Charles Francis Massy Sir Lepel Henry Griffin.

The Panjab chiefs: historical and biographical notices of the ..., Volume 2 online

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members with the Jamu State. They have from the com-
mencement of Maharaja Gulab Singh's reign practically
monopolized the office of Diwan or Prime Minister, and are
therefore responsible for mnch of the good or evil repnte
attaching to the rule of the Dogras in Kashmir.

The family history goes back to Rai Ugarsen of Bikanir,
who was Peshkar or Secretary to the Emperor Babar, whom
he once accompanied on a visit to the Panjab, and, marrying
amongst the Kanungo Ehatris of Emanabad, Gnjranwala^
settled there. Bishan Das, great-grandfather of Diwan
Govind Sahai, was employed as a writer nnder Sardar Mahan
Singh Sukarchakia, father of Maharaja Ranjit Siogh. His
son Amir Chand became the Karkun or managing agent of
Raja Gulab Singh in the Bayul Ilaka, made over to him by
the Maharaja; and he was afterwards designated as the
Madar-nl-Maham of Jamu when that territory fell into
Maharaja Gulab Singh's hands. He died at Eadarabad in
1836 when on tour with his master, and was succeeded as
head of affairs by his son Diwan Jawala Sahai, who for
nearly thirty years remained the confidential Minister of the

* Not in the original Edition.

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Jamu Maharaja, rendering important services to the British
(Jovemment as the Maharaja's accredited agent. His
loyal services during the Mutiny received the special
acknowledgments of the Viceroy. In 1865 Jawala Sahai
was obliged by a stroke of paralysis to give over the Diwan-
ship to his son Karpa Bam ; but he continued to serve the
State in the capacity of Governor of Jamu. He was made a
Companion of the Star of India in 1875. Diwan Karpa Bam
held the higher post till his death in 1876, He was slightly less
conservative than his father, and made a show of encouraging
education, establishing hospitals, opening up thoroughfares,
introducing silk and other industries, and improving the
system of revenue collection. But in all these proclaimed
aims he always, intentionally or otherwise, fell short of the
mark; and not one of his undertakings was brought to
a satisfactory finish. Earpa Bam was followed as Diwan by
his son Anant Bam, who kept the office for ten years. He
was attacked with a brain affection, for which he is still under
treatment, and was obliged in 1885 to resign his Diwanship
in favour of his cousin GU)vind Sahai, son of Diwan Nahal
Chand. Mention must, however, first be made of Diwan
Hari Chand, second son of Amir Chand. Maharaja Gulab
Singh gave him the command of his troops in 1836, and in
this capacity he served the State usefully for many years»
extending and consolidating the Maharaja's authority north-
wards beyond Ladakh, and round to the west as far as Yasin
and Ohilas. When the Mutiny broke out he was sent to
Dehli in charge of the Jamu contingent of one cavalry and
four infantry regiments and a battery of Artillery, He
died there of cholera in 1857.

Diwan Nahal Chand worked for several years as an
assistant under his brother Jawala Sahai, and was always
a favourite of the Maharaja Gulab Singh. In 1855 he was
appointed confidential agent of the State with the Lieutenant-

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Governor of the Panjab. He hastened to Dehli in 1857 on
hearing of his brother's death, and took over command of the
troops, rendering useful service later on in connection with
the trial of the Nawab of Jhajar for participation in the
rebellion. He died in 1872. His son Diwan Grovind Sabai
had been from his earliest days attached to the Court at Jamu.
He acted as Mahmandar, or host, in the Maharaja's behalf on
the occasion of visits of ceremony by high Indian officials. In
1868 he was employed in settlement work, and was instru-
mental in abolishing payment of revenue in kind in the districts
of Jamu and Naushera. He succeeded his father in 1872 as
confidential agent with the Lieutenant-Governor, and received
the appointment of Motamid with the Govemor-Goneral in
1878. For his special services in this capacity he received a
grant of fifteen hundred acres of culturable land in Tahsil Hafiz-
abad, Gujran.wala, during the Viceroyalty of Earl Lytton. He
succeeded to the Diwanship shortly after the accession of the
present Maharaja Partab Singh, but was shortly afterwards
dismissed and bis office made over to his first cousin Diwan
Lachman Das, younger son of Diwan Jawala Sahai. But he,
too, was swept off his feet by an undercurrent of intrigue, and
summarily dismissed in 1888.

Diwan Jawala Sahai's jagir in Maharaja Banjit Singh's
time yielded Rs. 2,800 per annum and extended over Eman-
abad, Chanduwal (Gujrat) and Kot Bhuta, Wazirabad. The
Emanabad jagirs were confirmed to him in 1850 by the
British Government, subject to a nazarana payment of one-
fourth of the revenue, and were made perpetual later on for his
services during the Mutiny. In 1862 his other scattered
jagirs were consolidated in the Gujranwala district, the
total annual value being Bs. 1,867. From the Jamu State
the Diwans have always enjoyed an allowance of four rupees
per thousand of the collected revenue, together with a jagir
valued at Bs. 10,000 per annum. This ceased on the expulsion

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of Diwan Lachinan Das. A jagir of Es. 700, enjoyed by
Diwan Hari Chand, was resumed on the death of his widows,
he having no male issue. From Jamu he had been in receipt
of Rs, 16,000 per annum in cash and Rs. 6,000 in revenue
assignments. Similarly, Diwan Nahal Ohand drew Rs. 25,000
in salary, besides a jagir income of Rs. 1,000 per annum. The
other members of the family have also been treated in the
same liberal fashion. They were practically able to fix their
own remuneration ; and, under the circumstances, it is a matter
for wonder why the scale was pitched in so moderate a key.

The family lands, mainly in the Qujranwala district,
are assessed at Rs. 15,000 per annum, of which Diwan Goviod
Sahai's share is Rs. 6,000.

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BnlUn Kban. SiUUt Khuu N*wab Kbtau

AUJlMdaa F«is Takb

VMal Dad OhiUtm Kadar Fatah

Khan* Khan* mif^Tit

BiiA Ali BASifiiim Kmam,

Habomed AUAkbar Khan
B. 1878.

The early history of the Chib Rajput tribe, to which Raja
Ali Bahadar Khan belongs, is given in another chapter. His
ancestor. Raja Shadi Khan, was a contemporary and feudatory
of the Emperors Babar, Hamayun and Akbar; and he ruled
oyer the districts of Bhimbar and Naushera, within the present
limits of Jamuand Kashmir. In consideration of services
rendered to the Emperor Akbar in Kandahar, he was made
Qoyernor of Kashmir with the title of Shadab Khan. Raja
Sultan Khan allied himself with Maharaja Ranjit Singh, and
furnished him with a large contingent of Dogras for the con*
quest of Kashmir. But the friendship was not of long duration.
The brothers Dhian Singh and Gulab Singh were alarmed at
the prospect of an extension of Sultan Khan's territories, and
determined to be rid of him. He was invited to visit Jamu,
and was there assassinated by Qulab Singh's servants while
engaged in prayer on the walls of the newly-built Mandi
Palace. The Maharaja professed great anger at the news of
this treacherous miu*der, and permitted Sultan Khan's nephew,

• NotintliforigliuaBditioii.

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Faiz Talab Khan, to succeed to tbe Chiefsbip, then worth
nearly nine lakhs of rupees per annum. But he was dis-
possessed by Raja Gulab Singh on the death of Banjit Singh,
though subsequently reinstated in a portion at the instance of
Maharaja Sher Singh. After the giving over of Jamu and
Kashmir to Maharaja Gulab Singh, it became necessary to take
measures for the protection and maintenance of the minor Hill
Chiefs, who, much against their wiU, had been included in the
" properties " forming part of the contract. The matter was
arranged in 1847 by Sir Henry Lawrence, Agent and Resident
at Lahore, on the one part, and by Diwan Jawala Sahai, the
Maharaja's Minister, on the other. It was agreed that such of
the Chiefs as elected to settle in British territory should
receive perpetual pensions, amounting in the aggregate to
Bs. 42,800 annually; the Maharaja ceding to the British Govern-
ment the naka of Sujanpur, part of Fathankot, and certain
limds between the Bias and Chaki rivers north of Gurdaspur
in satisfaction of the demands, which were to be met from the
British treasuries. The Raja, Faiz Talab Khan, styled
* Bhimbarwala' by Sir Henry Lawrence, was allowed hereunder
a cash pension of Rs. 10,000 per annum, the same being
declared perpetual in his family, to be enjoyed undivided by
one individual at a time. This arrangement did not of course
please Faiz Talab, who thus found himself invested with a
small pension in lieu of his patrimony. But he was obliged
to accept what had been fixed for ^im by Sir Henry Lawrence,
as there was no hope of getting better terms from the Maharaja.
He took up his abode at Shahdara near Lahore ; and be it
recorded to his credit that he and his relatives have ever
since proved themselves thoroughly loyal to the new Power.
His son Fazal Dad Khan was appointed a Rasaldar-Major on
the Frontier, but became insane after a few years' service, and
died without recovering his health. Shortly before his death,
in 1870, Faiz Talab Khan took up his abode at Sayadpur in

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the Jhilam district for the sake of sport, to which he was
devoted. The perpetual family pension passed to his grandson,
Baja Ali fiahadar Khan, now at the head of the family. He
is Viceregal Darbari, senior in the Gujrat district, and an Extra
Assistant Commissioner in the Rawalpindi Division. His
uncle Ghulam Kadar Ehan distinguished himself as a gallant
soldier. His service began in 1849 as an orderly under
Edwardes at Multan. He took his pension in 1882, after
having served many years as Basaldar in the 4th Panjab
Cavalry, sharing in most of the Frontier expeditions that took
place in his day. He receives a military pension of Bs. 600
per annum, and has been granted eight hundred bigas
of rakh land in the Shabpur district.

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DiwMi Singh. PunUuui Bingli.


. !

nukk Singh. Bum 8:

OnnnnkA Singh. Bum Singh


AUr Singh Amir Singh,

n. 1880.


Hi.BX Snrex Gaian Singh
S. 1849. B. 1868.

TftTft Singh
B. 1870.

The founder of the Lamba family was Gurmukh Singh,
one of the most famous of the Maharaja's Generals. He was
of humble origin, his father, Pardhan Singh, being a money-
changer in the little town of Khewa, situated on the right
bank of the Jhilam opposite Jalalpur. In the summer of
1780, as Mahan Singh Sukarchakia was passing through the
town on his return from an expedition in the neighbourhood
of Find Dadan Khan, Gurmukb Singh, then a boy of eight
years, was presented by his uncle Basta Ram, who was a
petty officer in the service of the Chief. Mahan Singb was
pleased with the bright eyes and intelligent looks of the boy,
and kept him with him. Later in the same year Ranjit
Singh was bom, and when he was two years old Gurmukh
Singh was appointed to be his play-fellow and companion*
The children grew up together, and during the early years
of Ranjit Singh's power wealth and honours were showered
on Gurmukh Singh. He was with Ranjit Singh at the
capture of Lahore in 1799, and was then made paymaster
of the forces, and put in charge of whatever treasure the
Sukarchakia Chief possessed. A detailed account of the
military services of the Sardar would be the history of all
the wars of the Sikh Empire. He fought at Easur, where

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he commanded two thousand men ; at Jhang and Sialkot, and
against the Qurkhas in 1809. The next year he was present
at the siege of Multan, and aided in the reduction of Sahiwal and
Khushab. He commanded a division in the battle of Attock
in 1813, when the Afghans and the Kabul Wazir were driven
from the Panjab, and fought in Kashmir and all along the
northern and north-western borders of the province. Fifteen
times he was woimded in battle : eight times by musket-balls,
thrice by sword cuts, thrice by spear thrusts, once by an arrow.
For his services he was munificently rewarded by his master.
Before the capture of Lahore he received the jagir of Pindi
Lala and Shadianwala, and afterwards Dinga and Rhotas,
worth Rs. 15,000 and Rs. 36,000, respectively. After the
Kasur Campaign of 1807, where the Sardar took the fort of
Morada, and where he was wounded by a spear, he received
jagirs in the Kasur Ilaka, worth Rs. 82,000. When Nar
Singh Ohamiariwala died in 1806 his troops were placed under
Grurmukh Singh, and a large portion of his estate, worth
Rs. 15,000. At one time his estates amounted to three
lakhs and a half ; but the enmity of the Jamu Rajas, Gulab
Singh and Dhian Singh, which he had incurred by attacking
and defeating their father Mian Kashora Singh, destroyed both
his wealth and power, for they oppoBed him on all occasions
and procured the resumption of the jagirs of Gamrola,
Dinga and Dhontal. In 1832 he went with Tara Ohand
to Bannu, where the Sikh army was defeated by Dilasa
Khan. The cowardly (Jeneral had fled, leaving a gun in the
hands of the enemy ; but Qurmukh Singh charged at the head
of his horsemen and recovered it. One by one the jagirs of
the Sardar were resumed, and in 1836 he lost Rhotas.
This was through the hostile influence of Raja Dhian Singh,
who now ruled the failing monarch ; but the reason given was
the perpetual quarrels of the Sardar with the Ghakar Chief,
Fasal Dad Khan, from whose fatheri Nur Khan, he had taken

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tlie famous Bhotas fort. On his death-bed the Maharaja,
feeling some remorse for bis shameless ingratitadoi directed
his son Eharak Singh to restore this jagir to the man who
had fought so faithfully by his side throughout life, and this
Kharak Singh would have done had he lived long enough.
As it was, Gurmukh Singh only recovered Rs. 5,500 of the
estate. Maharaja Sher Singh, who hated the Dogra Bajas
as much as the Sardar did, promised to support him against
them, and gave him estates worth Bs. 25,000, and at annexa-
tion he was in possession of Bs. 36,600 a year. He had in
August 1847 been appointed, with Sardar Bur Singh
Makerian, to take charge of the Bani Jindan, whom it was
necessary to confine in the fort at Shekhopura, and he
discharged his difficult duties with fidelity and discretion, till,
on the outbreak of the Multan disturbances, the Bani was
sent down country. The Gk)yemment in 1850 released his
personal jagirs, worth Bs. 12,600, and that of his son, worth
Bs. 2,000, for their lives. One-third of the Sardar' s jagir was
to descend to his male heirs in perpetuity. Sardar Atar
Singh held Naushera in Shahpur, worth Bs. 4,275, and in
Gujrat the villages of Pindi Lala, Ohak Basowa, Doburji,
Kila Atar Singh, Kot Sitar and two wells, worth Bs. 2,807.
The title * Lamba, * or tall, was not given to Gurmukh Singh
on account of his height, for he was of middle stature, but
from his taking command of the contingent of Mahar Singh
Lamba, who was an exceedingly tall man.

Sardar Atar Singh died in 1880. His jagir has been
divided equally between his sons, Hari Singh and G^ian
Singh. The present annual value is Bs. 7,298, extending
over five villages and four wells in Tahsil Kharian, Gujrat,
and one village, Naushera, in the Shahpur district. Sardar
Hari Singh is one of the leading gentlemen of Gujrat, and
takes the second place on the District List of Viceregal
Darbaris. He served for a short period as a Naib Tahsildar,

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but resigned for family reasons. He Iiaa no sons. He is a
Lamba Bangach Eliatri^ and lives at Kila Sardar Atar Singh,
near Pindi Lala, Tahsil Phalian. He is a member of the
District Board, and has considerable local influencoi taking
a great interest in all public matters.

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Inajftt All KhftB.

TMbiAfc Khiiu

8har Jang Xhiii.



KbM. I

TT »«. I

UmarKhAiu B«haw«l Bakhah

Bimikni i n^^*! i


▲kb«r AU Kban* Amir Kban*

Ohalam AU Khan


Six Sons.

FMalDad Khan.


Naaar AU


Tateh Khaa
». 1879.

Ala Dad Khaa
a. 1877.






SviffAV Kaijr
a. 1810.

AU Haidar


ICahomed ILhaa
a. 1848.

Qhttlam Kadar



AUluhomed Amir.
a. 180,

Bahimdad Khaa
a. 1877.


Fannan AU
a. 1867.

a. 1868.


]>ateh Bher Khan
a. 1877.

Ala Dad Khaa
a. 1881.

Diwaa AU Khan
a. 188i.


The Chibs ore an ancient Rajput tribe scattered through
the low range of hills between the rivers Bias and Jhilam.
In the Gujrat district, where they are most numerous, they
occupy fifty-one villages, and here they are mostly Mahomed-
ans, while those of Kangra and Jamu retain the old Hindu
faith. The Chibs are not descended from one of the royal
Rajput houses ; but they hold the second place, and rank with
Salaria, Harchandar and other honourable tribes. They them-
selves assert that they have some share of royal blood, and that
one of their ancestors, Hamir Chand, married the daughter of
the KatochRaja of Kangra, and succeeded to the throne on the
death of his father-in-laW| his descendants ruling in Kangra

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for eight generations, until the time of Chib Ghand and IJdai
Chand. But this story is probably false. No Mian belonging
to a roynl clan would give his daughter in marriage to an
inferior in rank ; nor in the long roll of four hundred and
seventy-five Katoch Kings are the ancestors of the Cbibs to
be found. The name of Hamir Chand, indeed, occurs
twice; but the names preceding and succeeding are not
those of Ohib history. But it is possible that the accuracy
of a genealogy which extends over a period of fourteen
thousand years may be doubted.

Ohib Chand, the foimder of the tribe, quarrelled with his
brother Udai Chand and, leaving Kangra about the year 1400,
settled near Bhimbar, at the village of Malura or Muchalpura,
where he married the daughter of Raja Sripat^ the local ruler.
Not content with the possession of the daughter, he coveted
the Chiefship, and, inviting his father-in-law with his whole
family to a feast, he murdered them all and became himself
Baja. For several generations his descendants ruled
in the neighboiirhood of Bhimbar, till Sadi^ in the reign
of the Emperor Babar, went to pay his respects at Court,
and received an Imperial confirmation of his possessions
in return for his renouncing Hinduism and adopting
the Mahomedan faith, taking the name of Shadab Khan.
This Chief accompanied Humayun on more than one of
his expeditions, and was at length killed by one Pir Haibat,
a native of Kandahar, with whom he had a quarrel.
Apostacy is not always considered respectable ; but the Chibs
have made Shadab Khan a saint, and his tomb, near Bhimbar,
is a sacred place of pilgrimage, to which both Hindu and
Mahomedan members of the tribe resort. The saint is
generally known as Sur Sadi Shahid, and there is a custom in
the tribe of leaving one lock of hair on the head of every
infant until such time as the parents can visit the shrine, when
it is cut off with much ceremony, and the child is theq, and

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not till then, considered a true Chib. This ceremony is as
essential as the pahal among the Sikhs, or circumcision among
Mahomedaus. The Ohib Chiefs held the district of Khari
Kariali, stretching along the Jhilam, below the fort of Mangla,
and Naushera till the Sikhs rose to power. Then Sardar Gujar
Singh Bhangi, having captured Gujrat from the Qakhars, turn-
ed his arms against them, but he was not able to make much
impression upon them, as their country was very difficult for
an attacking force. Sahib Singh, son of Gujar Singh, and
Mahan Singh Sukarchakia later attacked Mangla without
success, and its reduction was left for the great Maharaja
himself. In 1810, after Ranjit Singh had seized Gujrat from
Sahib Singh, he marched northward and reduced the fort of
Chunian, held by Raja TJmar Khan, who retired to his still
stronger fort of Mangla. The Sikh army then marched
against Mangla, when Amir Khan, thinking resistance useless,
sent his son Akbar Ali Khan to sue for peace. Before an
answer could be received the Chief died, and Ranjit Singh,
not wishing to drive Akbar Ali Khan to extremities, left him
half of his father's possessions, which he only lived six months
to enjoy. All was then confiscated ; but to Amir Khan, the
second son, a pension of Rs. 4,000 was assigned, and to his
cousin Sher Jhang Khan a pension of Rs. 3,000. Some years
later Amir Khan died, and the pension was continued to his
younger brother Fazal Dad Khan. Prince Kharak Singh, to
whom Khari Kariali was given in jagir, took Fazal Dad Khan
into his service on Rs. 3 a day, and ten years later four
sowars were also allowed him on Rs. 1,075. When Kashmir
and Jamu were made over in independent possession to
Maharaja Gulab Singh, the jagir of Rs. 4,000 was included
in that territory, and the cash allowance of Rs. 1,075 was
exchanged for a jagir of the same amount at Dal Kalu and
Sithal. The Raja accompanied Sher Singh to Multan in
1848| but did not join in his rebellion, and his jagir was

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continued to him. It was resumed on his death in 1864, and
his sons, Nazar Ali Khan and Fateh Khan, were given a pen-
sion of Bs. 540.

One of the leading men among the Chibs is Raja Sultan
Khan, of Pothi, son of Sher JhangKhan. A jagir in the villages
of Ppthi, Dak, Bhulwal and Phularwahu in the Gujrat dis-
trict, valued at Bs. 1,'692 per annum, was passed to him at
annexation. He did good service during the Mutiny, receiv-
ing a cash reward of five hundred rupees.

Another Chib of note is Chaudhri Ghulam Ali Khan,
of Baisa, who possesses considerable influence. His father
Bandu Khan was for many years Kardar under the
Sikhs. On the death of his father, Ghulam Ali Khan
succeeded to the office, and improved the district by
his admirable management. Four villages^ Sang, Baisa,
Jagu and Chang, were released in his favour. In 1849 he
showed himself hostile to the Government, and his jagir and
his privileges were resumed ; but he redeemed his character
for loyalty in 1857, and received a pension of Bs. 300 for life.
His son Mardan Ali Khan at this time entered the old 2nd Sikh
Cavalry, and is at present a Basaldar in the same regiment, now
known as the 12th Bengal Cavalry. He furnished thirty sowars
for service in the Mutiny, and was with his regiment in many
battles in the eventful years of 1857 and 1858. He also took
part in the Abyssinian Expedition of 1868 and in the Afghan
War of 1879-80. He is decorated with the Order of British
India, and has received the title of Sardar Bahadar. The
many officers under whom he has served hold him in the
highest esteem. He has jagir rights in nearly eight hundred
bigas in Tahsil Kharian, Gujrat, being also proprietor ; and
he has a jagir of one thousand bigas in the Gujranwala district,
besides receiving Zaildari dues worth Rs. 200 per annum.

No fewer than eighteen members of this family are serving
Government ; most of them as officers in the Bengal Cavalry.

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Tbe Hindu Chibs have given far more trouble in Oujrat
than their Mahomedan kinsmen. During the whole reign of
Maharaja Banjit Singh they were notorious for audacity and
lawlessness. Inhabiting Dewa, Botala and other hill villages,
a few miles beyond the Jamu f rentier, they would descend
upon the plains, bumiug and plundering, and even the larger
towns were not safe from attack. Twice the Maharaja burnt
their village ; but this had only a temporary effect, and they
are as evil-minded at the present day as in old Sikh times.
Twice since the annexation of the Panjab have they made
raids upon British territory : in June 1849, when they
attacked the village of Asar ; and in August 1858, when they

Online LibraryCharles Francis Massy Sir Lepel Henry GriffinThe Panjab chiefs: historical and biographical notices of the ..., Volume 2 → online text (page 17 of 29)