Charles Francis Massy Sir Lepel Henry Griffin.

The Panjab chiefs: historical and biographical notices of the ..., Volume 2 online

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it his head-quarters. About the same time his brother Khokhar
had settled at Kosak in Jhilam, later held by the Janjoahs,
and famous for its almost impregnable fort, long besieged in
vain by Ranjit Singh. To Ghora or Gholsa had been assigned
Sukasar, and to Gulgan a strip of land along the river Jhilam.
For many years the descendants of Chohan held Nilab without
opposition till the days of Khatar Khan in the sixth genera-
tion from Chohan. The Hindus, growing powerful, drove
the tribe out of Nilab, and compelled them to leave India for
Afghanistan, where Khatar Khan, about the year 1175,
entered the service of Mahomed Ghori, who had just overrun
the province of Ghazni and was preparing to attack India.
With him, Khatar Khan returned to the Panjab and recovered
Nilab by a stratagem. He dressed his men as merchants, and
entered the town as if for trade, with large boxes filled with
arms. No sooner had they got within the walls than the
disguise was thrown off, every man seized his weapons, and the

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towD, taken by surprise, was captured. The tribe now took the
name of their leader, Khatar. They were subordinate to the
Imperial Governor of Attock, Langar Khan, who afterwards
became Viceroy at Lahore.

About this time the Khatars are said to have
abandoned Mahomedanism. The tradition is that a jogi
or ascetic came to Nilab, and by powerful enchantments
induced the whole population to worship idols. He not
only enchanted the people, but also the cattle, which gave
blood instead of milk, till news of these prodigies reached the
ears of the saint Isa Abdul Wahab* at XJch in the Leiah district,
who sent his son Shah Nur Abdul Rahman to recall the
people to the true faith. The apostle travelled to Nilab, and
on the outskirts of the town he met an old woman, from whom
he asked a draught of milk. She told him of the calamity
which had befallen the cattle, but Abdul Rahman insisted on
her attempting to milk, and as a reward for her faith pure
white milk flowed from the udder of the cow instead of blood.
The jogi had heard of the saint's arrival, and, taking the form
of a kite, came sailing down to watch his movements ; but
Abdul Rahman was not deceived. He threw his shoe at the
bird, which fell dead among the rocks, and the people, freed
from enchantment, cast away their idols and returned to the
faith of Mahomed. This curious legend seems to have been
invented by the Khatars and Awans to account for the rise of
a general belief in their Hindu origin, which they repudiate,
asserting that, if they were ever idol worshippers, it was but a
temporary lapse from Islamism.

Khatar Khan had six sons, Jand Khan, Isa Khan^
Sarwar Khan, Firoz Khan, Sahra Khan and Pahru Khan.
About three generations after his death the tribe lost Nilab,

*Unfortanately for the legend, it is certain that Abdal Wahab did not oome to
Leiah before 1580. Perhaps, however, the saint allnded to may be Abdul Ka2»ir,
Bokhari, who lived at Uch in Bahawalpor at the end of the twelfth oentnr/i and from
whom the Leiah saint was descended.

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but they took possession of the open country between Rawal-
pindi and the Indus, which became known by the name of
Ehatar. The descendants of Jand Khan took possession of
the district called after them Jandal> between Khushalgarh
and Nara, and the other sons settled in the neighbouring Uakas,
driving out the Gujars» and even their own kinsmen the A waus.

From Firoz Eban» the fourth son of Khatar Khan, has the
Dhrek family descended. His great-grandson was Ratua,
from whom have descended the clan known as Batial. Two
generations later were Balu Ehan and Isa Khan, from the
former of whom have sprung the Balwans who inhabit Barota,
where the river Haro flows into the Indus. The offspring
of the latter is the clan Isial» whose location is in Choi
Gariala and Dher, to the south of Barota. Ghor Khan, the
great-nephew of Balu Khan, founded the Gharial clan who
live at Akori. So for many generations the tribe grew and
prospered. They were not without good qualities, but were
bad farmers, reckless and extravagant, and never became rich
or distinguished. The best of their Chiefs was Ghairat Khan,
who left his home and went to seek his fortune at Dehli,
where he entered the service of an officer of the Court, and
gradually rose in favour till he was able to return home with
a portion of the Khatar country, as an imperial grant, in
jagir. His second son, Zul Kadar Khan, rebuilt the village
of Dhrek, which had been founded long before by the A wans
and named Bashidpur, but which had fallen into ruins.
Salabat Khan, grandson of Ghairat Ali Khan, founded Kot
Salabat Khan and Zindai. Khairudin and Fazal Khan were
the fathers of the present Chiefs.

Little can be said of the history of the Khatars. Like their
neighbours the Ghebas and Awans, they resisted the Sikhs
as long as they could, and, like them, resisted in vain. They
assert that the Sikhs allowed them the fourth of the revenue
as lords of the soil ; and in the later Sikh revenue papers there

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is mention of such a grant, but it is not stated in favoor of
which Chiefs the alienation was made.

When the Sikh Kardar, Diwan Mulraj, was besieged
in Hazara by the insurgents, Malik Ghulam Ehan and Fateh
Ehan came to his aid and rescued him. Fateh Ehan held in
jagir the villages of Bahtar, Bhagwi, Kot Sadula and Lundi,
worth together Rs. 2,064, and possessed considerable influence
in the Rawalpindi district. His services after annexation
of the Province were always at the disposal of Government.
In 1857 he furnished levies for guarding the ferries on the
Indus, and proved his loyalty in other ways.

Fateh Khan died in 1880, and was succeeded as Chief
of the Ehatar tribe by his son Kale Khan. Another son,
Khudadad Khan, also survived him, and these two inherited
a valuable patrimony ; but they lost no time in getting them-
selves into debt by litigation about its partition.

Kale Khan lives in Bahtar, and enjoys a perpetual jagir
and chaharami worth Rs. 375. Khudadad lives in Kot Sadula,
and holds a jagir worth Rs. 502, which descends in perpetuity.
Karam Khan, son of Mahomed Khan, lives in Dhrek. Sher
Khan, brother of Fateh Khan, is still alive. For services
rendered in 1857 in conjimction with his brother he received
a khilat of Rs. 200. He lives in Dhrek and enjoys a life jagir
of about Rs. 600.

Nawab Khan was admitted to the Viceregal Darbar of
1864 ; and now that the sons of Fateh Khan have nearly
ruined themselves by litigation, he is said to be the most
prominent man of his tribe. He and his brother Karam
Khan are not on good terms with their cousins. They live
separately, and hold a perpetual jagir of Rs. 300, with pro-
prietary rights in eight villages.

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Januil iHi^Ti ,

Iiuiyat Khan.








Kamal Khan.

Nasir Khan.



K a nw fi





«>•■« .




Mahomed Ahmad Hadat
TThft^p , Khan. Trt^^ ti,


Hasan Khan. |





MAHOMsn Bahadar Khan Ohnlam
Hatat Khat, n. 1870. Khan.



Mahomed Mahomed Mahomed Nawab
A slam SadntAU Liakat GhairatAli
Khan. Aii "Khi^n . ivhitTi .




n. 1880.



Snltan Mahomed j 1

Mahomed Akbar Nawab Mnxafar

Khan. Khan. SadnlaKhan. Khan/


Firoz Khan Mahomed ]>oet Mahomed
n. Said Khan. Khan n.

This is a Khatar family, and is, like Kale Khan Dhrek,
of the Firozal clan, being descended from Firoz Khan, the
fourth son of Khatar Khan. Sayad Ahmad Khan seems to
have gone to Dehli about the same time as Ghairat Khan,
with his son Ghazar Khan, and to have entered the imperial
service. He was not, however, so fortunate, for a chief officer
at Court fell in love with the reputation of the beauty of Gul
Begam, sister of Ghazar Khan, and threw him into prison
when he refused to give her up. Sayad Ahmad, the father,
fled by night with his pretty daughter and returned to his
native country, where he foundecj a village, which he named
Ahnaadabad, now in ruins. Ghaaar Khan died in prison; and

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^ \^& son Jamal Kliaii» quarrelling with his relations* left

Ahmadabad and founded a village for liiniself in the jungle,
calling it Jalalsar, after the name of his son. But the memory
of Jamal Khan's humble village has been lost in the palace
and sarai built close at hand by the Emperor Shah Jahan in
1645 when marching towards EabuL Some traces of the
buildings are still visible, as the Asaf Ehani Mahal ; and the
name of the village Wah is said to express the satisfaction
of the Emperor as he looked on the beauty of the scene, with
its running water and pleasant groves.*

The present head of the family is Mahomed Hayat Khan.
His father, Earam Ehan, was a brave soldier, and in 184*8
he raised a force of horse and foot, which Nicholson
employed in holding the Margala Pass. His house at Wah
was burnt down by the rebel Sikh force under the command of
Atar Singh Atariwala, and he was shortly afterwards killed
by Fateh Eban, his own brother, who surprised him when
taking his uoonday %xe%ia in a garden. Mahomed Hayat
Ehan then joined Abbott at Nara with a few recruits,
and remained with that officer till the close of the war. In
1857 Nicholson was Deputy Commissioner of Peshawar,
and when the Mutiny first broke out he directed Hayat
Ehan to raise a body of Afridis for service ; and when he
was appointed to command the Panjab movable column he
nominated the young man as his aide-de-camp. Hayat Ehan
was with the General when he so terribly punished the mutinous
55th Infantry at Hoti Mardan and the 46th Infantry and
the 9th Light Cavalry at Trimu Ghat. He marched to Dehli
with the force, and fought gallantly throughout the siege.
He was with the General when he was mortally wounded
at the capture of the city, and remained with him to the last,
attending him for the f^w days that he survived with the

* Wah ! an eJaooUlloii oommonlj iPied in the Panjab expreadTe of astoniihrnent
or tatlafaotioD.

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utmost devotion. For these services the peDsion of Rs. 250
per annum, which had been enjoyed by his father, and which
had been continued to him on the latter's death, was increased
to Rs. 360, and he also received a handsome khilat.

After the fall of Dehli, Mahomed Hayat Khan returned
to Peshawar, where he was appointed Thanadar, and a few
months later he was transferred to Jhilam and made Tahsildar
of Talagang. In May 1861 he was raised to the rank of Extra
Assistant Commissioner and posted to Shahpur, whence he was
transferred to Bannu. While attached to the latter district,
his extraordinary exertions and enterprising zeal contributed
largely to the surrender of the Mahomed Khel Waziris and
the pacification of the frontier which was efEected in 1871.
For his very valuable services he received the thanks of the
Government of India. In 1872 he was made an Assistant
Conunissioner and appointed a Companion of the Order of the
Star of India. He was attached as Political Officer to the
Kuram Field Force in 1878-79, and in the same capacity to
the Kabul Field Force in 1879-80. He has recently been
appointed a Divisional Judge in the Province.

Bahadar Khan, half brother of Mahomed Hayat Khan,
received a khilat of Rs. 100 for services rendered in 1857,
and was a Deputy Inspector of Police in the Rawalpindi
district. He died in 1879.

The village of Wah is owned in equal shares by the
descendants of Karam Khan and Fateh Khan. The most
influential man of the latter branch of the family is Mahomed
Khan, Lambardar.

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▲Uyar Khan.

Saltan Alunad.

Hahomed Nasim.




Fateh Ahmad
B. 1868.

AU Ahmad
B. 1883.

B. 1868.

Hasan Din
B. 1800.

B. 186S.




BoiBAV Hahomed

Dnr Shaa

B. 1848. B. 18tf.

B. 1848.



B. 1840.

GhnUm Nabi
B. 1884.

B. 1861.

B. 1863.

Mahomed Ohalam
Kaitim Kadar

B. 1866. B. 1866.

Nasar Mahomed
B. 1880.

Abdnl lUUk
B. 1886.

Bahawal Din
B. 1860.

Gholam Mahomed
B. 1673.

Abdnl Khalak
B. 1877.


B. 1876.


Sher Manomed
B. 1878.

Mahomed Hasan
B. 1881.

The origin of the Awan tribe, to which Malik Boshan
Din belongs, has been the subject of much speculation. At
one time the A wans have been cousidered of Hindu, at another
of Afghan descent, and by some as the descendants of the so-
called Bactrian Greeks. But there is nothing in the traditions
of the Awans themselves to favour the last supposition, and,
indeed, it is very doubtful whether any Greeks settled in Bactria
at all. The probability is that every Greek in Alexander's army
turned his back with joy upon India and the Bast, while the
detachment of the army which remained behind in Bactria was
composed of barbarian auxiliaries, from whom no historian
or philologist would care to derive any tribe whatever. The
Awans are widely scattered throughout the Panjab. Thickest
in Rawalpindi and Jhilam, they are numerous in Shahpur and
Leiah, and even stretch across the Indus into the Derajat ; and
some three thousand inhabit the Yusufzai plain. There are
many Awan villages in Gujrat and Sialkot^ and a few in

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Amritsar and Jalandhar. But all branclies of the tribe are
unanimous in stating that they originally came from the
neighbourhood of Ghazni to India ; and all trace their
genealogy to Hazarat Ali, the son-in-law of the Prophet.
Eutab Shah, who came from Qhazni with Sultan Mahmud,
was the common ancestor of the Awans, the Khokhars and the
Khatars, and in the history of Fateh Khan Dbrek will be
found some mention of the Awan connection with these tribes.
The Awans seem first to have settled in Rawalpindi, where
Shamir Ehan built a town on the Indus which he called Shamira-
bad, after his own name. They gradually spread over the
country, fighting with the Gujars and their kinsmen the
Khatars, driving before them the Janjoahs, who in very old
days had taken possession of the Jhilam district, and being
in turn driven out of their holdings by the Gakhars, the most
powerful tribe of all. It is not practicable to follow the
history of the several branches of the Awan tribe. It was
only in the Rawalpindi, Jhilam and Shahpur districts that
they became of any political importance. In other parts of
the Fanjab they appear as quiet peasants, not such good
agriculturists as the Jats, but still industrious and intelligent.
In Rawalpindi they held in old days the Ehatar country, and
still inhabit it, though not as proprietors ; and in this district
Mahdu Ehan of Ghihan, Samandar Ehan of Sarwala and
Sarfaraz Ehan of Jand Bugdial were prominent men twenty
years ago. In the Shahpur district the Awans held the hilly
country to the north-west, Jalar, Naushera and Sukesar, where
the head of the tribe still resides ; and in Jhilam the west of the
district known as the * Awan Etiri ' between the Gabir river and
Bannu. To the north of Rawalpindi live the Goleras, an Awan
clan, famous in old days for their marauding propensities ; but
they are now few in number and have no Chief of any note.
There is little to relate of the Shamsabad family.
The head of it claims to have descended from Shamir Ehan,

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who founded the Tillage and reclaimed the land between it
and the Indus from the river, which is said to have then been
a wide, shallow stream, with swamps and marshes of great
extent on the left bank. Hhamsabad lies just off the high
road, and the residents seem to have thought themselves too
open to attack to meddle much in district or imperial politics,
and lived quietly at their village while army after army
marched past, Dehli- wards, without molesting them. At last,
in 1813, the Kabul army, part of which was investing Attock,
chose Shamsabad for their camp, and after Diwan Mohkam
Chand had defeated the Afghans be destroyed the village,
which he considered had favoured and assisted them. The
Maharaja, however, restored the estate to the family, and
the village was rebuilt at considerable expense.

Up to 1844 the affairs of the family were managed by the
eldest brother,*Gbulam Ahmad ; but about that time he retired
in favour of the youngest brother, Firozdin, and devoted
himself to the study of the Koran, whence he obtained the
designation of Hafiz. Firozdin had been in the Sikh service,
and, owing to his superior intelligence and education, he soon
took the lead in private and public affairs ; and it was chiefly
owing to his exertions that the family property was much
increased and improved. In 1848-49 he served under
Nicholson at Ramnagar, Margala, Find Dadan Khan and
elsewhere, and for his distinguished services during those
years the revenue assignments, amounting to Rs. 1,705, which
he had held under the Sikh Government, were increased to
Rs. 2,205 and granted in perpetuity.

In 1857 Firozdin again showed his loyalty and courage,
and, raising horse and foot, guarded the ferries on the Indus.
General Nicholson had a high opinion of the Malik, and wished
to take him with his force to Dehli, but at that time he could
not be spared from his own district. For bis service during
t^ Mutiny he was reinstated in the appointment of Tahsildar,

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from which he had been removed in 1855» and received a
khilat of Bs. 500. He remained a Tahsildar until 1863, when
he was obliged to retire from public life on account of old age
and infirmity ; and an addition of Rs. 400 to his jagir was
made for his life.

Firozdin died in 1867, and was succeeded by bis eldest
son, Boshan Dio, who enjoys the perpetual jagir of Rs. 2,200
in Shamsabad. He received a khilat at the Darbar held at
Hasan Abdal in 1873, and is always ready to render any
assistance in his power to the district authorities. His eldest
son is being educated at the Fanjab Chiefs' College, where he
holds the Aitchison scholarship for the Rawalpindi district.

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Mahomed Bharii.


Mabomed Jafar.


Kas Qhnlam Mahomed.

Ead Fasal Ahmad.

Kazi Fatbm Ahmad. Kasi Faia Ahmad. Kaii Ali Ahmad.

J . I.

Hajl AUKadar Mahomed Abdul i ' j

Ahmad ..1874. Bayad Ghani jWw Mahomed

». Ahmad B.1886. Ahmad Yakub

■• ^** ». 1883. B. 1886.

^ \

Faxal Fazal 8her Abdnla Fakir Fatah

Ilahl Kadar Mahomed b. 1881. Mahomed Haidar

B.1872. B. 1877. B.1879. B. 1981 Ahmad

B. 1887.

A little more than three centuries ago, in the reign of
Hamayun, Mahomed Sadik, of the Khatar tribe, emigrated
from the neighbourhood of Dehli to Chach, where, about
six miles from Attock, he founded the village of Fatuchak.
He also built Gondal on the high road to Peshawar, Jatial,
and other villages, which the Emperor granted him in jagir.
Mahomed Sadik was a man of some learning, and as Chach
had few scholars his acquirements procured him the office
of Kazi or Judge. This was held by him throughout life
and descended to his son, but in the third generation it was
taken away and given to a neighbouring Chief, Mahomed
Hasaiu. Mahomed Jafar recovered the title^ which is still
held by his descendants, though without judicial powers.
Little is known of the history of the family, which was at no
time of much importance, and what papers were possessed by
the Kazi were destroyed by the Sikhs when they gained pos-
session of Attock in 1848. When Ranjit Singh took the fort
in 1813, Kazi Ghulam Mahomed, fearing for his safety, fled
across the Indus to Khatak, where he took refuge with Firoz

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Khan while his house was burnt and his property plundered by
the Sikhs. Sardar Amir Singh Sindbanwalia recalled him, and
restored a portion of his old jagirs, giving him a new one of
Rs. 300 in Ehatak. Soon after this Ranjit Singh made him
Wakil or agent on the part of the Government in the Yusufzai
and Khatak territories, and this office he held till 1824,
when he was assassinated by a Nahang whom he had ofEended.
His eldest son, Fazal Ahmad, succeeded to the Wakilship,
which he held, enjoying considerable authority and influence
among the Pathans of the district, till the commencement of
the British rule. The Kazi was a man of high character, and
possessed influence on both sides of the Indus. He had always
been distinguished for loyalty, and had rendered much assis-
tance to the British officers in the management of the district.

In 1848 he did good service, and his nephew and some of
his men served with Captain Nicholson throughout the Second
Sikh War. He enjoyed from the revenues of the villages Gonda
and Jatial a cash allowance of Rs. 600 and mafis amounting
to Rs. 220, and also the jagir, value Rs« 300, of the village of
Mashak in the Peshawar district, already mentioned. But he
permitted his brothers and his cousin Sayad AJimad to share
these jagirs with him ; and as the condition attached to the
grant was that three-fourths should be resumed at the death
of the holders, the remaining one-fourth only being continued
to their descendants, the result was that the Eazi suffered for
his kindness in the case of his brothers, who died during his

In 1857 Kazi Fazal Ahmad behaved loyally and well,
and aided in the provisioning of fort Attock. He received for
his services a khilat of Rs. 200, and the share in the allow-
ance held by his brother Nur Ahmad was continued to him. In
1872 sanction was accorded to the continuance of the whole
jagir in Mashak to a selected son of the Eazi^ and thereafter
to a selected male representative.

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Eazi Fazal Ahmad died in 1878, and his eldest son, Eazi
Fateh Ahmad, succeeded to his father's seat in the Viceregal
Darbar and to the jagir in the Peshawar district ; while he
and his brothers receive Rs. 114 from the revenues of Gondal
and JatiaL He follows in the footsteps of his father, and
has on several occasions shown his willingness to assist the local
officers both in the Rawalpindi district and Trans-Indus.

Digitized by





Suiton Bnltan Nadar Miuitiir Bhadmai]
Sadula AU JQum. IQuuu Khan.

Khan. | \

Baja Fateh Madat Faia Talab 8her Khan. AU Haidar Jalal _
AUKhaiu Khan. Kban. Khan. I


Fateh Khan. ' =

HJUian. j j 1 j

I Fateh AUBahadar SharifKhan. Mahomed

». 1868. ^

Fixoi Khan AU Mardan AU Akbar
B. 1863. Khan Khan

B. 1660. B. 1809.




B. 1878L

ZamanAU BahadarAU HahomedAkbar WaiirKhan

Khan. Khan Khan. b. ib78.

B. 1818. B. 1870.



AUGaohar Karim Boetaa Jahan Faia

Khan Haidar B3ian. Khan« Talab

B. 1860. Khan ^ | -

B.1868. 1' I

i — * — I ^1 r

Said fiber _l ., L, .J. ,-?<**

Mahomed Mahomed Chann ^adad

Khan Khan B.1868. Khan Khan Khan.

B.1866. B.1868. B.1871. B. 1876. J

a. 1878.

Baia Hayat-nla Khan. Mahomed AU Khan. Kamal Khan

I ^ B. 1828.

! Aladad Khan Khadadad Khan Boeaf Khan

I I B.1861. B.1866. B.1860.

Bnltan Khan Knrban AU Khan
B. 1881. B. 1886.

No Panjab tribe is more frequently mentioned in Indian
history than the Gakhars, who for many hundred years were
the possessors of great power and a wide extent of country.
The reason of their strength was that they were united among
themselves. Not that their history does not contain many
feuds and long continued contests between rival Chiefs, but
they at all times acknowledged some one chief as head of the
tribOi and under him all the clans marched to battle against

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any external foe. It was their organization which enabled

Online LibraryCharles Francis Massy Sir Lepel Henry GriffinThe Panjab chiefs: historical and biographical notices of the ..., Volume 2 → online text (page 24 of 29)