Charles Francis Massy Sir Lepel Henry Griffin.

The Panjab chiefs: historical and biographical notices of the ..., Volume 2 online

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is now almost extinct.

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Ehan founded Garjakh^ whioli became a large and flourishing
town, though now ruined and desolate. The Janjoahs soon
became split up into many clans, divided among themselves,
and thus unable successively to oppose tribes in no way
superior to them in courage or military skill. They joined
Timur Shah, when he invaded India in 1398, and fought
under him throughout his campaign. In 1526 they readily
submitted to Babar Shah, who has given a somewhat detailed
accoxmt of the tribe in his memoirs. He mentions that its
two divisions were then known by the names of Jodh and
Janjoah, agreeing with the Jodhis and Johyas of Bajputana
history, though at the present day both have the common
name of Janjoah. The Gakhars were the great enemies of
the tribe and drove them out of many of their villages ; the
Awans also pressed them hard ; and the Sikhs, last and worst
of all, completed their overthrow. There is now no man of
wealth or importance belonging to this ancient tribe.

The families of Kot-Sarang and Darapur may, among
many of noble blood, be considered the first. Raja Sarang,
the foimder of the first-named family, held fifty villages, and
was a Chief celebrated for his valour. He was killed in a
fight with the Afghans near Makhad. Fateh Ehan, sixth in
descent from Sarang, was also a distinguished Chief, and in
his time the village was called Fateh Kot. The Awans dis-
possessed the family, though Dbana Singh Malwai allowed
them some small proprietary rights. Eaja Mahomed Khan
and Samand Ehan, the latter of whom is Lambardar of Kot
Sarang, are the present representatives of the family.

The town of Darapur was founded by Malik Darwesh,
a fighting Chief, who avenged many of the injuries his
tribe had received from the Gakhars. His great-grandson,
ShabatKhan, fought under Sardar Mahan Singh Sukarchakia,
and was left unmolested in his Chiefship ; but his son Ghulam
Mohaiudin Khan was less fortunate, and was assassinated by

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Sardar Atar Singh Dhari, who took possession of all his villages.
His sons Haibat Khan and Ali Haidar Khan fled to Malikpu^^
a strong fort on the river, where they held out for some
years, living by plunder. At last, to the joy of the brothers,
Atar Singh Dhari was blown up in a mine at the siege of
Multan in 1810, and they imagined that they might regain
their rights. But Kaur Singh, uncle of the deceased Sardar,
held Darapur against them, and so, through all the Sikh rule,
the family became poorer and weaker year by year. Many
were the changes in Kardars and Jagirdars; Sardar Ratan
Singh Garjakh, Khushi Mai, Soba Eam, Eaja Gulab Singh, Raja
Lai Singh, Misar Ram Chand, Misar Rup Lai, all came and
went; but no one of them reinstated the Janjoah Chiefs.
The Darapur family are in a far better position now than
they were previous to annexation, holding in jagir the villages
of Darapur, Chak Mauja Malikpur, Miran and Shahgarh.

Khair Mahdi Khan died in 1871 on his way to Mecca,
leaving three sons, of whom the eldest, Malik Zaman Mahdi
Khan, represents the family. He acts up to the traditions
of his tribe in honesty of character, in loyalty to the
authorities, and in unstinted hospitality to the stranger
within his gates. He gave valuable information to the
Deputy Commissioner of Jhilam in 1857, leading to the
capture of a large party of mutineers of the 14th Bengal
Infantry who attempted to escape down the river by boat.
He was again forward during the late Afghan War with
supplies of carriage and provisions. He received a Sanad in
1887 at the hands of his Excellency the Viceroy, express-
ing Her Majesty's approval of his loyalty and general
exemplary conduct. He has the privilege of receiving a chair
in Viceregal Darbars. Of his brothers, Abdula Khan is a
semi-recluse. Painda Khan was for some years in the 19th
Bengal Lanoers, but took his discharge on his father's death.
They live at Darapur, Tahsil Jhilam.

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Of the many representatives of the old Janjoah Chiefs
still holding villages on the plain between Find Dadan Khan
and Rawalpindi, mention may be made of Bahadar Elhan,
son of Baja Fir Bakhsh, living at Malot, at one time the head-
quarters of the clan. He has some influence in the villages
around and enjoys a small inam. Sultan Ali Bahadar Khan,
son of Sultan Fateh Ali Khan, is also a Janjoah of local note as
head of the Makhiala branch, which was crushed by Maharaja
Ranjit Singh. Of the twenty-two villages once in possession
of this branch of the family only two remain. Sultan Ali
Bahadar enjoys a small jagir and a cash grant. His father was
murdered some years ago in connection with a land dispute.
In the near neighbourhood of Makhiala lives Sultan Lai Khan
of Kasakh and Vatli, whose cousin Imam Ali Khan is a Tahsil-
dar in Qujrat. The title of Sultan is alleged to have been be-
stowed upon the representatives of these two branches by the
Emperor Babar. It is much prized in the family, being used
only by the head for the time being. Sultan Lai Khan was for-
ward in assisting the local authorities with carriage and sup-
plies during the pressure caused by the late Afghan War, and
has on all occasions proved himself a loyal subject. He is
held in esteem by his own people.

Shadman Khan, son of Raja Dhuman Khan of Chaki, is
another tribesman of note. His cousin, Karam Dad Khan,
is a pensioned Subadar, having served in the 2nd Fanjab
Infantry. Karam Dad's brother is a Dafadar in the 3rd
Fanjab Cavalry.

Sultan Mahomed Khan, of Nara, is also an influential
Janjoah. Other good men of the tribe are Lai Khan, of
Sherpur ; Ali Akbar Khan, of Baghanwala ; and Abdula Khan,
of Dilwal. The Janjoahs furnish excellent cavalry recruits.
Nadar Ali Khan, of Makhiala, is Rasaldar-Major of the 18th
Bengal Lancers, and several of his relatives hold good ap«
pointments in the Regiment.

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MfthAn Singh

OhAtMT Singh Hinuit Singh Bftdh»wa Singh Sham Sincfa

9.\m. ». 18707 i>.i8«r. TieeSi

^';:^' , I ',

». 1880. Snndar Singh Sardar Singh Labna Singh

TA^Li'sniM ■;^"»' "-^f^- ».!««.
B. 1878, Didar Singh

Onltar Singh Gajindar Singh Gobardhan Singh
B. 1878. B. 1870. B. 1888.

Data Bam was a coDfidential servant of Mukarab Khan,
the Gakhar Chief of Gujrat. His son Mahan Singh, when
quite young, went to Lahore to seek his fortune, and
Maharaja Banjit Singh, who was struck by his skill and
courage ona hunting expedition, wheh Mahan Singh, unassisted,
killed a leopard with his sword, gave him an appointment in
the army under Sardar Hari Singh Nalwa. The young man
fought in several campaigns with great gallantry, and at the
siege of Multan was twice wounded. He also served in
Kashmir and at Peshawar. He was a great favourite of Hari
Singh, who advanced his fortunes and made him his confidant
and lieutenant. Mahan Singh was in charge of the fort of
Jamrud in April 1837 when the Afghan army, under Mirza
Sami Khan, attacked it in force, and he held out bravely
against enormous odds until Hari Singh himself arrived from
Peshawar to fight the memorable battle in which he fell. On
the death of his patron, Sardar Mahan Singh did not lose the
favour of the Maharaja, who in 1839 gave him a jagir of
Rs. 37,000, of which Rs. 12,000 were personal, and Rs. 26,000
for service of one hundred sowars. He retained this estate
throughout the reigns of Maharaja Kharak Singh and Sher
Singh. In 1844| when the Sikh army was as brutal and

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licentious as it was possible for troops to be, Mahan Singh
was murdered by his own men. Ohatar Singh avenged his
father's death, but was assassinated himself soon afterwards.
Under the Darbar, the jagir was reduced to Bs. 29,400, still
subject to the service of one hundred horsemen. These all
joined the rebel army in 1848-49. Himat Singh and his
brother Sham Singh retired to Jamu, and, when the rebellion
was over, boasted that they had fought against the rebels with
the Maharaja of Jamu's force ; and in support of their state-
ment produced a letter from Diwan Hari Chand to Jawala
Sahai, the confidential agent of the Maharaja; but this let-
ter from a man thoroughly distrusted himself did not do them
much good. However admirable the intentions of Himat
Singh may have been, his conduct was certainly most
suspicious. He was a large Jagirdar ; yet when his services
were most required he did not come forward on the side of
his Government. Indeed, nothing was seen of him till the
17th May 1849, three months after the battle of Gujrat had
been fought. Under these circumstances the whole jagir was
resumed. The widows of Mahan Singh and Chatar Singh
were each allowed a pension of Bs. 360 per annum.

Himat Singh had an allowance of Bs. 350, which he
enjoyed until 1870, when he died. His brother Sham Singh,
who died four years earlier, had been in receipt of Bs. 180
per annum. He was employed as a Tahsildar in Jamu.
Himat Singh behaved well in the Mutiny, placing twelve
horsemen, equipped at his own charges, at the service of
Qovemment. He lived at Mirpur in the Jamu State, and
was one of the Darbar officials. His son Baghbir Singh was
a Tahsildar for several years at Jamu.

Badhawa Singh, second brother of Himat Singh, served
as Jamadar in a Bengal Cavalry Begiment, and afterwards
accepted a Basaldarship in the Maharaja's army. He died
in 1887. Sundar Singh^ son of Sham Singh^ is aJso employed

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at Jamu. Another son, Sardar Singh, is a revenue agent for
Mirpnr and the surronnding villages. Lahna Singh, third son,
was nntil lately employed about the person of the Maharaja.

The widows of Chatar Singh and Himat Singh are in
the enjoyment of pensions from the British Government.
The widows of Mahan Singh and Sham Singh, who were also
pensioners, have recently died.

The family hold property in the Jhilam and Gujranwala
districts, as well as in the Mirpur Ilaka of the Jamu State.

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Run Jm, Ram Kanr. „

1 Raja Lid Singh

I Mai.

. ^^^

AmirOband Bhagwan Binglu >*1MS>

B. 1881. ». 1880. I

I I .'

I I 1 I Lakhmir Diwan Kahan Ranbhir Banihir TeJ

BuxH R^ja Karam Kis^an Clumd Cbaod ChMaA Singh. Singh. Bahad^

RaxDas Bun Chand Cband ■.1819. B.1858. B. 1862. J Singh..

B.1882. ..1848. B.18M. B. 18W. ^ 8haJ.h«-

Damodar Gokal Lakh Raj. f^

Das. Ohand. *• *•"•

The family of Misar Sukh Ram Das is of no antiquity.
Its rise was as sudden as its fall, and its fall was so complete
that only a brief outline of its history is given here. The
history of Lai Singh himself was for three years the history
of the Panjab, and will be found in some detail in other parts
of this book. Bamjas, the eldest of three brothers, sons of
a petty Brahman shopkeeper, entered the service of Basti
Bam, the Treasurer of Sardar Mahan Singh Sukarchakia, as
a Munshi. He was killed i^ the hill country during a tax-
collecting expedition in the early part of the reign of Ranjit
Singh, and was succeeded in his office by his brothers Bam
Kaur and Jasa Mai. Baja Dhian Singh was the patron of
the family, and on the death of Basti Bam his influence
procured the appointment of Jasa Mai to the charge of the
Bela Toshakhana, or small-service treasury. In 1830 Amir
Chand received an appointment under his uncle, and in 1832
Lai Singh and his cousin Bhagwan Singh were taken into
the treasury. The next year Bhagwan Singh was sent as
Kardar to Gujrat, and Jasa Mai was allowed to take the con-
tracts for Bhotas and Jhilam, which he held till his death in
1836. Lai Singh succeeded his father; and when Misar Bell
Bam was imprisoned for several months by Nao Nahal Singh, on
account of his connection with Sardar Chet Singh, Lai Singh
heldhisoffice of Treasurer ; and when, four years later, Beli Bam

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was murdered by the orders of Raja Hira Singh, Lai Singh re-
ceived the permanent appointment. He was a great favourite
of Hira Singh, who created him Raja of Rhotas. But Lai Singh
was too greedy to be grateful, and he was deeply implicated in
the successful conspiracy of December 1844 against Hira Singh's
power and life. His influence increased under the next Minister
Jawahir Singh, for he was the lover of the Maharani, and on the
death of Jawahir Singh became himself Minister ; and he, with
Raja Dina Nath, induced the army, which he feared and hated,
to cross the Satlaj in 1845 and invade British territory. After
the Satlaj Campaign he was confirmed as Minister, and this
office he held till the close of 1846 when, being convicted of
treason in opposing the occupation of Kashmir by Maharaja
Gulab Singh under the Treaty of the 16th March 1846, he
was removed and banished to Hindustan ; first to Agra, then
to the Dehra Dun, where he enjoyed a pension of Rs. 12,000
per annum until his death in 1866.

Raja Lai Singh rose to power by the exercise of arts,
which in a civilized community would have sent him to the
scaffold. He was one of the chief instigators and chief actors
in the murders of Raja Hira Singh, of Misar Beli Ram and of
Bhai Gurmukh Singh. His intrigues with Maharani Jindan
were so open and shameless that they even scandalized a
people whose immorality was proverbial. By ingratitude,
treachery and cunning he succeeded in acquiring the wealth
and power for which better men are indebted to their virtue
or their genius. He had great opportunities for serving his
country, but he resolutely chose the evil in preference to the
good. Had he possessed one spark of patriotism, he might,
after the Satlaj Campaign, have saved Kashmir to the Fanjab.
His ministry was supported by the whole strength of the
British Government. Major Lawrence stood by him, with no
petty interference, but offering wise and generous advice,
which this greedy Minister never cared to follow ; and when

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at length bis jealousy of Maharaja Gulab Singh led him into
treason, his fall from power was hailed with joy by all : by
the army, which hated him for the cowardice and imbecility
that had been its ruin ; and by the Chiefs, whose estates he
had seized to enrich himself and his creatures.

Misar Amir Chand was in 1838 sent to Kashmir to
collect the revenue, and remained there six months. He,
later, accompanied Nao Nahal Singh to Peshawar in charge
of the camp treasury. Bhagwan Singh was at this time
employed in the treasury at Lahore. In 1844 Amir Chand
was appointed Governor of Gujrat and Find Dadan Khan, on
a salary of Rs. 12,000 per annum, and two years later his
brother Bhagwan Singh was appointed Kardar of Jhang.
Both lost their jagirs and appointments on the deposition of
their cousin Raja Lai Singh ; and it was some time before
Misar Amir Chand cleared off the large outstanding balances
against him. He died in 1881. His eldest son Sukh Bam,
entered the service of the young Maharaja in 1845, and used
to lay before him the daily report of the army. He was
attached to the Darbar Toshakhana, and received during the
last two years of his service Rs. 4,300 per annum. Misar
Bhagwan Singh died in 1880. He and Amir Chand held a
small jagir of thirty-five bigas at Sangoi in the Jhilam district,
and a few acres, valued at Rs. 22 per annum, at Kalra in the
Qujrat district, which lapsed at their death. Misar Sukh Ram
Das is now at the head of the family. He is a member of the
Jhilam District Board. The family has very little local influence.

Raja Lai Singh's sons live at Dehra Dun. Their con-
nection with the Panjab is severed.

Lakhmi Chand, son of Misar Bhagwan Singh, was ap-
pointed a Naib-Tahsildar in his own district in 1880 to help in
the collection of carriage and supplies for the Afghan War.
He was allowed to retain his father's jagir holdings on half
assessment rates.

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Baja Anwar Khan. Akbar Ali Klum.

AdaUt Zar Ala Dad. Faza

Karthaaab Khan
n. 1874.

Nias Ali. Hnrad AU Z«man Ali
B. 1882. n. 1887.

Dad* Boshan Khan. 8her Khan, Jalal Khan.

Baja ruman Ali Amir Ali.

ICahomed Khan D. 1878. o. 1878L

B. 1864.


Fateh Khan Lai

B. 1878. B. 1887.

Lahrasab Khan Sangar Khan. Shah Wall * Ali Ahmad Bsjwali Bahada

B. 1885. Khan. Khan. Khan; —

I Firoz Khan.

Gaahtasab Khan.

Axjasao Khan. Mamora Khan.

The history of the Gakhars of the Province is given in
the Rawalpindi Chapter. The tribe is strongly represent-
ed in Jhilam by the Askandral branches, including the houses
of Lahri and Bakrala and of Domeli or Rhotas ; also the Bhagial
branch, which has ramnified into eight sections scattered over
the Jhilam Tahsil. The most noteworthy family is that of the
Domeli Rajas, headed by Mahomed Khan, grandson of Raja
Akbar Ali Khan, who joined Nicholson in 1848, and did good
service, receiving a jagir of the value of one thousand rupees.
His nephew, Fazal Dad Khan, accompanied Raja Sher Singh
to Multan in 1848 and joined with him in the rebellion. He
had been released from prison by Henry Lawrence shortly
before, but this did not prevent him from intriguing against
the English. He was employed as the confidential agent
between Raja Sher Singh and Maharaja Gulab Singh. His
jagirs of six thousand rupees were resumed for his treacherous
conduct ; but he was allowed to receive as subsistence
allowance one-fourth of the revenue of Domeli, amounting to
Rs. 425 per annum.

* Not in the original Editioo.

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Baja Mahomed Ehan is in enjoTment of mafi allowanoes
Aggregating Bs. 560 per annum in the villages of Beli Budhar
and Bupar of the Jhilam TahsiL He has a proprietary
holding of two hundred and fifty ghumaos in the former
village. The family is an essentially military one, having for
years past furnished our cavalry regiments with some of
their best soldiers. Five of the six sons of Fazal Dad took
service. Lahrasab, the eldest, was for many years Basaldar-
Major of the 2nd Fanjab Cavabry, in which regiment Bahadar,
the youngest, is now a Basaldar. Sangar Khan is a Jamadar
in the 11th Bengal Lancers. Shahwali Khan was a Basaldar
in the 3rd Fanjab Cavalry. He died in 1882 after a highly
honourable career, in acknowledgment of which he was assigned
one thousand bigas of land in Bakh Bail, Tahsil Jbilam, now
in possession of his son (}ashtasab Elhan, a Dafadar in his
father's old regiment. Ali Ahmad, brother of Shahwali, was
a Jamadar in the 3rd Fanjab Cavalry. He died in 1877.
His nephew Firoz is now a Jamadar in this regiment.
Lahrasab's two sons, Arjasab and Mamora, are officers in the
Fanjab Cavalry. They enjoy an inam of two hundred rupees,
and possess a grant of one thousand bigas in Mauza Ghaziot,
Tahsil Jhilam. Karshasab Khan, nephew of Fazal Dad, was
a Jamadar in the 12th Bengal Cavalry. He died in 1874.
Two of his sons are now serving in the army ; and a third,
Niaz Ali Khan, is a Deputy Inspector of Fobce in the Bawal-
pindi district.

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». 1848.

Bishan Bineh
9. 1868.

Jawamxb Bxvaa Ganda Siogh Bobha Singh

B. 1888. B. 1841. B. mXr

Hira Jagat Oaian Hukam

Singh Singh Singh Singh

B. 1860. B. iSm. B. 1867. B. l376.

▲mrik Singh Aijan Singh
B. 1880. B. 1886.

Sardar Snndar Dharaot

Singh "

B. 1864.

Singh Singh

B. 1871. B. im.

Bhagaft Jaimal Sant Singh

B. 188S. B. :

Jawahir Singh's family moved from Ajudhia in the days
of the Moghals. An ancestor. Sari, passed thence to Kothiala
Chatwala in the Shahpur district, where he received some
land free of revenue from the Governor of the Lahore Suba.
His descendants are now known as Suri Khatris. Some of his
children moved to Chotala in Jhilam, where Jawahir Singh
and his brothers have their home. The family is well known
in the Panjab as having for many generations given good
recruits to the military service.

Sultan Singh, grandfather of Sardar Jawahir Singh, when
thirteen years of age, was put on the pay-list of Maharaja
Banjit Singh's Ghorcharas, and when old enough was sent on
active service in several expeditions on the other side of the
Indus, and to Multan and Kashmir. He was given the
village of Mundiala Jatian^ said to be worth two thousand
rupees, in jagir. A portion of this was afterwards transferred
to his father-in-law, Sardar Mana Singh, he receiving in
exchange larger holdings in Namtasan, Ichara and Eahna.
On one occasion, in a tough fight outside NahangwaU Deri in
Yusufzai, he received thirteen sword-cuts and one bullet-
wound after making a most gallant stand, almost alone,

* Not in the origuuil Sditi«ii.

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against a large body of Afghans. When the Maharaja, who
was not far off, heard of Sultan Singh's crippled state, he had
him conveyed to camp in his own palanquin and presented him
with a pair of gold bracelets, which are still in possession of
the family. Sultan Singh died in 1842. His jagirs were
resumed at annexation. His son Bishan Singh also received
pay in the Ghorcharas from his early childhood. In Maharaja
Sher Singh's time he was placed in charge of the Artillery-
park at Lahore ; and when the Province was annexed he joined
the 2nd Panjab Irregular Cavalry, raised in 1849, and received
the rank of Basaldar, taking part with his regiment in many
expeditions along the Frontier. In 1857 he marched to
Dehli with a squadron commanded by Sir Deighton Probyn,
and served with the greatest distinction throughout the
Mutiny. General Probyn writes of him : " He must have
been in fifty fights ; a braver man I never saw. He knew not
what fear was, and delighted in danger. He was conspicuous
for his gallantry on many occasions." For his Mutiny services
Sardar Bishan Singh received the Orders of Merit and of
British India; and he was shortly afterwards appointed
Easaldar-Major of his regiment. He died in 1868. The
Sardar had been in receipt of a salary of Es. 4,800 per annum.
He held a small jagir in Mauza Samu, Gujrat, and a mafi of
Rs. 125 in Kariala, Jhilam.

Sardar Bishan Singh's post of Rasaldar-Major in the 2nd
Panjab Cavalry was given to his son Jawahir Singh, whose
gallant conduct fully justified the particular distinction which
had been shown to the family. He* commenced service in
1856 as Jamadar, and was present with his regiment in the
Bozdar Expedition of 1857. Then he marched to Lucknow,
and fought at the Relief and in the several general actions
which resulted in the pacification of the Oudh Provinces. He
was next engaged in the Kabul Khel Expedition: of 1859, and
later on in the Jawaki Campaign of 1877 and the Afghan

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War of 1878-80, including the actions of Takhtipul, Shahjui,
Ahmad Khel, Urzu and Patkao Shana. His chargers ^ere
twice wounded with sword-cuts.

The Sardar is still serving in the 2nd Panjab Cavalry.
He has received the Order of British India ; and after the
Afghan War he was given a grant of five hundred acres of land
in proprietary right in the Gujrat district. One of his sons,
Jagat Singh, is a Jamadar in the 1st Bombay Lancers ; another,
Gaian Singh, is serving in his father's regiment as Jamadar.
His brother Ganda Singh, who manages the family property,
is a Darbari on the Provincial List. Sobha Singh is a Jamadar
in the 2nd Panjab Cavalry, and several others of the family
are soldiering in different regiments.

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Ahun Sher Khui*

Khan Uahomtd Khan.

Khan Beg Khan.


TThft "",


Ghnlam Haihim



J n. 1828,



Iflna Khan. Sher Khan.


Ahmad FTia-n^










a. 161S.

Kadar Alam Malik Jahan Faleh
Bakhflh Khao Sahib Khan Khan
n. 1848. B. 1877. Khan, ». 1886. B. 1828.

Online LibraryCharles Francis Massy Sir Lepel Henry GriffinThe Panjab chiefs: historical and biographical notices of the ..., Volume 2 → online text (page 19 of 29)