determined to re-take Peshawar if possible, and sent a
force under Mahomed Khan to endeavour to dislodge the Sikhs.
No serious attack was however then made, although the rival
forces were engaged in perpetual skirmishes with varying

In 1836 Hari Singh was directed to build a fort at
Jamrud, at the entrance of the Khaibar Pass, from the walls
of which the Maharaja might see Jalalabad. Accordingly
the fort was built, of small strength or size, but impregnable
to the Khaibar tribes, who possessed no artillery. But the
suspicions of Amir Dost Mahomed were aroused, and he
determined to destroy the fort which commanded the road to
Kabul. He collected a force of seven thousand horse, two
thousand matchlock-men and eighteen guns, and placed
them under his son Mahomed Akbar Khan and Mirza Sami
Khan, his Minister.' With the army were three other
of the Amir's sons, Mahomed Afzal Khan, Azim Khan
and Haidar Khan, the last still a boy. The Afghans
marched through the Pass and, being joined by about twelve
thousand Khaibaris, encamped before Jamrud. The fort
was 'uot at this time prepared against attack. It was
garrisoned by only eight hundred Sikhs, and Hari Singh was
ill with fever in Peshawar. The Afghans surrounded the fort,
and commenced a heavy fire on its southern face. On the
sixth day the defences were almost entirely destroyed, and so

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large a breach made in the wall that a troop of cavalry
could have charged up it. Mahan Singh Mirpuria, who was
in command) sent message after message to Hari Singh ; and
the last was to the effect that the garrison could hold out but
one other day. On hearing this, the General, ill as he was,
turned out his whole force, six thousand foot, one thousand
regular cavalry and three thousand irregulars, and marched
toward Jamrud ; but the first day he advanced only two miles.
But the news of his approach gave fresh life to the garrison,
and they repulsed an assault of the Afghans with desperate
courage, the assailants losing three himdred men. The next
day was fortunately a Friday, and the enemy made no attack,
being engaged in burying their dead. Early on Saturday
rooming Hari Singh arrived before the fort. For seven
days the hostile armies lay opposite each other, neither wishing
to commence, till Hari Singh, impatient of inaction, gave the
signal for battle.

The Sikh attack was directed against that portion of the
Afghan position where Zarin Khan and Momind Khan were
in command, and was completely successful. The Afghan
troops were driven back and both their leaders wounded,
and the whole army, seeing the fate of the advanced division,
wavered, turned and fled. The Sikhs thought the day was
their own, and eagerly pressed on, capturing six guns ; but
their desire for revenge and plunder carried them too far,
and at this moment Shamshudin Khan swept down with a
large body of Afghan horse and, driving the Sikhs back in
confusion and with great loss, completely changed the aspect
of affairs. Hari Singh now saw that his presence alone
could retrieve the day, and, in spite of the entreaties of his
officers Kahan Singh Majithia, Surmakh Singh Botalia and
Diwan Davi Sahai, he rode to the front and urged his men to
stand their ground and repulse the enemy. The victory
might still have been to the Sikhs ; but Hari Singh, who

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alone could ensure it, was struck by two balls, one in the
side and the other in the stomach. He knew he was mortally
wounded, but, fearing to discourage his men, he turned his
horse's head, and managed to ride as far as his tent. He
swooned as he was taken from his horse ; and half an hour
later tlie bravest of the Sikh Generals, the man, with the
terror of whose name Afghan mothers used to quiet their
fretful children, was dead. The army was kept in ignorance
of his death ; but all knew he was grievously wounded, and
fell back beneath the walls of Jamrud, where they threw up
entrenchments and waited for reinforcements. For two
whole days Mahan Singh Mirpuria and his other officers
concealed the death of the General ; but at last it could be no
longer a secret, and the dismay of the army was extreme.
To add to their distress they could obtain no water ; and if it
had not been for a fall of rain, most unusual at that time of
year, the Sikhs would have been compelled to abandon their
entrenchments and cut their way through the enemy to
Peshawar. At length help came. Raja Dhian Singh,
Princes Kharak Singh and Nao Nahal Singh, Jamadar
Khushal Singh, General Ventura and all the flower of the
Sikh chivalry, hastened up from Lahore by forced marches,
and twelve days after the battle arrived before Jamrud, and
the Afghan army broke up their camp and hastily retreated
through the Khaibar upon Jalalabad.

The results of this battle were not important. The
Sikhs had indeed lost their most dashing General, but the
Afghans had retired without attempting to improve the
victory. Each army lost three guns, and among those taken
from the Afghans was one of immense size, the fellow of the
Zabar Zang of Ghazni.

No sooner was the great Chief dead than his family
began to quarrel about his property and jagirs. At the time
of his death Hari Singh possessed larger estates than any

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other man in the Panjab Proper. He was lord of Gujran-
wala, Eachi, Nurpnr, Mitha Tawana, Shekhowal, Kalargarh,
^ Hazara, Khanpnri Dhana, Khatak and other places, worth
Es. 8,52,000 per annum ; but with these jagirs he was bound
to furnish two regiments of cavalry, a battery of artillery
and a camel swivel battery. His wealth in money and
jewels was also very great, and his family thought that
its possession was well worth a 6ght. Jawahir Singh and
Gurdit Singh were sons of the Sardar's first wife; Arjan
Singh and Panjab Singh of his second wife ; and the half
brothers had never been on good terms. Arjan Singh and
Panjab Singh took possession of the late Sardar's fortified
house at Gujranwala (now the residence of the Deputy
Commissioner), while Jawahir Singh and his brother held
the town. So fierce was the dispute between them, that the
Maharaja, always glad of an opportunity to 611 his own
treasury, confiscated all Hari Singh's property and estates, with
the exception of Rs. 19,600 assigned to the brothers in the
following proportion : Panjab Singh, Rs. 5,400 ; Arjan
Singh, Rs. 6,500 ; Jawahir Singh, Rs. 5,500 ; Gurdit Singh, Rs.
2,200. Gujranwala was given in jagir to Misar Beli Ram
and Hazara to Sardar Tej Singh in 1838.

Sardar Jawahir Singh had in 1832 been appointed to
command at Jahangira, and two years later he was sent on:
duty to Peshawar, and was engaged in many of the actions with
the Afghans up to the time of his father's death in April 1837.

In October 1848 Sardar Arjan Singh joined the rebels.
He shut himself up in the fortified house at Gujranwala
with about one hundred men, and openly defied the Gk)vern-
ment. A small detachment sent by the Darbar to bring him
in to Lahore was imsuccessful ; but when a body of troops sent
by Brigadier Campbell and a squadron of Skinner's Horse
marched against him, he fled. The defences of the house
were destroyed* and the property found in it confiscated.

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Sardar Jawahir Singh, whose sympathies were with the
rebels, and who was at any rate an enemy of Kaja Tej Singh,
had been arrested and kept a close prisoner in the house of ^
Gnlab Singh Kalal in Lahore. He, however, managed to
win over his guards to the popular side, and he and the six
soldiers escaped together to Q-ujranwala. Misa Balia Bam,
who was then in authority at that place, tried to seize him ;
but Jawahir Singh was not to be caught a second time, and,
escaping from the town, he joined the army of Raja Sher
Singh. He fought against, the British with great gallantry
at Ohilianwala and Gujrat ; and he was the man who led the
dashing charge of irregular cavalry at Ohilianwala, which so
nearly ruined the fortune of the day.

Panjab Singh was the only one of the brothers who
remained faithful to his Government, and his jagir alone was
exempted from confiscation. He died in 1854.

Arjan Singh died in 1848 soon after his escape from
Gujranwala. His two sons, one of whom is still living, had
each a small allowance of Bs. 96.

In 1857 Sardar Jawahir Singh was one of the first of the
Panjab Sardars selected by the Chief Commissioner for service
in Hindustan. Proud of the confidence reposed in him, Jawahir
Singh served throughout the war with a gallantry and devotion
which none surpassed. He was Rasaldar and senior native
oflBlcer of the 1st Sikh Cavalry. At Lucknow, Bithur, Cawnpore,
Kalpi, and wherever that noble regiment was engaged, Jawahir
Singh was present. He was eighteen times engaged with the
enemy ; and at the close of 1859 he received, as a reward for his
services, a jagir of Bs. 1 2,000 per annum. He had previously
received the Order of British India for distinguished services in
the field. In 1862 he was made an Honorary Magistrate of Guj-
ranwala, where he resided imtil hii^ death in 1877. In addition to
the jagir he owned a small property at Amritsaj*, known as Hari
Singh ka Bagh, yielding about one thousand rupees annually.

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His brother Gurdit Singh attempted, without success, to secure
a half share in these garden lands ; and this action so incensed
Jawahir Singh that he made a will assigning the whole of
his property to Bedi Sujan Singh of Una, the family priest.
Thedooument was contested by Gurdit Singh, who was obliged
to sell all the property that remained to him to meet the law
expenses. Ultimately the case was referred to Messrs. Arthur
Brandreth and H. B. Perkins, of the Panjab Commission, for
decision by arbitration. These officers held that one-half the
garden should be considered ancestral property, Bedi Sujan
Singh taking the other half under the will ; and that the Bedi
should take the garden in trust for the maintenance of Sardar
Jawahir Singh's widow, he making over one-half on her
death to the heirs of Sardar Hari Singh. As regards Sardar
Jawahir Singh's jagir, one -half was assigned in perpetuity to
Gurdit Singh and his heirs male, the remainder being held by
him for bis own life-time. This settlement was sanctioned in
1882, and in the same year Sardar Gurdit Singh died. He
had been in the enjoyment of a cash allowance of Rs. 480
since annexation. It has been continued to four ladies of his
family as a maintenance charge. The perpetual jagir of
Rs. 674 has passed to Ichra Singh, son of Sardar Arjan Singh,
now at the head of the family, and only living representative
of Sardar Hari Singh's male issue. In 1884 Government
sanctioned a continuance to Sardar Ichra Singh of the jagir
(yielding Rs. 674), which should have been resumed on the
death of Gurdit Singh. He also receives a personal pension
of Rs. 96 per annum. He is a Viceregal Darbari and a
Zaildar of Gujranwala. In his early days, being hard pressed
by his creditors, Sardar Ichra Singh took service in Bikanir
as Commander of the State troops. He resigned this post in
1876, having held it for six years, and accepted a Coloners
conmxission in the Nipal army. He has now settled at
QnjranwalSy having given up soldiering.

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i>. 1806.

i>. 1882.

fiataa Ohand
s. 183L

O. 1888.

Diwan 8ciw«n HaL *



Davi Bam
Dayal Samp.

B. 1876. (He became a Hahomedan and U known by
* the name of Ghnlam Mohaiadin.)

Diwan Gtovind
DaiTaiHal Bam
B. 1848. B. 1888.

B. 186i


Oharanjit OhnniLallfani Lai ICanohar Ohandar
B. 1876. B. 1879. B. 1886. Lai Bhan


B. 1878.

B. 1865. B. 1878.

Bhaiarat Bant Bam

Bam B. 1866.
B. 1861.

Saran Nath
B. 1886. B. 1872.


I ( ^1 Bam i[ii

Bam Lai Jagran SaUff Nath Bam
B. 1876. Nath Bam b. 1880. B. 1886.
B. 1880. B. 1882.

B. 1861.



B. 1848.


BansiLal Gopal
a. 1876. Daa

B. 1880.






Sham fiinffh
B. 1881.



Narain Singh




B. 1870.


Bam Daa
n. 1831.

B. 1860.

B. 1864.

Diwan Ohand Amar Nath
B. 1884. B. 1884.

B. 1848.

Bam Nath
B. 1848.


Beli Bam Thakar
B. 1866. Daa
I 8. 1860.




B. 1881.

Partab Narinjan

Bai Das ~

B. 1876. B. 1870.


Mnkand Gorsahai
Lai B. 1868.

BahariLal MathraDas
B. 1863 ; B. 1861.

no son. I

Parma Nand


Jai Ram


Karpa Bam Ganga Bam Shib Daval

B. 1867. B. 1866. B. 1851.

Hushnak Rai, a Khatri of the Chogra caste, was a
servant of Sardar Dal Singh of Akalgarh, with whom he
took service about the year 1768. He was not himself a man
of any note, and his name is only remembered through the

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genius of Sawan Mai, his third son, and the rebellion of
Mulraji his grandson.

Nanak Ohand, the eldest son of Hushnak Rai, entered
the service of Dal Singh in 1788, and there remained until the
death of the Chief in 1804, when Akalgarh, which was held as
a dependency of the Sukarchakia Misal, fell by escheat into
the hands of Ranjit Singh. He then left his native town
and entered the force of Diwan Mohkam Chand, under whom
he rose to posts of considerable trust, and after the death of
that General he was employed in collecting the revenues of
Multan and Kashmir. His only son, Ratan Chand, died one
year before him, in 1830, and Ram Chand, his grandson,

Online LibraryCharles Francis Massy Sir Lepel Henry GriffinThe Panjab chiefs: historical and biographical notices of the ..., Volume 2 → online text (page 11 of 29)