Charles Francis Massy Sir Lepel Henry Griffin.

The Panjab chiefs: historical and biographical notices of the ..., Volume 2 online

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forces, Banjit Singh marched to Sahiwal and summoned Fateh
Khan to his presence. The Biluch fox had noticed many
footprints going into the den of the lion, but no sign of a
returning step, and hesitated to comply ; but Banjit Singh
expressed such devoted friendship for him, that at length
he sent his son Langar Khan, a child of four years of
agCi with rich presents. The Maharaja received the boy
with great cordiality, and having again expressed his
friendship for Fateh Khan, marched against Zafar Khan,
Chief of Khushab, which place he reduced after several
days' siege. Fateh Khan now thought himself secure ; but^

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Ranjit Singh returned at Bight to Sahiwal, took the fort by
surprise and carried the Chief prisoner to Lahore. After a
year he was released, and a jagir of Rs. 14,400 was given to
him at Jhang, with which he was to furnish fifty horsemen.
In 1812 he returned to Lahore, and for three years remained
about the Court ; but this life was not to his taste. During these
three years he saw Sultan Khan, the Bhimbar Raja, betrayed
by Ranjit as he himself had been betrayed; he saw the
miserable Shah Shuja tricked and robbed by the Prince who
had sworn to protect him ; and at last he turned his back on
the accursed Court, and fled to Mankera to the protection of
Mahomed Khan, the great and wise Biluch Governor, He
remained here for nine months ; but Mahomed Khan could
not do much to assist him, and he then left for Multan, where
he lived for two more years, supported by Muzafar Khan.
But when his old enemy marched on Multan in 1818 the poor
outcast retired to Bahawalpur, where, in the town of
Ahmadpur, he died in 1820.

Laugar Khan, his eldest son, was at his father's death
but fourteen years old, and Sadik Khan, the Chief of Bahawal-
pur, took him and his horsemen into his own service. After
three years Ranjit Singh, who had heard of Fateh Khan's
death, invited Langar Khan to Lahore and gave him a jagir
of Rs. 1,200 in Jhang and Sahiwal, with allowances for fifty
horsemen, and stationed him at Multan, where he remained
under the orders of Diwan Sawan Mai for ten years. Shortly
before the Maharaja's death he granted a new jagir to Langar
Khan at Muglanwala, Nim and Jhok Manjiir, worth, with the
old Sahiwal jagir, Rs. 3,000, and still in possession of the family.
Besides this, Langar Khan was allowed in cash Rs. 11,236 for
the services of himself, his two sons and forty-two troopers.
Maharaja Sher Singh ordered him, with two hundred horsemen,
to accompany the camp of General M'Caskill through the Pan jab
during the Afghan War, and in July 1841, commanding the

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same force, he went with Major H. Lawrence as far as Oharbagh
in Lughman. After the assassination of Sber Singh, Langar
Khan was sent by Raja Hira Singh against Fateh Khan Tawana,
who was ravaging the country between the Chanab and the
Indus ; but the expedition had not much success, and it was not
till the death of Hira Singh that Fateh Khan submitted and
came to Lahore, where he offered his services to Jawahir Singh,
the new Wazir. Under this Minister, Langar Khan was
stationed at Find Dadan Khan, and at the close of 1847 was
sent under Lieutenant Edwardes to Bannu, In June 1848
he did good service against the insurgent Bhai Maharaj
Singh. For three days and nights, from Jbandiala to Jhang,
did Langar Khan, with other Mahomedan Chiefs, hang on his
tracks till, being joined by the fresh troops of Misar Sahib
Dayal, they drove the rebel force into the swollen Chanab.
Two months afterwards Langar Khan joined Greneral Whish's
camp at Sardarpur, and served during the whole siege of
Multan with great credit. On annexation his personal jagirs,
worth Rs. 3,000, were released in perpetuity, and a pension of
Bs. 1,200 granted him, which was resumed at his death on the
17th March 1853. His eldest son, Mahomed Hayat Khan,
succeeded him. This young man had served at Kabul and
Bannu and through the Multan siege, and was both loyal and
brave. He died on the 7th February 1862, aged thirty-five

Sardar Mubarak Khan, the present head of the family,
holds two-thirds of the perpetual jagir of three thousand
rupees, the remainder having passed to his brother Lashkar
Khan. Both brothers are much embarrassed by debt.
Mubarak Khan is a Viceregal Darbari. His son Charagh
Khan holds a subordinate appointment on the canal staff of
the district*

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OhalAm HMAin.

IsAi khui Shahadat Khan. "iUmx. Jihav Khav, Fateh Sber Khan.
D.iese. I Bardar Bahadar, I

J i ■ 1 B.1824. ] ' j

I I Sonra Piara I ShaipBher. Haho

Nnr ICniafar Sher Khan. Khan. I I fiber.

Khan. Khan. Khazu | Kabarak Mahomed

J Abdul Khan Hamtas

Khan Mahomed Kahman B.186S. Khan.

'KTif.i^, SIhan.

Sardar Bahadar Malik Jahan Ehan, on the outbreak of the
Mutiny, joined Malik Sahib Khan's Basala, and took part in the
actions of Jhilam and Ajnala. He afterwards did good service
at Kalpi, and served throughout the Central India Campaign on
the personal escort of General Napier, taking a share in several
actions up to the battle of Ranade, where he particularly distin-
guished himself by boldly attacking five or six of the enemy
without assistance ; but he was worsted in the encounter and
severely wounded. He was afterwards posted as Rasaldar to the
18th Bengal Lancers, and was for a short period appointed to
act as Aide-de-Camp on Lord Napier's Staff. After establishing
a reputation as a gallant and faithful ofl&cer he retired with the
full pension of a Rasaldar, and the title of Sardar Bahadar was
conferred on him for conspicuous bravery and merit. He owns
some three thousand five hundred acres in his native village of
Hadali, and has recently purchased three thousand acres
of valuable irrigated land near Shahpur, and taken on lease
an additional plot of twelve hundred acres. He has developed
his estate most successfully, and he exhibits a great interest in
horse breeding. He has a seat in Imperial Darbars.

Malik Jahan Khan's son Mubarak Khan is a Rasaldar in
the 9th Bengal Lancers ; his brother Malik Fateh Sher Khan
was formerly a Rasaldar in the 18th Cavalry, as was also his
nephew Nur Elhan. Several other members of the family hold
subordinate posts in the army.

• Not in the crigiiua Edition.

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lUUk BftUiali ]

Malik Fateh Khan.

MftlikBnlU&lUhmndKhAn Al«mKhaii

D. 187U D. 1887.

Malik Kxvbi Bakxib Khav j \ i

B. 1868. GhnUm V»tah 8alUa

. , « «- J 1. -B^ M»homed Kban Khaa

AUBakl^KhMi Kb»n B.188S. B. 1880.

■. 1887. a. 1868,

Malik Bakbsh Khan, great-grandfather of the present
head of the familji served with some distinction in Maharaja
Ranjit Singh's army, and was rewarded by the grant of
proprietary rights in the village of Hamoki and lands in the
Shahpur Tahsil, which are still in the possession of the
family. Malik Fateh Khan also entered the army, but after
a short career he was killed in the Jhang Campaign of 1826,
On the outbreak of the Multan rebellion, Malik Sultan
Mahmud Khan collected a hundred sowars and served under
Edwardes throughout the siege. When the city fell the
Malik and his men were sent imder the command of Lieute-
nant Younghusband to clear the country round Hariana of
the rebel troops ; and after annexation the Malik entered the
police as Rasaldar, and served for some years, chiefly in his own
district. His administrative abilities were conspicuous in 1857,
when he was placed on special duty to watch the discontented
and furnish intelligence for this part of the Panjab. He kept
the troop which he commanded in excellent order, and showed
that had he not been required at home he would have dis-
tinguished himself in Hindustan as much as did his more
fortunate relatives. After the Mutiny he continued for many
years as Basaldar and Inspector of Police in his native
district, and won imiversal commendation for the impartial
and trustworthy manner in which he performed his duties.

* Not in the original SditioQ.

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Malik Sultan Mahmud died hi 1871 leaving one son, Malik
Khuda Baklish, who was brought up under the Court of
Wards. He owns altogether seven thousand five hundred
acres of land, but his chief income is derived from a grant
in the Shahpur Tahsil> comprising some two thousand
five hundred acres, which was taken on lease by his
father, and has since been acquired in proprietary right.
Malik Khuda Bakhsh is reported by the District Officer to be
a fine young fellow and an excellent rider, a good landlord
and liberal to his tenants. He has a seat in Provincial

Malik Alam Khan, brother of the late Sultan Mahmud,
served as a Basaldar in the Tawana Horse during the
Mutiny, and specially distinguished himself at Namaul, where
he was seen well in front with a handful of men at a critical
period of the day, holding a position near the enemy's camp
against the whole strength of the rebel force, which he held
in check until relieved by the arrival of the infantry. Un-
like most of his relatives, he received no reward or pension.
His son Ghulam Mahomed has a chair in District Darbars.

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Hxm MAHmnn khak,





Valth - Bhar aL nu«h Sahib 8Mir

llalMMiMd Hahonad liaboBaad Kban Kbaa Khaa

B.167f. B.187t. B.II8t. B.mS. B.iaMt. B. 1888.

This branoh of the Nun tribe traoes descent from a
Rajput, Raja Gaoj, whose greatness looms vaguely through,
the mist of the distant past. The family have long inter-
married with their neighbours, the Tawanas, and may be
regarded as a section of that more famous clan. Malik
Bakhsh Khan and his son Malik Jahan Khan served in the
army of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, and held some villages in
jagir, which were resumed before or at annexation. During
the Multan rebellion Malik Fateh Khan joined Edwardes with
a body of sowars, and was present during the siege, doing good
service ; and afterwards helped to reduce several forts in the
Jhilam and Bannu districts. He received a pension of Rs. 1,200,
which lapsed on his death. His son Malik Mahomed Hayat
Ehan holds a lease of three thousand five hundred acres of
valuable land near Bhera, and is at present a minor under the
care of his cousin Hakim Ehan.

The head of the family, Malik Mahomed Hakim Ehan,
Ehan Bahadar, on the outbreak of the Mutiny, joined Malik
Fateh Sher Ehan*s Tawana Horse, and was present at the
actions of Hissar, Bangali, Narnaul and other places ; at one of
which he was wounded. He was considered a fine specimen
of a cavalry officer, and had much influence with his men,

• Not in the originil Bdiiion.

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whom he treated well and fairly. On the reduction of
the Tawana Horse he was awarded a life jagir of Bs. 275
for Mutiny services. He then served for a short time in
the police, but soon exchanged his Inspectorship for the
post of Tahsildar, which he held for many years, retiring
with a reputation for uprightness and honesty in his dealings
with the people, with whom he was always deservedly
popular. He holds some five thousand acres of valuable land,
part of which he has purchased from Government, and he has
developed his estate most successfully, showing himself an
enlightened and considerate landlord. He is in an especial
degree characterised by sound judgment, scrupulous honesty
and a high sense of justice, and shows himself on all occasions
a gentleman of the best type. He has a seat in Provincial
Darbars, and has lately been given the title of Ehan Bahadar.

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B. 1883.

Bhankar Du
B. 1626.


B. 1681



B. 164B.








B. 1861.

B. 1881.



B. 1866.

Bhlb Run
B. 1870.





B. 1874.

B. 1877.


DftoUt BiO. >• 18>9*

The Diwan family of Bhera came originally from Pesha-
war, where under the Moghal Emperors they appear to have
held both revenue and military appointments. The founder
of the family, Farmanand, was a man of position. Tradition
ascribes the abolition of the ja/da in Peshawar to his in-
fluence, and in memory of this a turban, said to have belong-
ed to Parmanand himself, is on the occasion of the Ohautha
bound on the eldest son's head in order to insure the wearer's
future prosperity and happiness.

The Sanads and papers belonging to the family are said
to have been lost or destroyed on the confiscation of their
property after annexation ; and the early history of the
family, preserved only in oral tradition, is consequently
obscure and uncertain. It is, however, probable that the
fortunes of the Diwans declined with those of the Durani
Empire, and that as the central authority became less vigorous
and less able to make itself felt in the outlying provinces, the
power of the officials diminished until the title of Diwan, borne

by this family, sank into a mere hereditary distinction.

^^^^— ^-— — -■ ■ ' _

• Nofe in original Bdition.

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siiA»PVk DisfRttt. its

In the early years of the present century, Diwan Sulaklian
Mai, seventh in descent from Pannanand, the founder of the
family, left Peshawar and entered the service of Sardar
Milkha Singh Thepuria. This powerful Chieftaili, having
in the latter half of the eighteenth centtity established his
head-quarters at Rawalpindi, conquered and ruled oVer a tract
of country yielding three lakhs a year.

Diwans Radha Kishan and Kishan Chand remained in
the service of Sardar Milkha Singh, and imder Jiwaii Singh,
son of that Chief, they went through the Kashmir Campaign
of 1814. On the death of Sardar Jiwan Singh, which
took place in the following year, Maharaja Ranjit Singh felt
himself powerful enough to seize the greater portion of the
Thepuria lands. This he did ; but, in accordance with his
usual conciliatory policy, he took the Sardar*s troops, after-
wards known as the Dera Pindiwala, into his own service and
gave his oflBcials appointments proportionate td their import-
ance or merits. To the Diwans he was specially favourable,
appointing Radha Kishan to a command in the Dera Pindi^
wala, and Kishan Chand to the Dera Guru Har Rai, one
of the finest regiments in the Maharaja^s service. The
brothers did good service under Sardar Hari Singh in the
northern campaigns when Attock, Shamgarh and Peshawar
fell before the Sikh arms. Diwan Radha Kishan signally
distinguished himself in the assault on the Attock fort, being
the first to scale the walls ; and the success of that assault was
publicly attributed by the Maharaja to his dash and valour.

In 1833 Diwan Kishan Chand was sent on an embassy
to Shah Zaman Shah with an escort of five hundred sdWars,
but was killed at Ali Masjid in the Khaibar at the outset of
his mission. Diwan Davi Sahai and Bishan Das received
from the Darbar the appointments previously held by Radha
Kishan and Kishan Chand. The former, Davi Sahai, rose
hiigh in the service of the State. In his Military capacity he

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went through the Multan> Mankera and Afghan Campaigns;
and he was further employed on the frontier in realizing
arrears of revenue and in administering justice. In 1838 he
was sent to Bombay " to acquire a knowledge of the condition
and state oi the province, with especial regard to its military
and mercantile resources." This mission was accomplished to
the Maharaja's satisfaction, for he was presented with a
valuable khilat and assigned a jagir in Shahpur yielding, it is
said, Bs« 20,000 per annum. In 1846 he accompanied Bajaa
Gulab Singh and Dina Nath, representatives of the Sikh
Ehalsa, to Kasur, where was signed the treaty which closed
the First Sikh War. In 1849 the Diwan joined Mnlraj, and
was present throughout the siege of Multan. After the
battle of Chilianwala, in which they shared the defeat of the
Sikhs, they were among the Chiefs whose lands were con-
fiscated, while they themselves were for a period confined as
State prisoners within the limits of the town of Bhera« Diwan
Davi Sahai and Bishan Das were, however, assigned com-
passionate allowances of Us. 240 and Rs. 180 per annum
respectively. In 1857, on the call of John Lawrence, they came
forward with such assistance as their circumstances permitted,
and in 1860 these services were acknowledged by the Supreme

The family own some seven hundred acres near Bhera,
and they hold eighteen hundred acres of valuable State lands
on lease in the Bhera Tahsil.

Diwan Jawahir Mai, though not descended from the elder
branch, at present represents the family. He is serving imder
the Court of Wards in charge of the estate of Malik TJmar Hayat
Khan Tawana, and has proved himself an enlightened and
trustworthy manager. His brother Lachman Das, Munsif , is an
accepted candidate for the post of Extra Assistant Commis-
sioner. He has established a reputation for judgment, tact and
temper^ and for honesty and ability above the ordinary run.

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Diwan Jiwan Mai served for some years in the PoKce,
and in 1874 took service with the Maharaja of Jamu, where
he held, until lately, a high judicial appointment. His son
Ganpat Bai has passed the first examination in Law, and is a
useful member of the Bhera Municipal Committee. The
second son, Daulat Kai, is a succeldsful pleader at Jhilam.
Jiwan Mai's brother, Diwan Kirpa Ram, for some time
managed the Kalra estate successfully, and is now a Tahsildar.

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In order to understand the positions now held by the men
of note of Rawalpindi, it will be convenient to consider the
district as divided by a line running north and south soine-
where near the Margala Pass. In historical times the
history of the eastern half is that of the Gqihar. tribe, who
extended their rule over Rawalpindi and parts of the Hazara
and Jhilam districts until annihilated at the beginning of the
present century by the Sikhs. The only other important
tribe in this portion of the district are the Dhuadg, who,
coming from Hazara, have spread over the hill country,
occupying Kahuta, Murree and Dawal. In the western half,
north of the Khairi Murat range of hills, the most im-
portant tribe are the Khatars, who take their name from
Khatar Khan, a Chief who came with Mahomed Gori about the
year 1175. The Khatars claim to be descended from the same
stock as the Awans, who are still represented by an important
family in this part of the district. To the south, commencing
from the west, there is the colony of the Sagri Pathans at
Makhad. The Sagris had, in the first instance, accoippanied
Malik Ako, a Khatak Chief who flourished in the sixteenth
centiuy, to the Khwara country, but soon afterwards moved
down to Shakardara and crossed over to Makhad. Passing
eastward, we find four Mahomedan tribes of Rajput descent :
the Jodhras, the Grhebas, the Malals and the Alpials. The first
Chief of the Jodhras who became of any importance was Aulia
Khan, who early in the eighteenth century overran this part of

* This note wag prepared by Mr. J. W. Gardiner, late Depniy Commiadoner.


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the country and held it throughout his life. The Ghebas came
to the Panjab about the fifteenth century, and settled in the
country which they still occupy. The Malals are a branch of
the Ghebasi while the Alpials came about the same time as
the Ghebas, after wandering throu'gh the country now con-
tained in the Khushab and Talagang Tahsils*

The first contact of the Sikhs with the Rawalpindi district
was through the Gakhars, whose last independent Chief, Sultan
Mukarab Ehan, began to rule in 1739« Thirteen years later,
the Sikhs, who were rising into importance^ compelled him
to yield up his possessions beyond the Chanab, and in 1765
Sardar Gujar Singh Bhangi attacked him at Gujrat, where h6
was defeated and slain. Two years aftori Sardar Gujar Singhi
with his son Sahib Singh, invaded the Rawalpindi distHct and
annexed the whole of the Gakhar possessions to their own,
leaving Milkha Singh Theparia to govern the country. This
Chief fixed his head-quarters at Rawalpindi, and held his own,
notwithstanding Afghan invasions and the attacks of the
surrounding tribes. Milkha Singh died in 1804, and was
succeeded by his son Jiwan Singh. In 1810 Maharaja Ranjit
Singh took possession of Sahib Singh's country, but left Jiwftn
Singh, and after him his son Anand Singh, as Governor of

Sardar Gujar Singh Bhangi had made little impression
on the Gheba country ; but Sardar Charat Singh Sukarohakia,
grandfather of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, after he had seized
Find Dadan Khan, overran the southern part of Rawalpindi,
and the Ghebas and Jodhras thus became tributary to the
Sukarohakia Sardars. By the year 1810 Maharaja Ranjit
Singh had acquired supreme power over almost the whole of
the present Rawalpindi district.

Attock was then in the hands of the Afghans ; but in
1813 Maharaja Ranjit Singh, having quarrelled with them
about the division of the plunder which had been obtained by a

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joint inyasion of Kashmir, induced the Afghan Governor to
surrender the fort to him. A battle ensued at Haidaran in
July 1813, in which the Sikhs completely defeated the AighanSi
who retired upon Kabul.

The Sikhs continued to establish themselves throughout
the district, and were able to utilize the services of some of the
Rawalpindi Chiefs in their contest with the fanatic Sayad
Ahmad of Bareily, who was defeated at Akora in 1827, and
again finally at Balakot in Hazara in 1831.

In 1845-46, during the First Sikh War, Sardar Patch
Khan Gheba rose in revolt^ but in the latter year he
surrendered to Sardar Chatar Singh Atariwala. After the
Treaty of March 1846, making over the hill country between
the Ravi and the Indus to Baja Gulab Singh, Captain Abbott
and Diwan Ajudhia Parshad were appointed Commissioners
to lay down the boundary line between the Lahore and
Jamu territories. While acting in this capacity Abbott
obtained the release of the principal Gakhars who, having
revolted against the Sikh Governor, Raja Gulab Singh, in
1835, had been in confinement ever since.

During the Second Sikh War of 1848-49 most of the
principal men of the Rawalpindi district had an opportunity
of showing whether they espoused the cause of the Darbar or
that of the rebels, and all were found loyal. The principal
events connected with the district which happened in those
yei^ were the unsuccessful defence by Lieutenant Herbert of
the Attockfort, which surrendered to Sardar Chatar Singh on
2nd January 1849, and the final submission of the Sikh army,
which took place at Rawalpindi on the 14th March of the
same year. The district, with the remainder of the Sikh
territory, then passed under British rule.

In 1853 Nadar Khan, the chief of the Mandla family of
Gakhars, attempted to raise an insurrection in favour of a
person who pretended to be Prince Pashora Singh^ the reputed

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son of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, who had really been murdered
at Attock by Fateh Khan Tawana and Sardar Chatar Singh
Atariwala in 1845. The outbreak was promptly quelled by
the district authorities.

In 1857 a conspiracy against the British Government
was formed by the tribes inhabiting the Murree hills. It
spread far into Hazara and nearly down to Rawalpindi, and
culminated in an attack on the station of Murree by three
hundred men of the Dhund tribe on the 2nd September. The
attack was successfully repulsed. The rest of the district
remained loyal.

This brief historical account will, it is hoped, help to
explain the course of events in which the principal men
of the district have taken part. An analysis of the list

Online LibraryCharles Francis Massy Sir Lepel Henry GriffinThe Panjab chiefs: historical and biographical notices of the ..., Volume 2 → online text (page 22 of 29)