Charles Francis Massy Sir Lepel Henry Griffin.

The Panjab chiefs: historical and biographical notices of the ..., Volume 2 online

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approached the valley, they met a widow who was making loud
lamentation for ber only son, who was that day to be given to
the tiger. Moved with pity, Khalura and his friend deter*
mined to do what they could to aid her, and, lying in wait for
the tiger, were so fortunate as to kill him with their arrows.
Then, cutting off his ears, they went to sleep. While they
slept a traveller passing by saw the carcass of the tiger, and
thought to gain the reward promised to the man who should
kill it, and so, stripping off the skin, he carried it as the sign
of his victory to the Nawab, who was about to reward him
munificently. But at the critical moment Khalura and
Dhurma appeared. They produced the ears and claimed the
prize. The Nawab was convinced, the pretender punished, and
the two friends left Kashmir with valuable presents, and each
taking with him as his wife a daughter of the Nawab. By his
Kashmir wife Khalura had two sons, Kund Khan and Kor
Khan, from the former of whom have descended the Dhunds.
By another wife of the Khatwal tribe he had two sons, Bas
Khan and Burcha Khan. The Dhunds remained in Hazara
for six generations, and then spread over the hill country^
occupying Kahuta, Murree and DewaL

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From an illegitimate son of Khalura the Satis^ inhabiting
the same country, are said to have sprung, though they
themselves deny any connection with the Dhunds, whose bitter
enemies they are. The Dhunds have ever been a lawless,
untractable race, but their^courage is not equal to their dis-
position to do evil.

Maharajgi Gulab Singh in 1837 almost exterminated
them. They, the Satis atid several other mountain tribes,
had taken the opportunity of the repulse of the Sikhs at
Jamrud and the death of Sardar Hari Singh to rise in revolt.
Their country had been made over to Gulab Singh, and when he
had reduced Yusuf zai to something like order he marched with
twenty thousand men, regulars and irregulars, to crush the
revolt in the Murree and Hazara hills. At first the insurgents
were successful. Under the leadership of Shamas Khan, a Sud-
han, who had been a confidential follower of Raja Dhian Singh,
the whole country had risen, and all the hill forts of the Jamu
Raja had fallen into their hands. But Gulab Singh bided
his time. He made Kahuta his head-quarters, and very soon
his promises and bis bribes brought disunion into the hostile
camp. When he had so worked upon the Chiefs that none
knew whom to trust, he marched into the hills, burning the
crops and the villages as he advanced, and offering a reward
of a rupee for the head of every man, woman or child connect-
ed with the insurgents. The wretcjied people, divided among
themselves, and confounded by this display of ferocity in
their enemy, made little resistance. They were hunted down
like wild beasts in every direction, and massacred without
pity, men and women alike. At length Gulab Singh ordered
the women to be spared and kept as prisoners with the
army, and there was soon to be seen following each division
a troop of half'Clothed starving females, driven like cattle
by day, and at night penned in a thorn enclosure, and
exposed to the utmost brutality of the soldiery. Only a

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few hundred of these women out of several thousand reached
Jamu. These, with the exception of a few of the handsomrat
reserved for Gulab Singh's Zanana, were sold as slaves. It
is said, though the statement may be an exaggeration, that
twelye thousand of the Dhunds, S«tis and Sudhans perished
in this hill campaign. Certain it is that some parts of the
hills, before well peopled and fertile, became as a desert; men
were not left sufficient to till the fields ; and a famine the
next year swept ofE many of the miserable surviyors of G-ulab
Singh's revenge.

This terrible punishment was, however, soon forgotten
by the Dhunds. In September 1857, thinking a time
favourable for revolt had arrived, they conspired with the
Eharals and their kinsmen of Hazara, and planned an attack
on the hill station of Murree. But warning had been receiv-
ed in time of the proposed attack, and when the enemy, three
hundred strong, advanced on the night of the 2nd, expecting an
easy victory and abundant spoil, they were surprised and driven
back, and the next day, on the arrival of troops from Rawal-
pindi, the Dhund country to the north-west of Murree .was
entered and eleven villages of the rebels burnt ; while fifteen
of the ringleaders, who were subsequently captured, suffered

The only Chief of any consideration among the
Dhunds is Mansabdar Elum, who holds a jagir of Bs. 1,080.
He was a Tahsildar in the province until 1887. His name is
no longer on the District Darbar List.

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Bidum Singh T«gh Sincli* Biknin* Singh.
Ator W» 8v^ Solan

Bamininui Singh Kmmu Snas
n. 1879. B. 188S.

I i—

DftT» Singh, PurdMnan- Utftm Singh.

CKirbakhih Hira Singh Antar Singh UJagar Kartar Hardit Singh

Singh B. laoe. B.1878. Sinc^ Singh B. 18W.

B.181. I B.1W9, B.188S.

Jaawant Kahan Singh
Singh B. 1887.


The early history of Baba Khem Siagh's family will be
found in the account of Bedi Sujan Singh of Una in the
Hushiarpur district. Sahib Singh, Baba Khem Singh's great-
grandfather, lived in Una, and during his life-time his eldest
son, Bishan Singh, migrated to Jalandhar in consequence of
the number of his disciples in that neighbourhood, and he
succeeded to the jagirs which Maharaja Eanjit Singh had
granted to Sahib Singh.

The family is descended from Baba Nanak, the great
Guru of the Sikhs ; and Khem Singh, with the descendants
of his brother Sampuran Singh, is the representative of the
elder branch of the family, as Sujan Singh of Una is of the
younger. But Bikrama Singh, in Maharaja Sher Singh's time,
killed bis nephew Atar Singh, father of Sampuran Singh and
Khem Singh, in battle, and took possession of the greater
part of the estates.

During the rebellion of 1848-49 Sampuran Singh and
Khem Singh remained faithful to the Darbar, while Bikrama
Singh joined the rebels.

* Hot in the origiiiAl Bdition.

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At annexation the brothers were found in possession of
jagirs in the Jalandhar Doab^ valued at Bs. 12,7259 and of
others, valued at Rs. 15,000, in the present Montgomery
district, then Fak Patau. The latter included two separate
grants, viz.^ twenty-seven villages in Taluka Basirpur, valued
at Es. 10,000, and fourteen villages in Taluka Hujra, valued
at Rs. 5,000. Maharaja Ranjit Singh had given the great-
grandfather of the brothers jagirs in the Hujra Ilaka to the
extent of Rs. 30,000, which his son and grandson enjoyed ;
but Maharaja Nao Nahal Singh resumed all Hujra, and
the Darbar after the Satlaj War re-granted only a jagir of
Rs. 5,000. This was resumed, and the Wazirpur jagir
only allowed to the brothers in equal portions for their lives,
one-half to descend to their heirs male in perpetuity.

In 1857 Khem Singh, when quite a young man, render-
ed good service to Government in the Montgomery district.
He escorted treasure; he assisted in raising men, horse
and foot; he took charge of the Jail during the with-
drawal of the guards for the disarming of the company
of Native Infantry stationed at Gogaira ; he accompanied the
district authorities in almost all their expeditions against the
insurgent tribes, and was always foiward when there was
fighting on hand. For these services he received at the time
only a khilat of Rs. 3,000, but he was subsequently further

Baba Khem Singh became as be grew up by far the most
noted and powerful spiritual guide among the Sikhs, and
acquired wide authority throughout the whole of the
Panjab west of the river Ravi from Multan to Peshawar.
He invariably exerts his influence in promoting the ends
of Qt)vemment. In the matter of female education he
has been quite a pioneer, and has afforded most valuable
support to the movement, both by reason of his priestly
character, which enabled him to overcome many prejudices.

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and by his personal exertions in establishing schools* The
successful introduction of vaccination in the Western Panjab
and in Peshawar was largely due to his energy. In
1878-79 he assisted in recruiting fifteen hundred Sikhs for
the Panjab Frontier Force. And he further set an excellent
example in breaking up the waste tracts of the Montgomery
district^ and in inducing cultivators to settle down in that
somewhat inhospitable and desolate part of the Province*
His estate of fourteen thousand acres in that district, acquired
principally by purchase or under ordinary lease converted
into a proprietary title, forms a standing illustration to the
people of the successful application of private capital and in-
dividual energy in the face of unfavourable natural conditions.
In 1879 Baba Khem Singh was selected for the honour of
Companionship in the Order of the Indian Empire. In 1882,
in co^jsideration of the services above-mentioned, a sum
of Es. 2,500 out of the life jagir held by him in the
Jalandhar district was released in perpetuity, and half of
the land revenue of the Basirpur Ilaka, amounting to Es. 1,800,
which was to have lapsed on his death, was declared heritable
for two generations. The jagirs of Baba Khem Singh now
stand as follows: — •


In perpetuity —

One-fourth revenue of Basirpur Ilaka, Montgomery


district t.* ••• ••• •••


Jagir in the Jalandhar district



For two lives, one-fourth revenue of Basirpur ...



For life-
Fluctuating revenue (due to canal irrigation) of

half Basirpur Ilaka


Jagir in Jalandhar


Mafiin Hushiarpur ... ••»


Do. in Rawalpindi ...


Total ... ... 10,957

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In 1887 €k)yerDinent Banctioned an additional cultorable
lease of nearly eight thousand acres of land in the Mont-
gomery district in his favour. He was appointed a Magis-
trate of Montgomery in 1877, and an Honorary Munsif in the
year following. He is at present an Additional Member of
the Legislative Council of the Supreme Government.

Baba Khem Singh has most loyally offered his services on
several occasions when the political necessities of the time led
lum to believe they might be of value to Government.

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"^ Hfr' d iir ^n*^*!i

P" I Duia KhAiu

Al)Mkh«i.lU]ikk.JMa. -^1

Ghiilam Hnatafik


9. 1861.




3>. 1887.

Faszb MAMOxn SvlUn Mahomed Fir MaUmed Doet Mahomed

KxAV Khan Khan Khan

B. IMS. B. 18S8, ]>. 1888. ». 1880.

Khan i ' . »t.-

■•1877. Yar Mahomed Oholam

Khan Sarwar
». 1877.

B. 1884


▲to M aho m ed Khan Mahomed Akhar Khan Ghnlam Mugtafii yii*«
». 1878. B. 1888. B. 1885; ^^

Fakir Mahomed Khan is the head of the Sagri Pathans of
Makhad, and claims relationship with members of the family
who were Chiefs before Ghulam Mustafa Khan, his grand-

Abas Khan expelled the last Chief of the family of
Shadi Khan in the time of Ahmad Shah Durani, and ruled
as Khan at Makhad, his brother Najam oflBciating as his
deputy at Shakardara on the Kohat side of the Indus
with the title of Malik. Daria Khan, Ghulam Mustafa
Khan's great-grandfather, appears to have been a man of some
importance, as is evidenced by a Sanad and title which he
received from Ahmad Shah ; but nothing is known of his
children till we come to Ghulam Mustafa Khan, who ousted
the descendants of Abas Khan in the first quarter of the pre-
sent century and was leader of the clan at annexation.

* Kot in ihe original Sdition. ^""^ "^^ ^ ^

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In the time of the Durani KiDgs, Sagri Elian paid no
revenue beyond an annual tribute of eighty fat-tailed sheep.
He had, however, to furnish eighty Bowars for the King's ser-
yice, when required. Later on the Sikhs put a cash settlement
on the Rawalpindi lands, leaving one-eighth of the revenue as
an allowanoe to the Chief, The revenue, of which he thus re-
ceived one-eighth, included the customs duties, the income
from gold washings in the river Indus and the tolls levied at
the Makhad ferry.

At annexation the customs duties were abolished, and
Government, by way of compensation and for the loss of power
to which the Chief had to submit, granted to Ghulam Mustafa
Khan and his lineal male heirs in perpetuity one-fourth of the
land revenue of Makhad and of the proceeds of the gold
washings and ferry, instead of the one-eighth which he had
hitherto enjoyed.

In 1848-49 Ghulam Mustafa Khan waa conspicuous
for the fidelity with which he adhered to the British, He
resisted all attempts of the Sikh and Afghan leaders to
win him over ; and he not only maintained himself in
Makhad and Shakardara, but also succeeded in 9ax
attack on the fort of Jabi, then garrisoned by the Sikh
insurgents. He lived till 1861 ; but during the latter years
of his life his son Ghulam Mahomed Khan took an active
part in the management of family affairs. He was as loyal
as his father had been, and in 1857 placed a body of
his followers, horse and foot, at the disposal of the District
Officer. He was one of the three great landed pro-
prietors of Eawalpindi who were exempt from most of
the provisions of the Arms Act as " great Sardars and Jagir-
dars of the Panjab." His influence was always exercised in
the interests of Government ; and as Makhad lies on the bank
of the Indus, in the extreme south-west corner of the district,
and is not easily accessible^ his assistance .was often of great

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vahie. He managed several rakbs on behalf of Goyemment
on favourable terms, and helped to supply fuel for the Indus
Flotilla when steamers navigated the Indus as far as Makbad.
XJnfortutiately he had exaggerated ideas of his rights and
authority, and was generally engaged in feuds with the
Shakardara Maliks on the Eohat side of the river ; with the
Farachas of Makhad, traders whose transactions extend to
Turkistan and the Khanates ; and, more recently, with his
undutiful younger sons. He was entrusted with magisterial,
powers for some years, and when he went on a pilgrimage to
Mecca these were temporarily conferred on his eldest son,
Fakir Mahomed Khan; but the latter made himself unpopular
with the people generally, and his father being old and infirm
the exercise of the powers was discontinued.

Ghulam Mahomed Khan died in 1887 leaving four sons :
two. Fakir Mahomed Khan and Dost Mahomed Khan, by a
lady of equal rank with himself ; and two. Sultan Mahomed
Khan and Pir Mahomed Khan, by a woman of inferior position.
In accordance with the family custom, the jagir descends
to a single select member, subject to the power of fixing
suitable allowances, in case of necessity, for the junior

Ghulam Mahomed Khan during his lifetime had obtained
the recognition by Government of his eldest son Fakir
Mahomed Khan as his successor ; and he made separate
provision for his sons by the second wife, and obliged them
to live in Shakardara. There thus arose a violent quarrel
between Fakir Mahomed, his father, and his uterine brother
on one side, and his two half brothers on the other. This
quarrel imfortunately still continues amongst the brothers.

The one-fourth of the land revenue of Makhad was
estimated at the time of the grant in 1850 to amount to
Rs. 672 per annum, but the assessments of the seven villages
comprised in the Makhad Ilaka have been increased at the

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recent revision of the settlement, and the allowance now
amounts to Bs. 1,570. The villages are Ingra, Bukwan, Eani,
Makhad, Naka, Nara and Uadowali.

The Khan of Makhad is also Jagirdar of Shakardara in
the Eohat district, and receives one-fourth of the income
derived from grazing in rakh Topi, which was formerly
included in Ilaka Makhad.

Fir Mahomed Ehan joined the 15th Bengal Cavalry as
a Dafadar in 1886, and was promoted Eot Dafadar in 1887,
but he died at his home in the following year.

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Nnr Mahomed.

Bhcr I f ftK^>F*i^ >


Baka Khan.





Bber Kbaa

B. 187S.

AHMiBtm- ^^•^
B. 1848.

Jahan Khan.

Torabax E3um.










Bah ft^ iir Khan.


Hahar Mian





Jahan Ohnlam Alayar.


The Alpials inhabit the country on the banks of the
Sohan in the southern portion of the Fatehjang Tahsil. They
are admittedly a Bajput tribe, and came to this district about
the same time as the other Bajpots, about the fourteenth
century, but they seem to have wandered through the country
now contained in the Ehushab and Talagang Tahsils before
finally settling down in their present home. The subdivision
recorded at the last census as Manj Bajputs consists almost
entirely of Alpials. They are a bold, lawless set of men, of
fine physique, formerly much given to violent crime, and withal
are good cultivators.

The principal family of Alpials is that of the Chaudhris of
Chakri, and at annexation Chaudhri Sher Ehan was the head.

* Not in the original Edition.

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He joined Budha Khan Malal in his attempt to riyal their
neighbour Sardar Fateh Ehan of Kot, but the latter proved
himself more than a match for them. Sher Khan was
conspicuous for his support of the British, and after the battle
of Q-ujrat (21st February 1849) Nicholson, on his return
to the Sind-Sagar Doab, entrusted several duties to him and
found him useful. When Nadar Khan Gakhar attempted
to raise an insurrection in 1853, Sher Khan did not debate
what he should do, like many others. He happened to be in
Bawalpiodi at the time, and casually heard of the matter ;
he instantly went off to the only European civil oflBcer at
the time in the station, and thus brought everything to
light. He was rewarded by the grant of a pension of Rs. 250
per annum ; and the rent-free lands valued at that time at Rs.
492, which he had held under the Sikhs, were continued to
him and his nephews.

In 1857 he was again conspicuous for his loyalty ; he gave
valuable information from time to time, furnished levies, went
with the Commissioner to Murree, and rendered service during
the outbreak there. He also assisted in the pursuit of some
mutinous sepoys, who were killed after a desperate resistance,
and escorted life prisoners to Multan. His revenue assignments
were increased from Rs. 492 to Rs. 750, of which Rs. 500 were
granted in perpetuity, and he received a khilat of Rs. 500.
When the country was disarmed he was allowed to retain
fifteen guns and fifteen shields.

Ohaudhri Sher Khan died in 1875. and was succeeded ia
his perpetual jagir, now worth Rs. 594 per annum, and his
seat in Darbar, by his son Ahmad Khan, a quiet, unassuming
man of good character.

Nadar Khan, a grand nephew of Ohaudhri Sher Khan, a
typical Alpial, of strong passions andTiolent temper, is Mtother
prominent member of the family.

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D. 1796.

Badha Singh.
D. 1811.

S. Nand Garmukh Makhan Stmdar Bhagwan 8. Karpal Singh

Singh. Singh. Sin^ Singh. Qhigh B. 1632.

I Kishan ' | Sham Singh Hnkam

SUJAV Sinffh Hari Singh b. 1843. Singh. .

SXVGK B.l^. B» 1868. I

'• rSi

B. 1841. I Atar Singh

I ^1 1. 1871.

I Naraln Singh

Hardit Onrdit B. 1868.

ffingh Singh |

B. 1866. B. 1671. Sant Singh

B. 1880.

Since the foundation of the present town of Rawalpindi
in 1766 by Sardar Milkha Singh Thepuria, the family of
Sardar Sujan Singh have occupied a prominent position among
its citizens, and have generally taken large contracts or
farming leases under the ruling Power. Thus, Sadhu Singh
was entrusted by Sardar Milkha Singh with the duty of
providing rations for the Sikh troops, and Budha Singh was
employed in superintending the revenue collections. The
latter also was appointed to assist General Ventura, who was
sent in 1830 by Maharaja Banjit Singh to assess a portion
of the district, and for his services on that occasion he was
rewarded by the grant of a share in the octroi collections.

Nand Singh, commonly called Sardar Nand Sipgh, held
office imder Diwan Kishan Kaur when the latter was appoint-
ed Sardar of Rawalpindi ia 1841, and accompanied the Diwan
to Batala in 1848. About this time the village of Misriot in
the Rawalpindi Tahsil was granted to him in lieu of the share
of the octroi duties. At annexation Nand Singh and Makhan
Singh held several villages in jagir, besides a considerable
cash assignment ; but they took part against the Government
in Sardar Chatar Singh's rebellion, and lost all but the village
of Misriot, yielding Rs. 200.

• Not in the original Edition.

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Sardar Nand Singh was at home in 1853 when Nadar
Eban Gakhar attempted to raise an insurrection in f avonr of
a pretended JPrinoe, Pashora Singh, and was sent by the Com-
missioner, with Sardar Nahal Singh Chachi, to the insurgents
to endeavour to induce them to surrender. The Sardars
were, however, detained and sent off imder escort towards
the Hazara district. They escaped with diflBlculty, and then
assisted the Commissioner in capturing Nadar Khan, who was
afterwards hanged.

In 1857 Nand Singh and his brother Makhan Singh
showed, by their conspicuous loyalty, an earnest desire to
serve the Government, and did all in their power to assist
the bcal oflBcers by giving valuable information at critical
moments and keeping tbem acquainted generally with the
public feeling. On the outbreak at Murree both Nand Singh
and Makhan Singh made themselves useful. Nand Singh
was also of great use to the Chief Commissioner ; he visited
every cantoument between Rawalpindi and Philaor, and sent
accurate accounts of the state of feeling among the native
troops. In no one case were the facts afterwards found to be
at variance with his reports. The village of Misriot was
continued as a reward to Nand Singh and his heirs male
in perpetuity, while Mauza Katarian, valued at Bs. 300, was
released to him for life, half to be resumed at his death, and
the other half to descend to his heirs male in perpetuity.
Makhan Singh received a pension of Rs. 200.

Nand Singh was a Viceregal Darbari. He always
showed great public spirit and enterprise, and constructed
several works of public utility, including the Sarai at Sangjani,
for which his son Sujan Singh received a khilat of Rs. 1,500
from the Lieutenant-Governor at the Darbar held at Hasan
Abdal in 1873.

Sardar Sujan Singh has followed in his father's footsteps,
and has raised himself to a high social position by his energy

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of character. He held most important contracts for the supply
of grain, fodder and fuel for the Afghan Campaign of 1880,
The complete way in which he carried out his work, often
under great diflEiculties, was warmly acknowledged by the au-
thorities. He has built a splendid public market in the Rawal-
pindi cantonment at his own expense, and otherwise shown
himself a thoroughly public spirited gentleman. The title of
Sardar was conferred on him by the Viceroy in 1888.

Among the other members of the family, Sardar Karpal
Singh, uncle of Sujan Singh, has distinguished himself. He
was employed in various capacities by the Sikh and British
Qovemments, and was at one time a Tahsildar in the Bawal-*
pindi district. He resigned this appointment in 1868, and
has since taken an active part with Sardar Sujan Singh in
various business undertakings. Since 1873 he has been a
member of the Municipal Committee, and he has for some
years acted as an Honorary Magistrate. Both uncle and
nephew were further honoured in 1889 with the title of
Bad Bahadar.

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Online LibraryCharles Francis Massy Sir Lepel Henry GriffinThe Panjab chiefs: historical and biographical notices of the ..., Volume 2 → online text (page 26 of 29)