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Charles Francis Massy Sir Lepel Henry Griffin.

The Panjab chiefs: historical and biographical notices of the ..., Volume 2 online

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lately at the head of the Waraich tribe, which is numerous in
the Gujrat and Gujranwala districts. Originally Hindu, the
Waraich Jats were converted to Mahomedanism about four
hundred years ago, and there are now but few of the tribe of
the ancient faith. The origin of the name Waraich is thus
explained by the Gujrat portion of the tribe : Baja Jaipal, of
Lahore, when hunting in the neighbourhood of Thanesar, saw
a new-bom infant clinging to the dead body of its mother. On
enquiry, it was found that the husband of the woman had been
killed in a skirmish, and that she had died of grief and hunger.
The Baja, moved with pity, took the child and brought him up
as his own, giving him the name of Baraich, as it was beneath
the shade of a ber tree that he had discovered him. When
Baraich or Waraich grew up he was married to his protector's
daughter, and on the Raja's death without issue Waraich suc-
ceeded to the throne, which his descendants filled for three
generations. It was not for many years later that the clan of
which Waraich was the founder emigrated to the Panjab, where
it became Mahomedan and settled in the Gujrat district. *

* Thifl aoooaat of the origin of the tribe is purely fabaloiui. Raja Jaipal was the
roler of the Paajab Proper from the Satlaj to Mnltan and the IndoB ; bat Tlianesar,
where he is laid to hare fooDd the infant, was under Baja Goiohanda Bai of Mahavan



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tit THE PAlfJAB CHIEFS.

The village bards (Mirasis) of the Waraich Jats of
Gujranwala give a different and a more probable account.
They state that their ancestor was Barlas, a Hindu Jat, who
founded, near Ghazni, about the middle of the tenth century,
the village of Bahowali* Shah, a descendant of Barlas, was
a soldier in the army of Sultan Mahmud, and came with that
prince to India in 1001. Jaipal, the Raja of Lahore, was
defeated^ and the invading army withdrew ; but Shah, struck
with the fertility of the country about Gujrat, remained there
and settled in Ealarchor, a Gujar village, where, till 1355, his
family lived as husbandmen. Waraich, son of Matu, became
wealthy and Chaudhri of the neighbouring villages. He turned
the Gujars out of Kalarchor ; and was the father of five sons,
Teju, Kela, Saijru, Leli, and Wada, who, as the tribe became
numerous and powerful, founded many villages in Gujrat and
elsewhere. Teju founded Kala Eatai and four other villages,
still held by Waraich Jats, in Amritsar ; Kela's descendants
went as far south as Saharanpur, where there are now five
Waraich villages. Lada was the first village founded in
Gujranwala, where there are still forty-five villages held by
the tribe; while in Gujrat, out of three hundred villages
founded by Waraich Jats, there are still nearly two hundred
inhabited by them.

The first member of the Wazirabad family about whom
anything is known was Gagna, who held a small office at
Botala \mder the Empire, and is said to have been a man
of ^ some wealth. His son, Desa Singh, and his nephewt
Gurbakhsh Singh, joined the force of Sardar Charat Singh
Sukarchakia, who was then rising to power, and were present

and Dehli. Baja Jaipal reigned from A.D. 970 to 1001, when, having been defeated
by Sabaktagin and Saltan Mahmnd, he burnt himself on a fnneral pile, in aooordance
with a onstom, then prevailing among the Hindos, that a Prince twice defeated by
a foreign army waa incompetent to reign. He was succeeded, not by Waraich, but
by his own son Anandpal

Anandpal died in 1012, and was succeeded by his son Jaipal the Second. But this
is not the Jaipal to whom the Waraich tribe refers, nor did he found a dynasty ; for
he fled to. the hills on the invasion of Mahmud, ioi3|and nine years later I^hora
became a province snbjeot to the Kings of Ghasni.



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GVJRANWALA DISTRICT. sij

at the attaok on Amritsar, when the Bhangi tower, between the
Bambagh and Ghatawind gatee, was captured and named
Mahan Singhwala after the young son of Charat Singh.

When Charat Singh conquered the northern portion of the
Gujranwala district, Wazirabad fell to the share of Desa
Singh and Gurbakhsh Singh. The jagir was soon afterwards
divided ; Gurbakhsh Singh retaining Wazirabad, and Desa
Singh taking Kunja and Kalar Budha. Gurbakhsh gave his
daughter Desan in marriage to his leader Charat Singh, and bj
this connection his influence was much increased. During
the invasions of Ahmad Shah Durani the Wasirabad Chiefs
were compelled to retire before the enemy, but when the storm
had blown over they returned to their home.

Gurbakhsh Singh died in 1776, and his son Jodh Singh
sucHseeded to the estate, which was worth about a lakh and a
half. Jodh Singh and Sardar Mahan Singh were great
friends, and both were always fighting with Sahib Singh Bhangi
of Gujrat, who had married the sister of the Sukarchakia
Chief. The peace which reigned after the death of Sardar
Gujar Singh, between Gujrat and Gujranwala, was broken
by Sahib Singh in the following manner : — Mahan Singh and
Jodh Singh paid a complimentary visit to Sardar Sahib Singh,
who received them with much politeness ; but when he had
got them safe inside his fort he arrested them both, and,
rejoicing in his good luck, sat down to dinner. But the
young Sardars did not care to wait till Sahib Singh had dined,
and, making a rush, cut down the guards and escaped to
their own camp, after which the fighting went on briskly.
Mahan Singh had the best of it on the whole, and took a large
slice of his brother-in-law's territory.

At the siege of Sodhra it is said that Jodh Singh betrayed
his friend. Sahib Singh, who was besieged in the fort, was
short of powder, and his surrender was certain ; but Jodh
Singh, who feared that Mahan Singh would become too



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ti4 THE PANJAB CHIEFS.

powerful were Sahib Singh destroyed, supplied the latter
with ammunition* Mahan Singh had been dangerously ill
throughout the siege, and this treachery hastened his death,
which took place a few days after. This action of Jodh Singh
is said to have been the cause of Banjit Singh's hostility to him.
But nothing is required to account for the Maharaja's conduct
but his ambition* He found, for some years, that the
Wazirabad Chief was too strong to attack, and he endeavoured
on one occasion to gain by strategem what he was unable to
take by force. He invited Jodh Singh to Lahore ; but he,
suspecting the Maharaja's design, brought a large force with
him from Wazirabad. This Kanjit Singh desired him to send
back, which, too proud to show fear, he did, and arrived at
Lahore with only two himdred picked men. He attended
Darbar the next day with twenty-five men, whom he left outside,
and was received by the Maharaja with the greatest courtesy
and kindness. Suddenly Ranjit Singh rose, and made a sign
to his attendants to seize the Sardar. Jodh Singh saw his
danger, and, drawing his sword, called on them to attack him,
as he did not know how to fly. Banjit Singh loved a brave
man ; and Jodh Singh's gallantry proved his safety, for he was
dismissed with honour and rich gifts, and a grant of the
Mahdianbad Ilaka. After this Sardar Jodh Singh lived at
Wazirabad in great style, looked up to by all the neighbour-
ing Chiefs. There is a notice in the annals of the family of a
European traveller, owning a silver leg, who visited Jodh
Singh about the year 1807. The name of the gentleman who
travelled with a limb so heavy and so likely to excite the
curiosity of robbers is unfortunately not given.

Jodh Singh died in 1809 ; and as his sons were minors,
the Maharaja thought the time had come to seize the property.
He marched to Wazirabad with a large force ; but the young
Sardar presenting him with a very large sum of money, he
deferred his plan for the time, and granted to Ganda Singh



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GVJRANWALA DISTRICT. 915

the customary khilats of investiture. Very shortly afterwards,
however, he sent a force to Wazirabad and confiscated the
estates. He indeed promised that, when Amrik Singh and
Ganda Singh should come to manhood, Wazirabad should be
restored ; but this promise he never intended to perform. A
jagir, worth Rs. 10,000, was, however, left for the support of
the brothers in Thib. A few years afterwards Amrik Singh
died, and his share of the jagir was resumed. Ganda Singh
received an appointment in the Ghorchara Kalan, but soon
after lost the remainder of the Thib jagir through the
hostility of Raja Dhian Singh. The Maharaja granted him
soon afterwards Sangrian, Wada Pind and six other villages,
worth Rs. 5,000. This was afterwards still further reduced,
and in the reign of Sher Singh the Sardar only possessed
Adamdaraz and Kathor, worth Rs. 2,000.

At annexation this jagir was upheld for life on payment
of one-sixth nazaranaj and on the death of Sardar Ganda Singh
in 1855 it was continued to Sardar Hira Singh and his male
lineal descendants in perpetuity at half -revenue rates. Sardar
Hira Singh, while still a young man, died of cholera in 1870,
leaving a widow and three daughters, two of whom are alive,
but no male issue.

On the death of her husband, Sardar Nar Singh, Masam-
mat Nahal Kaur, who was a daughter of the Rani Gulab
Kaur, bom previous to her mother's marriage with the
Maharaja Ranjit Singh, represented her reduced circumstances
to Government. At the same time Moti Singh, a younger son
of Sardar Ganda Singh, put forward his claims to the family
jagirs. When these were examined it was found that a
similar request, made on the death of his father, had been
refused by the Panjab Government on account of the bar
sinister in his pedigree. Moti Singh was accordingly informed
that he could not be recognized as the representative head of
the family. He is a Dafadar in the 9th Bengal Lancers, and



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tx6 THE PANJAB CHIEFS.

served with that regiment in the Egyptian War of 1882* In
1871 Masammat Nahal Eaur received a pension of Bs. 200
for life.

Sardar Hira Singh's eldest surviving daughter married
Sardar Shibdeo Singh, Jamadar, 3rd Panjab Gavabrj, eldest
son of Sardar Lahna Singh Man, of the Gujranwala family of
Moghalchak. The younger daughter is now the wife of Sardar
Teja Singh, eldest son of Sardar Indar Singh Sindhu, of the
Tethar family, Honorary Aide-de-Camp to the Lieut^iant*
(jovemor of the Panjab. He served with the Afghan Boundary
Commission of 1884-86, and on his return was appointed
a Deputy Inspector of Police in the Panjab.

Masammat Nahal Kaur lives at Mauza Guraia in Sialkot»
and manages the small estate, which is all that is left of the
property of Sardar Jodh Singh, since whose death the family
has gradually declined in influence and importance.

Moti Singh, Dafadar, is the only male member of the
family living ; and his name has, therefore, been placed at the
head of this history.



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CUJRANWALA DISTRICT. 217

CHANDA SINGH OP KOT DIWAN SINGH, SINDHU.



RATAK BmaH
D.1888.

Jhanda Singlu Chajtba. Sivob Jaim*! Singh WMawftSinirb
I ■.1888. B.1838* ■.1848.



J j finjan Sin^

BDohet Singh Hem Singh „ . I a. .

■.Wlir B.lsSr Bobjn Singh



B. 1881
Ishar Singh
■. 188A. ,^



JL



Sher Balwant Bwiant Dalip Singh
Singh Sin|^ Singh B.1887.
B. 1806. B. 1^. B. 188«.



Ihamir Singh Wasir Singh Teja Singh Wir Singh
B.1866. B.1868. B.1871. B. 187C

I I .

NahJ Singh Bur Singh | [ ' ] i

B.1874. B.1886. Bharm ICan Singh Bam Singh Bhagwui

Singh B.1881. B. 1881 Singh

■.1878. B^lSs.

Diwan Singh was a follower of Sardar Oharat Singh
Sukarchakia, and fought under him against the Chatas.
He built the village Kila Diwan Singh in the Gujranwala
district, and his holding consisted of the villages Badangil^
Ohak Ohata and Kotgarh, worth about Rs. 3,000. He was
killed in a fight with Nur Mahomed Ohata at Akalgarh.
His only son, Hukam Singh, entered the force of Sardar Mahan
SiQgh, and on his death that of Banjit Singh, and served in
the Kasur, Kangra, Jach, Multan and Yusuf zai Campaigns.
He was killed on the banks of the Lunda river in an afiFair
with the Yusufzais. On the death of Hukam Singh, the
viUages of Kila Diwan Singh and Kotgarh were confirmed to
his son Soba Singh, who had served under Misar Diwan Chand
and Bhawani Sahai in Kashmir. He was engaged in many
battles on the North* West Frontier — Khaka, Bamba, Saidu,
Teri and Peshawar. In 1848 he remained loyal, and, with
Sardar Bur Singh Mukerian, furnished the British army with
supplies. After annexation his two villages were maintained
to him on payment of one-quarter revenue. His eldest son,
Eatan Singh, held Kotjodh, worth Es. 100, Sarup Singh,
his second son^ was killed in the battle of Sobraon.



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ax8 THE PANJAB CHIEFS.

Ratan Singh died in 1888 at the advanced age of ninety
years, his jagir lapsing to the State. The family subsists
upon the produce of thirty ghumaos of land in Kot Diwan
Singh. Of Ratan Singh's four sons, Wasawa Singh alone took
service. He was for seven years a Dafadar in the 9th Bengal
Lancers, and afterwards for ten years Jamadar of Orderlies
to the Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal. His eldest son is
serving in the Hong-Kong Police Force.



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GVJRANWALA DISTRICT. it$

THE LATE JAWAHIB SINGH, SUBADAB.

LAL SINGH*

BhagBin^

Jodh Biiiffh,

Sfthlb Singh
B. 1878.

Jawaxib Szvas
D. 1877,

The southern portion of the Gujranwala district is to so
great an extent peopled by Jats of the Wirk tribe that the
country from Shekhopura to Miraliwala has long been known
as the Wirkayat Tapa. Over this tract Lai Singh, a Wirk
Bajput emigrant from Jamu, held sway in the early days of
the Sikh Confederacies. His son Sardar Bhag Singh, under
Charat Singh and Mahan Singh, acquired great power, and
held a large portion of the Gujranwala and Shekhopura
parganas. When Banjit Singh obtained possession of
Lahore, Bhag Singh was one of the most powerful Chiefs in
the neighbourhood of that city ; but it was not long before he
was compelled to become a feudatory, and was placed in
command of the Wirkayat Horse, with a jagir worth one lakh
and a half of rupees, consisting of eighty-four villages in the
yicinity of Karial Kalan and Miraliwala. Bhag Singh died
in 1806, and his only son, Jodh Singh, succeeded to his jagirs
and to the command of the Wirk force. He served in most
of the Maharaja's campaigns till 1814, when he was killed in
the first unsuccessful Kashmir expedition. His son Sahib
Singh was then but six years of age ; and the family estates,
with the exception of three villages, worth Rs. 1,700, were
resumed. When Sahib Singh grew up he received command
of his father's regiment and a jagir worth Bs. 3,500, and
subsequently was made commandant in the Ratan Singh Man
regiment. His estate at this time only consisted of Budha
Quraia in the Gujranwala district, and he also received a
cash allowance of Bs. 300. He was implicated to some extent



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4f o THE PAHJAB CHIEFS.

in the rebellion of 1848, and his jagir was confiscated. He held
a pension of Rs. 240 per annum until his death in 1876. His
only son, Jawahir Singh, died in the following year. He was
a Subadar in a Bengal Infantry Regiment. Both father
and son were Zaildars of Karial, Qujranwala. The only
members of the family now alive are two widows of Sahib
Singh and the widow of Jawahir Singh. The former receive
each a pension of Rs. 48 per annum ; and the three jointly
hold the family lands, consisting of about seventy ghumaos in
Karial, Qujranwala.



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GVJRANWALA DISTRICT. stt

JIWAN SINGH, BIKHI.



BAHIB SINaH.


Arbel Singh. Dftl


ingh.


than Singh BaJmi Singh Faajdur Jtwlm 8ni«K J«g»(
9.1881. s. Singh B. 1823. 1
1 B.lSiB. t


Singh Amar Singh


1 1


^f^TT* ' 1 1 L


Kola Bant JaawanI


«^ff5 1 Chatar Sadho

B. 1846. liahtob Sardha Singh Singh

Singh Singh b. 1866. b.iSbO.

Pour BonB.


Singh Singh Singh
B. 1860. B. 1860. B.


Shah Beg Partab Didar
Singh Singh Singh
B. lias. n. ». l&l.

Oulab Singh Three aons.
B.1868.



This family was of some respectability in the reign of the
Emperor Akbar, when one of its members, Rai Lain, was
made Chaudhri of thirty villages. This post the family retained
for four generations, till Sahib Singh and his brother Sahai
went to Amritsar, where they took the pdhal and became
Sikhs. Being already possessed of some wealth, they had
no difficulty in following the prevailing fashion of collecting
a band of horsemen and ravaging the neighbouring country.
Their most successful expedition was against Shekhopura,
which they captured, and, having ejected the Labana tribe
from its holdings, made it their head-quarters. Their great
rivals and enemies were the Kharals ; and in one of the fights
witb this tribe Sahai Siugh was slain, and no long time
afterwards Sahib Singh also fell, fighting with the very
same Labanas whom he had driven from Shekhopura, and
whose new settlement at Mian Mir he was endeavouring to
seize. The sons of Sahib Singb and Sahai Singh succeeded
conjointly to their father's estate, and held it in peace till
1808, when Maharaja Ranjit Singh turned his arms against
them. For some time the cousins defended the fort of



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ilf THE PANJAB CHIEFS.

Shekhopura successfully, but were at length induced to sur«
render by Mit Singli Padhania and Nahal Singh Atariwala,
who promised to procure estates for them. The Maharaja
gaye them jagirs, worth Rs. 40,000, in the Lahore and
Gogaira districts. Amir Singh was made commandant in
Amir Singh Majithia's force and was sent to AttOck, where
he was soon after killed near Burj Baja Hodi in a skirmish
with the mountain tribes. His jagirs were, however, distri-
buted among the surviving members of the family. Shamir
Singh and Bhag Singh received appointments in the Chariari*
and the Ghorcharas respectively. During the reign of Banjit
Singh the family were continually engaged in active service,
and till his death retained their jagirs intact. Bhaghel Singh
died a few years before the Maharaja, and Dal Singh, Hira
Singh and Hari Singh shortly after, in 1839. Kishan Singh
and Paujdar Singh both fought in the Satlaj Campaign, while
Jiwan Singh and his cousin Nadhan Singh remained at
Lahore with the force in charge of the city. Almost all
the members of the family joined the national party in 1849,
and were among the troops who gave up their arms at Rawal-
pindi. Their jagirs, which amounted to Rs. 8,000, were
confiscated. Pensions of Rs. 200 were given to the widows
of Hira Singh and Hari Singh, and to Arbel Singh a pension
of Rs. 300, which he still enjoys. Nadhan Singh, who received
a pension of Rs. 60, died in 1861.

The family have sunk into obscurity. They have an
income of about four hundred rupees per annum, derived
from about seven thousand acres of almost waste land, which
the members jointly own, in the Hafizabad Tahsil.

Jiwan Singh is alive. He has his home at Bhiki in
Hafizabad. Faujdar Singh, son of Arbel Singh, is the most

* The Chariari Hone obtained iti name from the four friendi (Char-Tar), Bardart
Bhnp Singh Saidha, Chet Singh and Bam Singh Sadozai and Harda« Singh Bania.
These young men, handsome and well dressed, were always together, and the Maharaja
wai to pleawd with their stylo that he oalled a body of horso after them.



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GUJRANWALA DISTRICT. ^33

thriving member of the family. His Zaildari allowances in
Bhiki, Tahsil Hafizabad, Gujranwala, bring him in about two
hundred rupees per annum.

The family is of the Wirk Jat tribe, and originally came
from Jamu.



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924



THE PANJAB CHIEFS.



AMRIK SINGH HASANWALA, OF RAMNAGAB.



RAM SINaH.



GormnUi Singh
3>. 1861.



Sher
Bioffli



BiBhan Singh
9.1888.



Oftj»

Singh
B. 1848.

I



Dh&rain
Singh
D. 1873.



Sham Snndar
Singh Singh
1.1878. B.1876.



Fateh Singh
B.18S8r
I



Sakha Singh
n.l860.

Pardhan
Sinffh
B. 1810.

Ladha

Singh

B.18I8.



Sardnl

Singh

D. IBM.



Atar Singh
B. 1876,

I



Bhag
Sin^
B. 1888.



Nahal
Singh.



AlCtlK SlMOK

B. 1853.



Khoshal
Singh.



Wariam

Singh

1870.



Lakhmer
Singh
B.18d9.



^^nna
Singh
B.im



Bhagat



Tvro other



Jagat

Singh

B.185i.



Ikbal

Singh

B.18I1.



Nanak
Singh
B.mi.



j:



Singh
B. iSbS.

Basharat Singh
B. 187S.



Hakim

Singh

B. 1872.



When Ram Singh, who was the son of a Khatrf of
Hasanwala in the Gujranwala district, was quite a boy, he
was taken into the household of Sardar Charat ^ngh Sukar-
chakia, and when he grew up he rode in the Chief's troop.
Mahan Singh, son of Charat Singh, was his potrela,* having
been by him initiated into the Sikh faith ; and during his
short life he treated Ram Singh with great consideration and
gave him large jagirs. In 1813 he introduced his two elder sons
into Maharaja Ranjit Singh's service ; and a few years later the
two younger, Atar Singh and Partab Singh, received ap-
pointments in the Ghorchara jBIalan. Sardar Ram Singh
was a fine old soldier, and with his sons served in the cam-
paigns of Kashmir, Multan, Mankera, Peshawar and Bannu. In
1824 Sher Singh, eldest son of Qurmukh Singh, was made com-
mandant, and in 1829 his brother Gaja Singh entered the
Ghorcharas. Ram Singh's jagirs were worth about Rs. 20,000.

* The term potreHa somewliat oorresponds to the EngliBh word ' godsoD.' The
derivation ie putr, a eon, and rela, another ; and ezpreseei the relation which man
bears to the person who has initiated him into the Sikh faith by the rite of the pahal^
whioh resembles, in a great measnrti the Ohristian rite of baptism*



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GVJRANWALA DISTRICT. ^25

He liyed to the close of Banjit Singh's reign, and then, haring
served grandfather, father and son faithfully and well, died
in 1839, aged ninety-five years.

On the death of Bam Singh the larger portion of his jagirs
were resumed ; but his three surviving sons, Qurmukh Singh,
Sukha Singh and Atar Singh, received jagirs of Bs. 2,200,
Bs. 1,500 and Bs. 1,000, respectively. On the outbreak of the
rebellion of 1848 most of the family joined the rebels ; and
Gaja Singh and Sardul Singh fell at Chilianwala. The jagirs
were consequently resimied. Sukha Singh does not appear
to have joined the rebellion. He was at the time a cripple
and unable to move from his bed, and his jagir would have
been released had not his death occurred in 1850.

In 1857 Bhag Singh, son of Atar Singh, was taken into
Government employ as Jamadar and was sent down country,
where he did good service until the reduction of the army at
the close of the campaign. He met with his death in 1888
while affording assistance, in his position as Zaildar, to the
police in a case of burglary. The accused, who was being
taken to a village in which he alleged the stolen property
had been hidden, seized the sword of the Deputy Inspector,
and with it cut down the unfortunate Bhag Siugh, against
whom he does not appear to have had any particular cause of
enmity. The murderer was sentenced to death by the Sessions
Judge ; but this was commuted by the Chief Court on appeal.

Bhag Singh was a Zaildar and Ala*Lambardar of
Bamnagar in the Gujranwala district ; and in 1860 had been
granted a life mafi in two wells. He owned, besides, about
twelve acres of revenue-paying land. His income, including
Zaildari allowances was about Bs. 240 per annum. His son
Amrik Singh, who was for a short time employed as Suba*
dar in the Burmah Police force, now represents the family.

Khushal Singh, youngest son of Atar Singh, is a Tahsil-
dar in the Bawalpindi Division. He is a joint owner in the



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226 THE PAWAB CHIEFS.

Bamnagar village with his other relatives. His share yields
about Bs« 100 per annum*

The family is not one of much local influence, and has
probably seen its best days.



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GVJRANWALA DISTRICT. tiy

DIWAN QOVIND SAHAI, OP EMANABAD .•



DIWAN BI8HAN DAB.

Diwan Amir Chand.
±



Diwan Nahal Ohand Diwui uui Ohftad Diwan J»waU BfthAi

D. 187S. 9.1867. S. 1878.

L : I , 1

LV Qomrs Divnui Dina 1



1



KaWcbAnd DzwAvCtomrs Divnui Dina Nath Diwan Karpa Bam DiwanLaohmaa

S.18e8L BkUkl ]>. 1875. B. 1876. Daa

B. 1841. I ». 1M».

I ' ^1 Diwim Dilan SblTJjiUh

LakbpatRai NarainDaa AnantRam AmarNath b. 1W7.

..So. B.1871. •.1847. B.188e. pbimLRal

BadriNath M,im.

B.188i.

This family is well known all over Northern India by
reason of the close connection for years past of many of its



Online LibraryCharles Francis Massy Sir Lepel Henry GriffinThe Panjab chiefs: historical and biographical notices of the ..., Volume 2 → online text (page 16 of 29)