Charles Francis Massy Sir Lepel Henry Griffin.

The Panjab chiefs: historical and biographical notices of the ..., Volume 2 online

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will show the different tribes and interests represented in it.
The Sikhs may be said to be represented by six names, ma.,
Baba Khem Singh, C.I.E., their spiritual head in this part of
the Panjab; Sardar Amrik Singh, son of Sardar Nahal Singh
Chachi, who was conspicuous for his loyal devotion to the
British Government; Sardar Sujan Singh, a successful man
of business, of Rawalpindi ; Baba Narotam Singh, a descendant
of one of the Sikh Gurus ; Sardar Tara Singh, the pioneer of
trade with Yark and; and Bhagat Hiranand, the descendant of
a religious teacher and physician, whose family has marched
with the times.

The representatives of the Chiefs who ruled the country
before the Sikhs number thirteen, viz.^ Sardar Fateh Khan,
Gheba ; Fakir Mahomed Khan, Sagri Pathan ; Malik Aulia
Khan and Malik Nawab Khan, Jodhras; Sardar Kale
Khan and Nawab Khan of Dhrek, the Kazi of Gondal,
and Mahomed Hayat Khan, C.S.I, (all Khatars); Malik
RoshanDin, Awaii; Raja Karamdad Khan, Gakhar; Chaudhri
Ahmad Khan, Alpial ; Fateh Khan, Malal ; and the Dhund

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Then, there is the representative of a Hindu family whose
members made themselves useful to Grakhars, Sikhs and
English : Chaudhri Bishan Das, of Saidpur; and last, but not
least, Grhazan Khan, a Yusufzai Pathan, who has settled
recently in the district.*

In conclusion, it may be useful to explain that when the
Sikhs conquered the country they often granted a fourth
portion of the revenue (which was taken by them in kind) to
certain tribal Chiefs and headmen. These grants were
called chaharams. The British Government dealt with these
chaharams in different ways. Sometimes they were simply
resumed, sometimes they were continued in the shape of
talukdari allowances payable by inferior proprietors, and
occasionally they were granted as assignments of land revenue ;
or they were dealt with partly in one of these ways and partly
in another, and grants were made either for the life of the
holder or in perpetuity. When assignments of revenue were
made in lieu of Sikh chaharams they were called inams.

* He died after the above aooonot was written.

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Kurun Khan. Bai Jalal. Bai Alayar

Barfaraf. Kbaiu

Ahmad Khan. Mahomed Khan.



I r 1

Oholam Mahomed Faxib Kbav. Ahmad Khan

Khan. d. IMB.

Gholam Mahomed

Mahomed All ipi an
B. 1870.

An account of the origin of the Gheba tribe will be
found in the history of the Tawana family^ and there is no
occasion to repeat it in this place. The Ghebas came to the
Panjab some time after both Sials and Tawanas, and settled
in the wild, hilly country between the Indus and the Sohan
rivers, now known as the parganas of Fatehjang and Pindi
Gheb. Here they held their own against the neighbouring
tribes — Awans, Gakhars and Jodhras — till the days of Sardar
Gharat Singh Sukarchakia, grandfather of Maharaja Banjit
Singh. They had not been subdued by the Afghan invaders of
India, for they were just off the highway, and their country was
difficult of access ; nor did they ever invite attack by their
demeanour, but presented a small tribute such as a horse
or a few head of cattle as the invader passed, and thus
secured his good- will Sardar Gujar Singh Bhangi of Gujrat,
who for a time held the country as far north as Bawalpindi,
made but little impression on the Gheba district. Gharat

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Singh, after lie had seized Find Dadan Khan, overran the
southern part of Rawalpindi and made Rai Jala! tributary,
leaving him one-fourth of the revenue called the chaharam
in consideration of his proprietary right in the land. But
neither Charat Singh nor his son Mahan Singh were able
to get much out of the sturdy Ghebas, and their supremacy
was little more than nominal. Rai Jalal managed his old
territory, and gave up a certain proportion to the Sikh Chiefs
when they were strong enough to ask for it.

In 1806 Ran jit Singh sent Sardar Pateh Singh
Kalianwala as the Governor of the Rawalpindi district,
and he continued the farm of the Kot and Khunda Ilakas
to Rai Mahomed Khan, the nephew of Rai Jalal. The
village of Shahar Rai Bahadar, worth Rs. 500, was confer-
red on Rai Mahomed, with a mafi or revenue free grant,
worth Rs. 1,075 a year. The great rivals of the Rais of Kot
were the Maliks of Pindi Gheb, who farmed the Sil Ilaka
from the Sikhs. Their jealousy at length ended in bloodshed,
for during a year of scarcity, when both had failed to
pay the revenue, they were summoned to the Darbar at
Amritsar. There they quarrelled, and Rai Mahomed cut down
Malik Ghulam Mahomed almost in the presence of the Maharaja
himself and then fled to his home. It was not thought politic
to punish him at that time, as his services were urgently
needed on the side of Government in a wild country where
the Sikh Kardars never gained full power. In 1830 Rai
Mahomed served against Sayad Ahmad, the fanatic leader,
who, having been compelled to retire from Peshawar, which
he had for some time absolutely ruled, had made Balakot in
Hazara his head-quarters. Here he was attacked by the Sikh
army, conmiandedby Prince Sher Singh and General VenjbtfFa,
and utterly defeated. Rai Mahomed much distinguished
himself in this battle, and for his services received the village of
Garu, worth Rs, 200.

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Jodh Singh^ Dhana Singh Malwai^ Atar Singh Kalian-
wala and Prince Nao Nahal Singh successively governed
the Gheba country^ and all found Bai Mahomed Khan
diflBcult to control and ever ready to rebel. Sardar Atar
Singh during his second tenure of office determined, for
the sake of peace, to get rid of him. He invited the Rai to his
fort of Pagh, which overlooked Kot on the opposite side
of the little river Sil. Mahomed Khan did not suspect
treachery and went to Pagh, attended by his son Ghulam
Mahomed Khan and two followers. No sooner had he
entered the fort than the little party was attacked by Budha
Khan Malal, an old enemy of his family, and the retainers of
Atar Singh, and were all killed. Fateh Khan succeeded his
father, and avenged his death upon Budha Khan, whose
family he almost extirpated. In 1845-46 Fateh Khan, taking
advantage of the weakness of the Lahore Government, rose
in revolt, but in August of the latter year he surrendered to
Sardar Chatar Singh Atariwala, who thought of employing
him to suppress future disturbances in the district. But two
months later Misar Amir Chand, through folly or treachery,
released him, and he again took up arms against the Govern-
ment. Through the influence of Colonel Lawi*ence he waa
again induced to yield, and he soon had an opportunity of
fighting against the Sikhs without being guilty of treason.
During the war of 1848-49 he was of the greatest service to
Nicholson and Abbott. He kept open the conununica-
tions, and raised as large a body of horse and foot as he was
able, and on several occasions engaged parties of the rebels
with success.

In 1857 the loyalty of Fateh Khan was equally con-
spicuous, and he was rewarded by the grant of a life pension
of Bs. 600 per annum and of akhilat of the value of Rs. 1,000.
His jagirs were also upheld. In 1860 he was made a Jagirdar
Magistrate, and invested with judicial powers, criminal and

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civil, in eighteen villages. In 1866, when the rakhs in the
district were demarcated, an area of about three thousand
acres in the Eala Chita hills was formed into a separate estate
and assigned to him as a pasture for the horses and cattle of his
household. On 2nd January 1888 the title of Khan Bahadar
was conferred on him.

In default of male issue Government have recognized aa
Fateh E ban's heir his nephew Qhulam Mahomed Ehan, son of
Ahmad Ehan, who was killed with Baja Dhian Singh in 1843.
IJncle and nephew together enjoy jagirs of the value of Rs.
5,220, namely, Bs. 1,411 for life and Bs. 8,800 in perpetuity.
In connection with the recent settlement operations, Govern-
ment has remitted for the remainder of the Sardar's lifb the
assessment imposed on the rakh above-mentioned, and have
specially allowed him to engage for the revenues of Mauza
Gagan, in which he is Jagirdar and Talukdar, and to collect
in kind from the cultivators as he had hitherto done.

Sardar Fateh Ehan is owner or part owner of sixteen
villages, and is the leading landed proprietor in the Bawal*
pindi district ; he is also one of the three landlords
who have been exempted from most of the provisions of
the Arms Act as *' great Sardars and Jagirdars of the Fan jab."
He is a man of strong, determined character, and his great
influence has since annexation been always used on the side
of Government and in the cause of law and order.

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nttoh Kbam Mi t hoimwl D»U« Danretli Mahomed.

Nnr jDuui.


Khtti« BanbMKbaii. Baliratt KliMi. Surkhni.


a Mahomed "

Nawab Khan. OhnlamJUahomed Alayar Kfean.

I Khan.

PatehKhaa. I

AJayar Xhaa

9. 1810.


AVLU KsAV FMeh khan

••r -7*


Ghnlam Jane Zamurd Nawab Amanat ^ ^^

Mahomed Bahaaar Mahomed Khan Khan Amir Khan

Khan Khan Khan B. 1861. b. 1864. m* 1867.

B. 1863. B. 1876. B. 1880. ^ |

I Mahomed Akbar

Alajar B[haa Khan

if. 1888. B. 1886.

The Jodhras are a Mahomedan tribe of Rajput descent ;
close neighbours of the Qhebas, with whom they intermarry,
and with whom, in old days, they were perpetually fighting.
They inhabit the pargana of Pindi Gheb in the Rawalpindi did*
triot, stretching along the river Indus from Mirzapur to within
twelve miles of Attock. The tribe has its name from Jodhra,
who is said to have adopted Mahomedanism in the elerenth
century, during the reign of Sultan Mahmud. He settled in
Jamu, where his descendants lived for some generations till
the time of Bbosi Ehan, who removed to Dirahti, near where
Pindi Qheb now stands. His grandson Shahbaz Khan, hunting
near his home, was met by a devotee, Bhor Sultan, who ad-
dressed him in mysterious language and told him he would
not be fortunate unless he moved his colony to the right
bank of the Sil, here a wide^ sandy nulla. Shahbaz took the
advice and built Pindi Gheb, and many villages were founded
in its ne^hbonrtiood by him and his successors.

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The first Malik who became of any importance was Aulia
Khan, who early in the eighteenth century overran the Ilakas
of Nala, Sohan, Sil and Talagang in the Jhilam district, and
held them throughout his life. His son Amanat was equally
powerful. Nominally subject to the Sukarchakia Chiefs he
paid but a small tributCi and with his own troops held the
country his father had ruled. Not so fortunate was Nawab,
his son. This Chief held in farm from Ranjit Singh the Ilakas
of Sil and Bala Qheb. In 1813 he rebelled, but was not able to
hold his own against the Sikhs and fled to Eohat, where he
died in exile. His brother, Ghulam Mahomed Eban, succeed-
ed him, being allowed one-fourth of the revenues of SiL In
the battle of Akora, near Attock, in 1827, Ghulam Mahomed
fought under Atar Singh and Budh Singh Sindhanwalia
against Sayad Ahmad, and no long time afterwards he was
assassinated by his rival and enemy, Rai Mahomed Ehan
Gbeba, at Amritsar, whither both had been summoned by the
Maharaja. Alayar Khan succeeded to the estate ; but of
this Chief there is little to record. He did good service in
1848-49, and with his five horsemen assisted in keeping open
the conmiunication between Captain Nicholson and Lieute-
nants Edwardes and Taylor. At annexation he was only in
possession of DhuKan, worth Rs. 750, and a well at Pindi
Gheb, worth Rs. 30. He died shortly after annexation,
leaving two minor sons.

The Government treated them with liberality, and the
position of the family thus became much better than it was
in Sikh days. The two brothers received a jagir, and were
also allowed the chaharam, or one-fourth of the revenue, in
many villages which had formed part of the ancestral estate
of the family.

Malik Aulia Ehan showed himself actively loyal in 1857,
and received a khilat of Rs. 400. He is a man of strong
characteri and has become a very influential personage in the

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district. Like Sardar Fateh Khan of Kot and the late
Ghulam Mahomed Ehan of Makhad, he has always been con-
sidered exempt from most of the provisions of the Arms Act,
as one of the great Sardars and Jagirdars of the Fanjab. He
married the daughter of Sardar Pateh Khan of Kot, and thus
ended the long-standing feud between the families.

The family now hold in perpetuity a jagir of the village
of Notaha, value Rs. 900, and mafis in Mauzas Pindi Qheb
and Naushera amounting to Bs. 103. Malik Aulia Khan's
share in these grants is two-thirds, the brothers having
inherited their father's estate in the proportion of two-thirds
to Aulia Khan and one-third to Pateh Khan. Besides this,
the family enjoy chaharami inams in perpetuity in thirty
villages amounting to Rs. 2,703, and Malik Aulia Khan has a
further inam of Rs. 641 for life.

Nawab Khan's father, Malik Pateh Khan, like his brother,
showed himself actively loyal in 1857, and received a small
khilat. He died in 1876, and Nawab Khan, his eldest son, was
then made a Viceregal Darbari. Malik Pateh Khan, as
already stated, held a one-third share in the family jagir
and inams, and this has been continued to his sons ; Nawab
Khan receiving a one-half share, and the younger sons between
them the other half. But as regards. the jagir and mafis, this
distribution is only to afEect the present holders. The share
now held by Nawab Khan will descend integrally to the
eldest son in each generation, and as each younger son of Pateh
Khan dies his share will lapse to Nawab Khan or his repre-
sentative. Malik Nawab Khan has offered his services to Gov-
ernment on more than one occasion in connection with affairs
in Afghanistan and on the North- West Frontier generally.

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a Kahal Singh
9. 187S.


Akbxx Sivai Gopftl Singh

». 1816. 9. ISM.

1 i

Oharat Singh
B. 1858.

Bam Isingh Udnm L
a. 18H. B. UM

" . Li ^


TdkSlDflrh ImAT Singh i
B. 1M7. B. 1870. 8mU Singh


B. 1887.

The family of Sardar Amrik Singh is of the Saini Elhatri
caste, and has for seven generations been resident at Rawal-
pindi His grandfather was a trader, by name Bambhaj.

Nahal Singh in 1830 married the only daughter of
Sardar Gurmukh Singh Chachi. This Chief was the son
of Sardar Fateh Singh, who, with his brother Sher Singh,
was killed in the Kashmir Campaign. Sardar Gnrmukh
Singh succeeded to bis father's jagir, but died in 1829 ; soon
after which Nahal Singh married his daughter, and was
allowed to take the name of Chachi, and succeeded to his
father^in law's jagir at Chakori, worth Rs. 2,000.

In 1846, after the Satlaj Campaign, Nahal Singh receiyed
the title of Sardar, and was appointed, on the part of the
Darbar, to attend on the Agent to the QoYernor*General at
Lahore as a kind of Aide-de-Camp, with a contingent of
eight sowars. His services in this post were valuable, and,
without in any way compromising the interests of his own
Government, he rendered prompt and friendly assistance to
the English authorities. When the rebellion of 1848 broke
out Sardar Nahal Singh remained loyal, though surrounded
by strong temptations. From his close connection with the
English Resident he could have supplied ike rebels with
information most important to them, but on no occasion did
he violate the confidence placed in him. His exertions to
complete the supply of carriage for the siege train of
Multan were greats and have been acknowleged by Sir Robert

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Napier* Hia conduct irritated the rebelsi who burnt his house
and plundered his property at Rawalpindi, and treated with
severity those members of his family who fell into their hands.

On the annexation of the Panjab the jagir of Rs. 5,978^
which he had received from Raja Lai Singh in 1846, was
maintained to him for life, and the old Chakori jagir of
Rs. 1,200 was upheld in perpetuity. Instead of his contiugent
of eight horsemen being dispensed with, and the jagir
which he had held for its maintenance being resumed, it was
continued to him as a special favour, with a cash allowance
of Rs. 2,000 a year. In 1853 the Sardar became involved in
some pecuniary diflBculties, and the Government was pleased
to reduce the contingent from eight to four horsemen. In
this same year there occurred a petty insurrection in the
Rawalpindi district. Sardar Nahal Singh was at home at
the time, and immediately offered his services to the Commis-
sioner, who sent him to the insurgents to endeavour to induce
them to surrender. They, however, seized him, treated him
with some indignity, and kept him a prisoner for several days.

During the critical days of 1857, Sardar Nahal Singh,
who felt that active and zealous loyalty was better than
mere abstinence from rebellion, remained in close attendance
on the Chief Commissioner. His advice and the information
he at this time supplied were particularly valuable. It was
mainly through his assistance that the Chief Commissioner
raised the Ist Sikh Cavalry, and selected for service so many
of the old Sikh officers who had in former days fought
gallantly against us.

When the wild Mahomedan tribes of (Jogaira rebelled,
Sardar Nahal Singh was sent to the scene of action. He was
engaged in several skirmishes with the insurgents, and in
one of them received a severe wound in the knee.

For his services Nahal Singh received, in October 1858,
a present of Rs, 10,000 and an additional jagir of Rs. 6,000,

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to descend to his lineal male heirs in perpetuity on condition
of active loyalty. The remaining four horsemen of his contin-
gent were also dispensed with.

Sir Lepel Griffin in 1864 wrote of him : ** For eighteen
years Sardar Nahal Singh has served the British Government
well and faithfully. He has not cared, in times of political
difficulty, to count the cost of his loyalty. He has never
hesitated or wavered when the sky has been dark, uncertain
on which side his personal interests would be most secure ; but
has ever been most zealous in his loyalty, and most unremit-
ting in his exertions, when men of less courage and honesty
have stood aloof."

In 1862 Sardar Nahal Singh was made a Jagirdar
Magistrate, and in the same year Rs. 10,000 of his jagir were,
on the recommendation of the Lieutenant-Qt)vemor, released
in perpetuity. In June 1866 he was created a Knight Com-
mander of the Order of the Star of India. He died in 1873.

The Sardar's pecuniary difficulties have been already
alluded to : these increased as years passed by. But in 1869
the Government of India sanctioned a loan of a lakh of rupees,
bearing five per cent, interest per annum, in order to relieve
him of the pressure of the heavy incumbrances which were
weighing him down. In 1877, on the occasion of the assump-
tion by Her Majesty of the title of' Empress of India, the
remission of Bs. 8,000 from the residue of the debt was sanc-
tioned. And in 1880 the loan was finally liquidated by the
Sardar's heirs. ^f^

Sardar Amrik Sit^h^ the eldest son of Sardar Nahal
Singh, has succeeded h..jpfather as a Viceregal Darbari. In
1857 he raised a body of mounted police and took them to
Oudh, where they did excellent service. He serves in the
Province as a Tahsildar. \

Sardar Gopal Singh was ^ Deputy Inspector of Police. He
died in 1880 leaving two soi^s. Sardar Charat Singh is an

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Extra Assistant Commissioner. Sardar Bam Singh was a
Subadar in the 30th Panjab Infantry, and afterwards an
Inspector of Police in Burmah. He has recently taken service
with the Maharaja of Jamn. Sardar IJdam Singh is Sub-
Registrar in the Sialkot district.

As above stated, a perpetual jagir of Rs. 10,000 was
granted to Sardar Nahal Singh ; and, in accordance with his
wishes, the law of primogeniture was declared applicable
to it, subject to the condition that one-third of the revenue is
held in trust by the holder of the jagir for the support of the
younger members of the family. Owing to settlement
operations, of which the family reap the benefit, the value of
the jagir has increased to Rs. 12,890, of which Rs. 6,000
represent the revenue of eight villages in the Rawalpindi
district, and Rs. 6,890 of eleven villages in Gujrat.

Sardar Amrik Singh holds for life a separate jagir in the
Gujrat and Qujranwala districts, originally valued at
Rs. 650, and now worth Rs. 462, which was transferred to
him in 1840 under deed of gift by his grandmother Mai Davi,
widow of Sardar Gurmukh Singh Chachi.

Connected with this family by marriage is Harsa Singh,
now Jamadar of Orderlies attached to his Honor the Lieute-
nant-Governor, Panjab. He commenced service on the Staff
of Sir F. Currie in the days of the Residency, and was after-
wards a personal orderly of Sir Henry Lawrence. During the
Mutiny he served with the Guides as Daf adar, and fought well
before Dehli and Lucknow. He was beside John Nicholson
when that brave man received his death wound. Harsa Singh's
gallant and faithful services are attested by the letters of
many distinguished officials who have known him. His only
son, Wazir Singh, was taken by Cavagnari to Kabul, and
there shared his master's fate.*

* Harsa Singh died when thia notice waa in the preaa.

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KhjUfQdift ^^*» i

Qhtdun Khan.


YttmSL Kham



Duuu NAwab



Kanm B^haau



B. 187S.
LaI Khan.

B. 1681



Ehndadad Khan.
B. 1808.

Ahmad Khan






B. 187S.

Malik Fateh Ehan Dhrek was the head of one branch
of the large and important Khatar tribe. It is not easy to
determine with certainty the origin of the Khatars, but it
seems probable that they were originally natives of Khorasan,
and came to India with the first Mahomedan invaders. They
trace their genealogy up to Kutab Shah or Kutabudin (nick-
named Aibak^ from his broken finger, and Lakh Bdkhsh^ from
his liberality), who was for many years the Viceroy of Shahab-
udin Ghori in India, and who afterwards himself reigned, the first
of the slave kings. But this story is certainly false. The Kutab
Shah of Khatar genealogies had nine sons, while Kutab Shah
Aibak had no child of his own ; Aram Shah, who succeeded
him, being an adopted son. The Awans, the Khokhars and the
Khatars seem to have had a common origin, all tracing their
pedigree back to Kutab Shah, who may have lived about the
beginning of the eleventh century, and who probably came
to India with one of the invading armies of Sultan Mahmud
Ghaznavi. His nine sons were named Torai, Haji, Afik,
Dusa, Gulgan, Khandan, E[hokhar, Ghora and Chohan. The
two first remained in Af ghanistaui and Afik and Dusa were

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killed in battlOi leaving no issue. From Ehokhar have
descended the Khokhars of Hafizabad in the Gujranwala
district, in no way connected with the Khokhars of Find Dadan
Khan, who are of Rajput descent.

The Khatars have descended from Chohan, the young-
est son. From two of Chohan's sons, Hamir and Pasin,
have descended some of the Awans of the Amritsar and
Sialkot districts. To Ghora the Awans of Rawalpindi
and Jhilam, Gujrat and Jalandhar trace their origin, while
Gulgan also has Awan descendants in Sialkot and Rawal-
pindi. The Awans of the Sialkot villages J andiala, Rawal,
Milkha and Saroba, and those of Narowal in Amritsar,
trace from Durj, a brother of Kutab Shah. Chohan, the
ancestor of the Khatar tribe, who is said to have been an
oflBcer of Sultan Mahmud, marched against Nilab, then a large
town on the Indus, fifteen miles below Attock, and after a
short siege took it from the Hindu Chief Raj Deo and made

Online LibraryCharles Francis Massy Sir Lepel Henry GriffinThe Panjab chiefs: historical and biographical notices of the ..., Volume 2 → online text (page 23 of 29)